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Overland Monthly 




Established 1868 


Pacific Mutual Life Building 

F 8SO 

. C ^ " 

34 California Street. 

4T I L 
Bancroft LfbttQr 


Advertiser, The, and the Poster Pierre N. Boeringer 41 

Illustrated bv Reproductions of Posters. 
Ancient Po-Who-Geh Verner Z. Reed 644 

Illustrated by Dixon and Craig. 

Argentise ; or, the Silver Problem J. C. Levy 314 

As Seen Over the Handlebars Phil Weaver, Jr 303 

Illustrated from Photos by Carpenter. 
As Talked in the Sanctum By tlie Editor 3, 131, 243, 377. 505, 617 

Bird Notes in Southern California Harry L. Graham 156 

Illustrated by C. E. Tebbs. 
Book Reviews : 

A-Birding on a Bronco, (Porence A. Merriam,) 720 Adam Johnstone's Son, (F. Marion Crawford,) 233. American 

War Ballads and Lyrics, (Geo. Gary Eggleston,) 237. Ange Pitou, (Dumas,) 718. Army Wife, An, iCharles 

King), 610. Aucasfciu and Nicolette, (Andrew Lang,) 235. 
Barker's Lack, (Bret Harte,) 707. Books and Their Makers During the Middle Ages, (Geo. Haven Putnam, )'7 17. 

Boy Tramps, The, (J. McDonald Oxley.) 718. Brief History, A, of the Nations, (Gen. Park Fisher*, 721. Bryan 

and Sewall, (C. M. Stevans,) 487 Bureaucracy, (Balzac,) 606 By Oak and Thorn, (Alice Brown,) 488. 
Character as a Product of Education in Schools, (W. H. V. Raymond,) 487. Charlatan. The, (Robert Buchanan and 

Henry Murray,) 237. Children, The, of Rome, (George Clarke,) 486. Conquest of California, (R. A. Thompson,) 

603. Conspiracy of the Carbonari, (Mulhbach,) 719. Coupon Bonds, (Trowbridge,) 719. Cuba and the Cubans, 

(Raimundo Cabrera,) 371. 
Daddy Jake, the Runaway, (Joel Chandler Harris,) 718. Damnation, The, of Theron Ware. (Harold Frederic,)i234., 

D'aughter, The, of a Stoic, (Cornelia A. Pratt,) 605. Wckens's Complete Works, 718. Dictionary of Quotations, 

(P. Dalbiac,) 234. Don Quixote, 710. 
Field Flowers, (Eugene Field.) 607. Fifty Famous Stories Retold, (James Baldwin,) 610. Final War, The, (Louis 

Tracy,) 71H. Free Silver, 488. 
Genesis, The, of California's First Constitution, (Rockwell Dennis Hunt,) 236. Giving and Getting Credit, (F.iB. 

Goddard,) 608. Gymnastics, German American, (W. A. Stecher.) 609. 
Handbook of Light Gymnastics, (Lucy B. Hunt,) 609. Handbook of School Gymnastics, (Baron Nils Passe,) 609. 

Handbook, A, on Currency and Wealth, (G. B. Weldon,) 487. History, The, of Modern Painting, (Richard 

Muther.) 719. 
Iceland Fisherman, An, (Pierre Loti.) 720. Introduction to American Literature, (Brander Matthews,) 719. In 

Scarlet and Grey, (Kloreuce Henniker and Thomas Hardy,) 608. Invisible Playmate, The, (William Canton,)! 610. 
Lady, A. of Quality, (Frances Hodgson Burnett,) 234. Last, The, of the Mohicans, (Cooper,) 486. Lee's Home and 

Business Instructor, 610. Legends of the Middle Ages, (H. A. Guerber,) 609. Little Journeys to the Homes of 

American Authors, (Elbert Hubbard,) 236. London Burial Grounds, The, (Mrs. Basil Holmes,) 610 Lotos Time 

in Japan, (He ry T. Finck,) 233. Lourdes, (Zola,) 721. Lucius Q. C. Lamar, (E. Mayes,) 233. 
Manual of Art Decoration, (J. F. Douthitt.) 128. Manual, A, of Common School Law, (C. W. Bardeen,) 487. 

Majorie Daw and Other Stories, (Aldrich,) 371. McKinley and Hobart, (Byron Andrews,) 487. Melincourt, 

(Peacock,) 717. Memoirs of a Physician, (Dumas,) 486. Merrie England. (Robert Blatchford,) 236. Modern 

French Masters, (John C. Van Dyke,) 605. Money, (A Layman,) 487. Mystery of Lost River Canon, (Harry 

Castlemon,) 601. 

Nation's Greatest Problem, The, Silver or Gold, 488 Naulahka, The, (Rudyard Kipling and Wolcott BaJestier,) 
236. Neighbor Jackwood, (J. T. Trowbridge,) 607. New Orleans, (Grace King,) 604. 

Oliver Twist, (Dickens,) 233. Olympe de Cleves, (Dumas,) 234. Oswego Normal Method, The, of Teaching Geog- 
raphy, (Aiuos W. Farnham,) 487. 

Pacific Coast, The, Scenic Tour, (Henry T. Finck,) 605. Palmyra and Zenobia, (William Wright,} 234. Perdu, 
(Henri Greville.) 237. Prang's Holiday Cards, 720. Princess Sonia, The, (Julia Magruder,) 485. 

Quatre Vingt Treize, (Hugo,) 237. Queen's Necklace, The, (Dumas,) 608. Quicksands, The, of Pactolus, (Horace 
Annesley Vachell.) 609. 

Ranch Life and the Hunting Trail, (Theodore Roosevelt,) 604. Red Badge, The, of Courage, (Stephen Crane,) 236. 
Rhymes of the Rockies, 488. Robert Browning's Poems, 716. Robinson Crusoe, (Defoe,) 610. Romance, The, of 
Guardamonte, (A. E. Davis,) 488. Rome, (Zola.) 371. Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, (Fitz Gerald,) 606. 

San Francisco and its Suburbs, 238. Santa Clara County and its Resources, 127. School Algebra, A, (E. E. White,) 
486. Seraphittt, (Balzac,) 486. Set, A, of Rogues, (Frank Barrett,) 128. SoapBubbles, (Max Mordau,) 607. 

(Palmer,) 236. Summer in Arcady, (Jas. Lane Allen,) 607. 
Their Wedding Journey, (W. D. Howells,) COS Thirty Years of Paris, (Daudet,) 606. Tom Grogan, (V. Hop- 

kinson Smith,) 235. Tourists', The, Guidejthrough the Hawaiian Islands, (Henry M. Whitney ) 237. Tracings 

(E. Scott O'Connor.) 007. Trumpeter Fred, (Charles King,) 237. 
What They Say in New England, (Clifton Johnson,) 235. 

Cartoons : 

The Rival Circuses P. N. Boeringer 372 

A Choice of Strange Pets 490 

Uncle -'am as a Peacemaker 722 

Californian Principality, A. Humboldtand Its Redwoods Melville M. Vaughan 328 

Illustrated from Photos. 

Chit Chat ......128, L'38, 611, 721 

Commerce Not an Accident Charles E. Naylor 436 

Illustrated from Wash by Peixotto and Photos. 

Competition, The, of Japan George C. Perkins 393 

Illustrated from Photo. 

Compulsory Pilotage Charles E. Baylor 7..... ... 702 

Illustrated fiom Photos. 

iv Index. 

Defenders of the Union Frank Elliott Myers 53 

Illustrated fiom Photographs. 
Devil's Article, The /. A. Lockwood 29 

Illustrated by N. Clark. 

Eleventh Juror, The Edith Wagner 146 

Illustrated by C. E. Tebbs and Haydon Jones. 

England and Irelmd W. J. Corbet 520, 644 


Editorial : 
Santa Monica and the Lo Angeles Times. The Death of Kate Field. The OVERLAND the Official Journal of 

the Schools of California 124 

On International Arbitration. The Transvaal Crime. A Plea for Yosemite. Silver versus Gold 228 

An Educational Campaign. The Farce Goes On. Good Roads for California 868 

The New Warships. For Sound Money. Irving M. Scott on Silver. $4,000,000 for California. A Rift 

Within the Lute. The Presuming West 481 

OVKRLAMD'S Steady Growth. A Free " Ad." for the Loa Angeles Times. Phelan for Mayor. Inadaptability 
of the Eastern Controversialist A Good Roads Candidate. The Eclipse Expedition. A Trans- Pacific 

Steamship Line. Beujamin Franklin on Money. A New Hotel for Yosemite. 599 

Discounting Prosperous Times. Pure Water in San Francisco. Stoddard on Bret Harte. Yosemite Nat- 
ional Park 709 

Contributed r 

Charles Warren Stoddard 229 

Correction, A 870 

Ford's Life in Washington : 370 

Japanese Steamship Subsidy, The George C. Perkins 485 

Japanese Warships 713 

Lloyd Tevii 713 

Matter, The, of Reprints and Copyrights 231 

New School of Methods in Public School Music Lois Carter Kimball 714 

Note, A, on the Purchase of Alaska /;. D. Sawyer 230 

Poetry, Homesick Sam Bean 602 

To Max Nordau Louis U'eslyn Jones 712 

W. J. Corbet, M. P : 712 

Exploring in Northern Jungles. I W. ir. Bolion and J. W. Laing 621 

Ittusti ated from Pen Sketches by Boeringer and f roui Photos. 

Final Word, The Arthur J. Pillsbury 594 

Fire-Seeker, The Winthroj) Packard 588 

Frontispiece : 

On the B*y of San Francisco 1 

Mount Shasta from the Crags 2 

A Distant View of Yosemite Falls 129 

Mirror Lake. Yosemite 180 

Napa Soda Spring*, California 241 

Scene on Upper Eel River 242 

LakeChabot, Alameda County, California 378 

"Come on, the Whole Bilin' av yez, Come on !" 874 

Sketch by L. Maynard Dixon. 

United State* Senator George C. Perkins :;::> 

Patrick William Rlordan, Archbishop of San Francisco 376 

Moon Falls, Canon of the Colorado 501 

Canon of the North Fork of the San Joaquin 502 

Photo by T. S. Solomons. 
"Hush, What Was That?". 508 

Sketch by L. Maynard Dixon. 

Hon. James D. Phelan 504 

AMlfflon Fountain 613 

Lloyd Tevls 614 

"The Right Hand with One Plunge Did its Work " 615 

Sketch by Boeringer. 
Po So- Yemmo Commands the Rain 616 

Sketch by L. Maynard Dixon. 
Funding of the Pacific Railroads' Indebtedness Grove L. Johnson. PI 

Gold Miner, The, and the Silver Question Charles D. Lane 585 

Illustrated from Photo. 
Good Koadd Movement, The Charles Freeman Johnson 247, 442 

lit ii at mi ft fr.-m Phutos. 
Great Eon-raid Land Joaqnin Miller 641 

Hard Times .'. Irving It Scott. 

IV. BlraeUlism 24 

V. Kevlew 416 

VI. Review Continued 557 

Horse Breeding for Profit Benedict 578 

Pen Sketches by Davenport and Boeringer. 

Index. v 

How the Minister Went to Jerusalem Mary Bell 671 

Pen Sketches by Boeringer. 
How We Played Robinson Crusoe Rounsevette Wildman 35 

Illustrations by J. D. Strong, Jr. and Boeringer. 

Humboldt Bay and Its Jetty System W. E. Dennison 381 

Illustrated from Photos, and from Sketches by Boeringer. 

Indian Medicine Men Lorenzo Gordin Yates... 171 

Illustrated by Harold MacDonald, Boeringer, and by the Author. 
Indian Pictoglyphs Gordin Yatea _ 657 

Illustrated from Photos by Boeringer. 
Is the Money Question a Class Question ? A. H. Transom 478 

Illustrated from Drawings by Cahill. 
Is the West Discontented ? John E. Bennett - 456 

Lamp, The, of Experience Tirey L. Ford 470 

Illustrated from Photos. 
Law, The, and the Miner Tirey L. Ford , 310 

Illustrated from Photo. 

League, The, of American wheelmen in Politics F. H. Kerrigan 2 5 

Illustrated from Photos. 

Legal Suicide, A Phil Weaver 680 

Lost Arrow, The K. Evelyn Robinson 187 

Illustrated by C. D. Robinson, Haydon Jones, and Boeringer. 

Making a President in the Electoral College L. C. Branch 551 

Measure of Value, The George A Story 112 

Mule-Skinner's Coincidence, A William Bleasdell Cameron 463 

Sketch by Haydon Jones. 

Municipal Conditions and the New Charter James D. Phelan 104 

Municipal Pavements George W. Elder 274 

Illustrated from Photos. 

Natural Law, The, of Money JohnJ. Valentine 121 

Obelisk Dick's Fatal Blunder Ben C. Truman _ 182 

Illustrated by C. E. Tebbs and Haydon Jones. 
Ocean Commerce Drivea from California by Law Charles E. Naylor 298 

Illustrated from Photos. 

Origin, The, of Fan Tan Stewart Culin 153 

Pioneer School, A Arthur Inkersley 544 

Illustrated from Photos. 
Progress JohnJ. Valentine 428 

Question, The, of Japanese Competition John P. Young 82 

Quicksands of Pactolus, The. Book II Horace Annesley Vachell 17, 162,262 

Illustrations by Boeringer. 

Racing and Racing Men Charles Fuller Gates 539 

Illustrated from Photos by the Author and Others. 
Republican Party, The, and the Farmer J. A. Waymire 592 

Illustrated from Photo. 
Revolution, A, in Weaving S. G. Wilson 279 

Illustrated from Photos. 

Santa Teresa Bradford Woodbridge. 422 

Study, The, of the Bible as Literature Warren H. Landon 690 

Study, The, of the Classics Edward B. Clapp 94 

Teaching Force, The Edward T. Pierce 219 

"Tomtit" Oliver 0. Howard 403 

Sketch by Boeringer. 
Two Friends of California, Dana and King William Everett 578 

Illustrated from Photos. 
Triangular Trip, A, Around San Francisco Bay Pierre N. Botringer 533 

Sketches by the Author. 

'Under the Headin" of Thruth. I. Cusack's Ghost Batterman Lindsay 281 

II. How the Boys Resigned Judge Travers 391 

III. The Diamond Hunters of Boise 518 

IV. Mr. Cusack on the Aztecs 638 

Sketches by Boeringer and Dixon. 
Unexplored Regions of the High Sierra. III. Lakes, Falls, 

and Meadows Theodore S. Solomons , 135 

Illustrated from Photos by the Author. 

IV. Gorges and Canons of the Head Streams 509 

Unwise Taxation on Shipping -...Charles E. Naylor 567 

Illustrated from Photos bv Taber. 
Unwritten Page, An, in Utah's History Edward Steptoe 677 

Wanita, A Lesrend of Kentucky Edwin Wildman 212 

Illustrated by Claude Tales. 

'War Chief, A, of the Tontos Carl P. Johnson 528 

Sketch by Haydon Jones. 

vi Index. 

Water Supply, The, of a Great City RoumeveUe Wildman 289 

lUtutrated from Photos by Taker. 

Well Worn Trails. VIII. Shasta and the Crags RoumeveUe Wildman 7 

IX. Yosemite and the Big Trees ~ 199 

X. Napa Soda Springs ~ 321 

Illustrated from Photos by Taker, Fiske, and from Paintings by C. D. Robinson. 

Young Men's Institute, The Frank J. Murasky 407 

lUtutrated from Photos. 


Art - Flora Macdonald Shearer 640 

Autumn Harriet Winthrop Waring 392 

Blush Rose, The Mary Bell 532 

Catalina Sylvia Lawson Covey 273 

Cllntonia, The Littian H. Shuey 708 

Closed Temple, The .. Alberta Bancroft 469 

Fra Junipero Serra Ella M. Sexton 699 

Grave, The, of Helen Hunt Jackson (H. H.) Stephen Henry Thayer 198 

Heights, The, and the Depths Clarence Hawkes 538 

If I Were Grief Carrie Blake Morgan 556 

In Summer Woods Herbert Bashford , 288 

Is Love so Blind ? Henry W. Attport 517 

Life and Death W. H. Platt 40 

More Arnica Marion Pruyn 670 

Quiet Comundti Arthur B. Bennett 240 

Santa Cruz George E. Crump 406 

Sheep Herding Qrace MacGowan 662 

lUtutrated by Boeringer. 

Smilax Isabel Darling 31 * 

Song, A, of theTule Laura B. Everett 598 

Summer Song, A Harriet Winthrop Waring 302 

What Shall I Care? Madge Morris 297 

With a Portrait of His Sweetheart Elaine Ooodale Eastman 227 

Illustrated by Pierre ff. Boeringer. 

JULY 1896 




DEFENDERS Op"THE UNION Frank Elliott Myers 



Overland Monthly Publishing Company 

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The Blessing of the Poor 


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With a. Douglas or Acme Instanta- 
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One of the Greatest Factors 

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in producing a clear, clean skin and there- 
fore a perfect complexion, is the use of 


preventives taken in season are much surer than belated 
drugs. A healthy condition of the Kidneys, Liver and 
Bowels is the strongest safeguard against Headaches, 
Racking Colds or Fevers. Syrup of Figs is 

Mild and Sure, 

pleasant to the taste and free from objectionable sub- 
stances. Physicians recommend it. Millions have found 
it invaluable. Taken regularly in small doses its effect 
will give satisfaction to the most exacting. 

Manufactured by 


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Overland Monthly. 

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THE limited edition, artist-signed pos- 
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MONTHLY may be had as follows : 


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Aug., Hanged Man I 50 

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Dec. Poster, Bear and Indian (Dixon) 50 
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Posters will be furnished Poster Col- 
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Overland Monthly 


No. 163. 


FRONTISPIECE. On San Francisco Bay i 

FRONTISPIECE. Mount Shasta from the Crags 2 

As TALKED IN THE SANCTUM. By the Editor 3 

WELL WORN TRAILS. VIII. Shasta and the Crags. Rounsevelle Wildman.. . 7 

Illustrated from photographs. 
THE QUICKSANDS OF PACTOLUS. Book II, xv, xvi. Horace Annesley J/achell. 17 

Illustrations by Boeringer. 

HARD TIMES. IV. Bimetalism. Irving M. Scott 24 

THE DEVIL'S ARTICLE. Lieut. Lock-wood, U. S. A 29 

Illustrated by N. Clark. 
How WE PLAYED ROBINSON CRUSOE. Rounsevelle Wildman 35 

Illustrations by J. D. Strong, Jr. 

Illustrated from Reproductions of Posters. 
DEFENDERS OF THE UNION. Frank Elliott Myers 53 

Illustrated from photographs. 

( Continued on next page.) 

Overland Monthly. 



EDUCATIONAL DEPARTMENT. The Study of the Classics. Pmf. &kcji\l B. C/j/>/>. 94 


THE MEASURE OF VALUE. George A. Story 109 

THE NATURAL LAW OF MONEY. John J. Valentine 1 18 

ETC 121 




Overland Monthly Publishing Company 

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Mutual Savings Bank of San Francisco 


Foi the half year ending June 30th, 1896, a div- 
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Well Worn Trails. 1 

By Rounsevelle Wildman, M. L., being 
a series of outdoor articles on the State. 
"Santa Barbara," " Capay Valley," 
" The Geysers," " The Redwoods," 
"Santa Monica and Mt. Lowe," "Del 
Monte and Monterey," and "The Petri- 
fied Forest," "Shasta and the Crags," 
which have already appeared, will be 
followed by 

" Mendocino," " The Yosemite," 
" Lake Tahoe." " Santa Cruz," 

" Napa Soda Springs." 
Unexplored Regions of the 
High Sierra. By T. S. Solo- 

1. The Sources of the San Joaquin. 

2. The Sources of King's River. 

3. Lakes, Falls and Meadows. 

4. The Grand Canon of the Tuolumne, 

etc., etc. 

This series of eight papers will cover 
a section of the State never before ex- 
plored, and will contain hitherto unpublished photographs and surveys made by the 
OVERLAND'S author-explorer. 

Indian Medicine Men. By Lorenzo G. Yates, F. L. S. 
Oregon. The Great Emerald Land. By Joaquin Miller. 
The National Guard of California. By Comrade Frank Elliott 

Myers of Lincoln Post, G. A. R. 
The Silver Question. Continued by Hon. Irving M. Scott, Col. John 

P. Irish, Pres. J. J. Valentine, Senator Wm. M. Stewart, Gov. W. J. 

McConnell of Idaho, Geo. A. Story, and others. 
Eureka and Humboldt County. By S. G. Wilson. 

Being a beautifully descriptive article on the industries of Humboldt County. 
In line with the great work undertaken by the OVERLAND in picturing all sections 
of the State. 

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S. H. ft M. Co.. P. O. Box 699. N. V. City. 

VOL. XXVIII. (Second Series.) July, 1896. No. 163. 

J was reading the life of one of the great ones of the earth, long since gone before. 
It was a simple, honest biography, one that would not do its subject or its 
" Boswell " any serious harm. I would not mention it here had I not been forced to 
admire, in spite of a wholly uncalled for prejudice, the marked, almost brilliant clev- 
erness displayed in discovering a relationship between the triumphs of manhood and 
certain youthful characteristics or idiosyncrasies. 

It was noted that in this lawyer-politician's youth he successfully organized 
a boycott on the aged taffy-man that sold sundry home-made sweets on the sunny 
side of the village court-house, who, profitting by an uncontested monopoly, charged 
a cent here and there in excess of the prices that prevailed during the past 

It was also a matter of record that in the subject's tenth year he "floored " the 
village pettifogger in a debate at the district schoolhouse on the question " Resolved 
that city life is preferable to country life," and there are numerous instances that 
go to show that he was of an accumulative turn of mind. 

The biographer eagerly deduces the fact that his hero was simply among men 
what he had been among boys a leader. His mind contained a cog here and there 
that the ordinary mind lacked. He arrived at conclusions before his fellows had 
settled on premises. In politics and trade, as in chess and fencing, he saw his moves 
far ahead and while others were experimenting, he was simply following out a 
clearly foreseen policy. I became very much interested in this biographical analysis 
and it led to a discussion one day in the Sanctum. 

(Copyright, 1896, by OVERLAND MONTHLY PUBLISHING CO.) All rights reserved. 

Commercial Publishing Company, S. P. 


I do not know that anything worth recording was said, but some ideas were 
put into words that had previously lived vaguely in the nebula of uncollected 
thoughts. One reason why the writer or the orator achieves fame for erudition is, 
that in his constant delving for something new to write about or to declaim, he 
unearths from the mental chaos of his brain tunnels naked truths that only need a 
new dress for everyone to instantly recognize familiar "saws" in unfamiliar 
garbs. No one is more surprised at what a drag-net will bring to light in the human 
mind than the owner of the mind himself. 

The Contributor has a pretty and, 1 think, harmless little theory that the 
Creator is ever busy making minds for earthly bodies. The minds are mathemat- 
ical mechanisms; they are not all equal in workmanship or finish. Some are 
hurriedly thrown together, others only half completed, but once in a generation a 
mind perfect in certain lines is created and then history makes note of a Napoleon, 
a Newton, an Edison. The theory is graceful, but it hardly calls for respect, 
although the Contributor fortifies it forcibly with examples that prove he has given 
the matter some thought. 

He says Stradivarius and Guarnerious made one perfect violin to ten mediocre 
ones that the steel workers of Damascus turned out thousands of faulty swords to a 
score ot imperishable ones, but to the Circle all these arguments, more or less in- 
teresting, proved quite a different thing from what they were intended, namely that 
the Contributor would have made an excellent lawyer. So one's thoughts fly in 
spite of all from the general to the particular and the Artist irrelevantly inquired if 
the talker believed in Woman's Suffrage. The Contributor ignored the interrogation 
and it was noted that the Artist had been reading a four-column brevier letter in the 
Call, signed by Susan B. Anthony. He turned to the Parson. 

The Parson. " 1 will believe in Woman's Suffrage and will vote for it when 
the Parsoness asks it. 1 have never denied her anything that it was possible for me 
to grant, but until she requests it I do not feel inclined to do for Miss Anthony or 
Miss Shaw what might not please my home. When the ladies of this country ask 
their husbands to share with them the ballot " Woman's Suffrage " will be possible, 
but until that time no self-respecting husband and father will raise a finger to enhance 
the notoriety of a bevy of professional agitators." 

The Reviewer. " Not being a benedict, I too, will take my marching orders 
from the Parson's generalissimo." 

(""RANTING that there was some reason in the biographer's argument that the 
acts of our adolescence foreshadow the career of our mature manhood, I am 
curious to know how he would account for and apply to my own after life my boy- 
hood passion for making " scrap-books." If it is a sign that I possess the accumul- 
ating or saving instinct, 1 would answer that these are the only things I ever 
accumulated. If it shows that 1 was destined for any particular profession I would 
ask, why then do not fifty per cent of those who have the scrap-book mania choose 
the same profession. 

However, it never struck me as curious until one day not long ago I dis- 
covered, that I had preserved these old books. Now I wonder at them; 1 have not 
opened them for years. Their potpourri of gleanings for the curious, curiosities of 
literature, words, facts and phrases, familiar quotations, and melange of excerpts 


have done me no conscious good, and yet I have preserved them. The largest of 
these literary graveyards I opened. It is an old "Agricultural Report," and emits 
a damp, aged odor. It is as full of memories as it is of gleanings. The opening 
poem reads as follows: 

Mary had a little jam, 

She locked it up to grow, 
And everywhere that Mary went 
The key was sure to go. 

She lost it in the grass one day, 

While fleeing from a cow; 
Her brother Johnny picked it up 

He is an angel now. 

But as though to testify that I was not destined to be a poet of passion, the 
following page contains an editorial from the New York Sun on the " Distracted 
Condition of France," followed by a tabulation of " The Nation's Dead." Then 
comes an article that purports to have appeared in a London paper at the time James 
G. Elaine visited England. It begins: 

"The Rt.-Hon. James G. Elaine and wife have just arrived in this city. Mr. Elaine is at 
present governor-general of Maine, a province on the southwestern coast of Lake Mississippi * * * 
Mr. Elaine is a first cousin of the Rt. Hon. William F. Cody, better known as Buffalo Bill, and is 
expected to call upon him to-morrow to formulate governmental plans for action on the reassembling 
of the American Senate, Mr. Cody being a Senator from the province of Key West * * * Mr. 
Elaine's military title is major-general. He gained it by gallant action on the field at Lookout 
Mountain where he commanded the Second Chicago Infantry under Gen. Beauregard, etc., etc." 

This struck me as eminently funny at the time. I had then never been in 
England or lived among English people. I reread and copied the extract; it strikes 
me as sadly true, that is, the spirit of it. I was discussing American and English 
magazines with an Englishwoman of whose opinion on matters literary I have the 
greatest respect. In a general way I was boasting of the superiority of American 
magazines. " Yes," she assented, in that imperturbable, politely patronizing way 
that has become second nature to our English cousins, " there is no doubt but that 
your Atlantic, OVERLAND, and North American are creditable, but how can you 
compare them to our Harper's and Century." Neither would she believe me when I 
assured her that her favorites were the very American magazines of which I was so 
proud, although I was sorry to admit that one of them, like many good Americans, 
affected English-made clothes as soon as it touched English soil. The English know 
almost absolutely nothing of our geography. One of our California girls who had 
spent three years in a New York boarding school, was staying with friends in London 
before returning to her native State. 

" Where do you live?" asked a titled caller. 

" California," she replied. 

" Ah, and went to school in New York. Did you go home every night ?" 

The Englishwoman knows those parts of our great country where her rela- 
tives are on a ranch, and the Englishman those sections where his surplus capital is 
invested. They talk of Johannesburg, Rajputana, Ottowa and Penang as though 
they were but a step from London Bridge, but St. Louis, San Francisco, Buenos 
Ayres and Havana are somewhere in that great undiscovered " States," and that is 


" I have a friend in the States," remarked an Englishwoman who was making 
polite conversation while we were waiting for the dining-room doors to open. 
" Possibly you have met him. He lives in let me think, Oh, yes, how stupid, 
Rio de Janeiro." 

English geographies and English histories are to blame for this want of neigh- 
borly knowledge of our affairs. 

I could not help reminding an English governor who was dilating on Britain's 
prowess that the " States" had twice come off fairly well in wars with his great 

< Twice," he echoed while a genuine knot of amazement grew between his 
quiet blue eyes. " O, ah you refer to your Revolution and yes, I fancy that 
Chesapeake affair." 

I found out later that the "Chesapeake" affair, an English naval victory, 
was all his school history had taught his nation of the War of 1812. 

Since the death of that charming fellow and delightful companion, who was 
childhood's poet-laureate Eugene Field the story of his celebrated encounter 
with the famous author of " Robert Elsmere " at a dinner party in London has be- 
come the property of the newspapers. When it was related tu me by one who heard 
it, it was known only to the " Saints and Sinners." Field was placed next to Mrs. 
Ward who was the bright, particular star of the evening. She ignored the modest 
American until the fifth course, then for the sake of making a show of conversation 
she turned to him with the stereotyped English enquiry : 

" Mister Mister ." 

" Field," interpolated her auditor. 

" Pardon, Mister Field of Chicago, eh? Do you know this Doctor Cronin (of 
Clan-Na-Gael fame) ? " 

" Certainly madame," he replied with the most intelligent expression he 
could assume, " we live in adjoining trees." 

But to return to the Scrap-Book. I find that 1 have saved some one's esti- 
mate of the difference between the English poets : 

Chaucer describes men and things as they are ; Shakespeare, as they would 
be under the circumstances supposed ; Spenser, as we would wish them to be ; 
Milton, as they ought to be ; Byron, as they ought not to be ; and Shelley, as they 
never can be. 

I often wonder if any one else has ever thought it worth while to preserve 
the same items that I have. If so, we are affinities. 

These earlier scrap-books are severely impersonal. They were made up 
when the compiler's life had not begun to interest himself and prior to that interest- 
ing period when he entered upon the record of his own comings and goings. At this 
date it is impossible to decide what great merit certain receipts of how to make 
guava jelly held for me. I doubt if 1 had a clear idea of what a guava was. I know 
I could never have hoped to see one. Neither can I imagine why I preserved an 
obituary notice of one G. Henry Snell. It must have been as an example of style 
for I am sure I never knew anyone of the name. However, it is not my intention to 
hold this old book up to scorn. Scrap-books will continue to grow and flourish as 
long as papers are published and good paste can be made from a handful of wheat 
flour and a cup of cold water. 

The Office Boy. "Proof." 


I heard a tale long, long ago, 

Where I had gone apart to pray 
By Shasta's pyramid of snow, 

That touches me unto this day. 
* ****** 

But this the Shastan tale. 

The Song of the Ttalboa Sea. Joaquin Miller. 

HE mountaineer may 
smile at a description 
of a trip to the top of 
The Crags. To him 
it lacks the one ele- 
ment dear to the heart 
of every mountain- 
climber danger. And 
yet with its narrow, 
tortuous trail that 
make the ascent pos- 
sible to all, one misstep, one false move, 
and trained mountaineer or simple tourist 
could fall far enough to render it of little 
interest whether he had come by trail or 
up the sheer side of the virgin precipice. 

Standing in the midst of the volcanic 
chaos that is known as The Crags 
6,800 feet above the sea, looking twenty 
miles across canon, valley, mountain, 
moraine, and glacier, full into the white 
face of Mt. Shasta, one forgets all else 
save the wondrous sublimity of the 

The Crags are dwarfed in the pres- 
ence of Shasta and the great domes of 
the Sierras that surround them ; yet 
they are nearly as high as Mt. Wash- 
ington. As you stand on the veranda of 
the " Tavern of Castle Crag " and gaze 
up at their serrated, broken heights, you 
gather some idea of their wildness, but 



the distance smoothes out and makes in- 
distinct Tissues, crevasses and gulches 
that are two thousand feet in depth and 
as awe inspiring as those of the High 

On mule back we started one beauti- 
ful June day from the Tavern to explore 
these crags and discover for ourselves 
their fascination. The famous hostlery 
at which we were staying, is situated on 
a bench of land possibly a hundred feet 
above the rugged bottom of the valley 
and the flashing torrent of the Sacra- 
mento. The river bed is about all there 
is of level ground between the one side 
of the mountain or foot hills, on the lower 
reaches of which the Tavern stands, and 
the opposite side where the ascent for 
the Crags begins, The entire view from 
valley bottom or mountain top is one 
of savage mountain scenery. There are 
no soft studied lines, no fat, mild, rolling 

hills, no easy approaches. The moun 
tains are the mountains of the Sierras, 
bold, clean cut and fierce. The valleys 
are canons and the canons are precipices. 
The forests are in keeping with the 
scenery. They are of pine, cedar and fir 
and rivers and the creeks are clear, cold 
and turbulent. There is nothing dis- 
appointing to the lover of the mountains, 
nothing tame and make-believe. 

As our mules plodded up the steep 
grades that lay between us and the more 
severe climbing, where earth gave way 
to granite, we let our eyes roam upward 
through the vast aisles of the pine into 
the cobalt blue of the sky. Occasionally 
a little rise or an opening in the forest 
glades would give us a fleeting glimpse 
of Shasta's great dome of light. 

I know I have published at least four 
poems on Shasta within the last two 
years. 1 do not know how many I have 


refused, a full dozen at least, and now 
for the first time, 1 fully realize the de- 
sire that takes possession of one to break 
out into a song of praise. Shasta is 
everywhere. It seems to fill the atmos- 
phere. As you stoop to gather the pur- 
ple lupin among the cedars, or to pick 
the blood red snow-flower along the de- 
nuded shoulder of the Crags, your eye 
sees Shasta. From the Tavern veranda 
its vast pyramid of snow confronts you 
and along the bend of a lonely mountain 
trail you find yourself striving to bury 
your hand in its cooling crystals. 

Of its 14,444 f ee t> at least 5,000 feet 
from the summit down, is one mass of 
snow so purely white that it hurts the 
eyes even twenty miles away. A white- 
ness that belongs to another world. And 
yet for days we only had momentary 

glimpses of Shasta. It was hidden be- 
hind great banks of cumulus clouds. 
Now and then a peak or a point would 
break through the fleecy drapery so far 
above the point where we had expected it 
that it seemed but another form of cloud. 
The woods were bespangled with deli- 
cate wild flowers and ferns, purple lupin, 
pink sweet-williams, blue lilacs, iris, 
lady slippers, cats-ears, and thousands 
of modest little star-shaped flowers that 
seemed contented to form a delicate 
back-ground for their more radient sis- 
ters. The many greens of the wood 
were broken now and again by the 
waxen white of the dog-wood blossoms. 
The sweet, resinous breath of the 
pines filled the air. 

Without warning the red earth gave place 
to granite walls, the pines to the man- 

f* ~ -. 




zanita and the hardy brush of the colder 
zones, the iris to the snow-flower, and di- 
rectly above our heads the first of the great 
cliffs towered five hundred feet into the 
brilliant sunshine. The trail winds on 
and up, along sheer drops of a thousand 
feet, and between primeval bosses so 
tremendous that you wonder how you 
could have mistaken them from the ver- 
anda far below. There are little plateaux 
paved with a shifting carpet of powdered 
gneiss, and. minature deposits far up on 
the glassy side of a vast spire to which a 
stunted evergreen clings. From the top, 
Shasta seems only a stone's throw away, 
and Mt. Eddy, Eleanor, Tamarack Peak, 
Muirs Peak and the far-stretching upper 
world of the Sierra, within the sound of 
your voice. The Sacramento is but a 
silver thread, flashing white here and 
there among purple shadows, the Tavern 

is but a dot distinguishable by a waver- 
ing line of thin blue smoke against the 
deeper blue of the sky. You are in the 
heart of the Sierras and with your first 
long deep breath you are thankful. 

Here among these savage fastnesses 
forty-one years ago the last stand of the 
Indians' was made and their last war cry 
mingled with their death chant. It is a 
battle field worthy of the Trojans. 

Set like a jewel in the very heart of 
such surroundings is this unique " Tav- 
ern of Castle Crag," a summer resort 
that is to the lovers of the mountains 
what the superb hotel of " Del Monte " 
at Monterey is to those who go down to 
the sea. 

The railroad trip of 317 miles north 
from San Francisco is made in fourteen 
hours and covers a variety of Californian 

i The Baltic of Castle Crags. By Joaquin Miller. San 
Francisco. The Traveler. 1894. 


scenery, from the last glimpses of the bay 
and the Golden Gate, the tulle marshes 
and low rolling hills at Suisun, the wide 
spreading farming lands about Chico, to 
the gradual approach from Redding on to 
the rugged scenery of the Sierras. Leav- 
ing San Francisco at 7 o'clock in the even- 
ing, the night's ride prepares one for a 
hearty breakfast at Castle Crag at half 
past eight the next morning. During the 
night the tropical heat of the lowlands 
gives way to the invigorating atmosphere 
of the hills, the land of the orange and 
the fig is lost in the orchards of the apple 
and the cherry. One short night's ride 
carries you from tropic to the temperate 
zone. It is an experience that is only 
possible on this sun kissed coast. 

As far back as 1844 Col. Hastings es- 
tablished a stage station where the Tav- 
ern now stands and opened a permanent 
trail up the Sacramento River. Here he 
built his fort by the side of the famous 


Soda Springs which has since become 
known to the world as " Shasta Water," 
although the bottling works are at an- 
other spring seven miles farther north. 

The water is veritable soda water 1 and 
only needs the flavoring syrups to become 
a perpetual soda fountain. Hastings ap- 
plied for a grant of the land and with that 
charming modesty that was characteristic 
of the early pioneer, asked that it include 
Mt. Shasta. 

Analysis of Sample of Water taken by Thomas 
Price from the Main Spring at the " Tavern of 
Castle Crag." 

Temperature of Spring, 53 degrees, F. 

Free Carbonic Acid Gas, 355 cubic inches per 

('.rains pr U. S. gal. 

Silica 4-891 

Carbonate of Iron 0.948 

Alumina 0.402 

Carbonate of Maganese 0.048 

Carbonate of Calcium 30.193 

Carbonate of Magnesium 52.237 

Carbonate of Barium 0.062 

Carbonate of Ammonium 2.281 

Bicarbonate of Sodium 83.585 


('.rains per U. S. gal. 

Bicarbonate of Lithium 0.293 

Arseniate of Sodium 0.067 

Chloride of Potassium 3-162 

Chloride of Sodium 112.960 

Bromide of Sodium 0.071 

Iodide of Sodium trace 

Biborate of Sodium trace 

Phosphoric of Acid trace 

Total grains per U. S. gal 291.200 

The little fort until the day when the 
old Oregon stage made way for the iron 
horse had a varied history. Mountain 
Joe, frontiersman and Indian fighter, 
lived here and withstood the influx of 
miner and Indian. Its romance today 
holds a certain charm for the summer 
tourist while the more practical side of its 
early record is seen in the old orchard of 
apple trees before the Tavern and the 
broad meadow that surrounds the springs. 

In the midst of all the modern luxury 
of a modern hotel, filled with pretty girls 
in sweet fleecy muslin and men in the 


latest cuts from New York, one forgets 
for the moment that he is in the heart of 
the Sierras, and wandering beyond the 
sound of the orchestra one comes upon 
a miner washing gravel in the cool 
depths of an olive green canon. A red- 
headed wood pecker, brilliantly red, flits 
down through the opening and into the 
sun light and the grizzled old miner 
looks up and nods pleasantly. Farther 
up there are others at work with here 
and there a Chinaman. 

So here within a radius of a few miles 
you have a summer home, mountain 
scenery, fishing, hunting, riding, climb- 
ing, swimming, mining and Mt. Shasta. 

A cloud as transparent as a bit of 
mechlin lace rested lovingly on Shasta's 
very top as we said farewell and then a 
zephyr jealous brushed it aside and 
left this wonderful thing outlined against 
a sky as blue as the Bay of Florence. 

The poet may do it justice, the prose 
writer never can. 

Roiinsevelle Wildman. 







BY ONE of those coincidences, even 
less frequent in fiction than in real life, 
Fortescue had received, the morning of 
this same day, the report of Caleb Has- 
kins, together with a letter from Rufus 

" I am constrained by circumstances," 
wrote the financier, "to submit to you 
Stella Johnson's wretched story, and to 
ask you, as a friend of the family, to see 
the young woman and use your influence 
with her to return to the hospital. I am 

1 Begun in August number, 1895. 

V-OL. xxviii. 2. 

heartily sorry for her but common dec- 
ency, to say nothing of common sense, 
should impel her to leave my daughter's 
house immediately. [She, I am confident, 
is the cause of the trouble between man 
and wife." 

" I shall be detained in New York and 
Washington for some days yet, but hope 
to be back in San Francisco within the 

Fortescue read this letter and the re- 
port of Haskins. When he had finished the 
latter his cheeks were unprofessionally 
red, and as he locked up the sheaf of 
papers in his small safe he roundly cursed 




Hector Desmond in language fleshly and 
profane. He confessed to himself that 
he liked the nurse ; admired her pluck ; 
respected the quality of her brains, but 
why as Mr. Barrington said in the 
name of common decency had she con- 
sented to become an inmate of Mrs. Des- 
mond's house ? To the resolution of 
this problem he brought to bear a not 
ill-equipped mind, but he failed signally 
in the task. 

Fortescue made his usual round of 
visits, spent a couple of hours in the 
hospital laboratory and the rest of the 
day in his office, but he avoided Nob 
Hill. Not that he was in the habit of 
shirking disagreeable duties, but in this 
case he mistrusted his capacity as a 
plenipotentiary. The mission was in- 
finitely irksome. Stella was one of the 
silent order of women. He had experi- 
ence of her inflexible obstinacy and knew 
that she was not to be either cajoled or 
intimidated. To gratify Rufus Bar- 
rington he would run the risk of a snub- 
bing and a snubbing at the hands of a 
nurse was insufferable. Accordingly he 
procrastinated, and dining that evening 
with John Chetwynd at the club, sub- 
mitted the case to him hypothetically, 
being careful to mention no names. 
Chetwynd, however, covered him with 
embarrassment by observing bluntly, 
" Ah! Mrs. Desmond's nurse? I see the 

Fortescue, feeling guilty of a small 
breach of trust, flushed and stammered. 

"Knowing the people," continued 
Chetwynd, '' I can the better understand 
your predicament. You 're between the 
devil and the deep sea, my friend. A 
doctor should never be the friend of the 
family. Candidly I advise you to wash 
your hands of the affair." 

" What the deuce made the girl go 
there under the circumstances? That's 
what bothers me." 

Chetwynd finished his cutlet in silence, 
not hazarding a conjecture. 

"Can't understand her motive, psy- 
chologically considered, it's quite ab- 

" 1 saw Desmond this morning," said 
Chetwynd, with a grim smile. 

"It's not a pleasant thing to say, 
Chetwynd, but I should like to attend 
that fellow's funeral." 

" Funeral, no, execution, yes." 

After that the conversation flagged, and 
when together with the salad an urgent 
summons came for Fortescue, he took his 
leave gracefully but thankfully. In the 
hall he found the assistant of Doctor 
Boak much out of breath. 

" The doctor is in Oakland, and Mr. 
Desmond is dying. Can you go to him? " 

Fortescue seized his hat and hurried 
off, followed by the messenger. They 
caught the cable cars and were rapidly 
whirled skyward. Fortescue was nearly : 
as excited as his companion. Desmond 
dying! And of delirium tremens ! Stella, 
and his wife both present in the house, 
what a situation ! 

At the door of the sick-room he met 
Stella, pale and composed, but he re- 
marked that she started as he approached. 

" Doctor Boak is in Oakland," he said 
curtly. " Where is Mrs. Desmond?" 

" In bed," replied Stella, " and asleep, j 
1 found her raving with headache and 
gave her some chloral." 

He pushed her aside unceremoniously 
and entered the room. Desmond, breath- 
ing stertorously, lay motionless upon the 
bed, and at the foot of it were grouped his 
valet, the butler, and the footman. Des- 
mond was a remarkably powerful man, 
and from the disordered appearance of his 
servants had evidently, in his last attack, 
well nigh proved a match for them. For- 
tescue, bending down with his fingers 
upon the pulse of the patient, asked a 
dozen rapid questions. The Doctor lis- 


tened with frowning brow, perplexity 
stamped upon his stern features. 

" -Amazing," he murmured, putting his 
ear to the broad chest of Desmond. 
" You say," he turned to the valet, " that 
the second attack was like the first, but 
much milder, but that the third, after he 
had taken the capsules, was entirely 

The man nodded. Judging by his face 
he seemed intelligent enough, but badly 

"He cried like a babby," said the 
butler, wiping his forehead. " I never 
see a man cry as he did ; never in all my 
born days. And jump, why we three 
couldn't hold him." 

" Any salivation?" said Fortescue, ad- 
dressing Stella. 

" And vomiting? " 

He turned to the patient and raised the 
right eyelid. The pupil was intensely 
contracted. With a muttered exclama- 
tion he beckoned to his side Doctor Boak's 
assistant, who carried in his hand a small 
case of medicines. 

" Atropine," he said briefly, " and the 
hypodermic syringe." 

As soon as the drug was administered 
he again laid his ear to Desmond's chest. 
The alkaloid began to take effect almost 
at once, and soon the Doctor raised his 
head. His eyes sought the eyes of the 
nurse which were raised composedly to 
meet his keen glance. 

" Do you know what the capsules 
contained? " 

" I understood from Doctor Boak a 
tincture of cinchona and Nux-Vomica." 
" Can I speak to you alone ? " 
She walked from the room, the Doctor 
following. At the end of the passage she 
unlocked the laboratory door. Fortescue 
noted that her hand trembled as she in- 
serted the key. Entering, she pressed a 

button in the wall and flooded the apart- 
ment with electric light. Then she 
turned, and standing composedly in the 
center of the floor, awaited Fortescue's 
first words. 

"Miss Ramage," he began, with em- 
phasis. " 1 would urge you before it is 
too late to speak out. Mr. Desmond has 
been poisoned." 

At the word she shuddered and tried 
to frame a sentence with white, parched 

" 1 know," continued Fortescue 
gravely, " the nature of your relations in 
the past with Mr. Desmond." 

With an effort she regained her com- 
posure ; her face hardening as she met 
the implied accusation. To Fortescue's 
surprise she asked a curious question. 

"Are you certain that he is poisoned?" 

" Absolutely certain. If it were possi- 
ble to obtain the drug I should name it 
confidently, muscarine." 

"God help us," cried the girl. 

" Tell the truth," said the man signifi- 

She flashed upon him a look of con- 
temptuous indignation. 

" You take me for a murderess," she 
replied, her beautiful bosom heaving. 
You the only man who really knows 
me! You judge me unheard. You jump 
to a monstrous conclusion like a girl in 
her teens." 

" I cannot bandy words with you," he 
answered impatiently. " I believe I can 
still save Mr. Desmond's life if 1 knew 
for certain what he had been given." 

" He has been given muscarine." 

With an exclamation he turned to leave 
the room. Minutes were of infinite 
value. Stella caught him by the lapel of 
his coat. 

" One moment, Doctor," she said 
coldly. " You will need my help?" 

" Your help ! " he cried, with a glance 
of aversion. 



" My help," she repeated. "I will do 
what I can to undo what has been done." 

He hesitated, eying her narrowly. 
The contemptuous indifference with 
which she submitted to his scrutiny 
astonished him. 

" Come," he said curtly. 

Through that awful night and far into 
the chilly watches of the morning, nurse 
and doctor kept their vigil, fighting dog- 
gedly for that paltry stake, the life of a 
cur ! What science could compass on the 
one part and invincible patience on the 
other were accomplished, but for many 
hours the issue quivered in the bal- 

Finally, the antidote prevailed. 

"Will he live? " murmured the nurse, 
as the cold light of dawn fell fitfully upon 
her haggard face. 

"I think so, but I've overdosed him 
terribly with the atropine. I look for 
febrile symptoms, possibly congestion of 
the brain." 

Then for the first time since they had 
stood face to face in the laboratory he 
remembered Stella Ramage and the re- 
port of Haskins. The extraordinary qual- 
ities of the nurse threw into relief the 
glaring horror of her crime. Had it been 
the wilful impulse of the moment, pity 
would have tempered his condemnation, 
but here was premeditation unique in his 
experience. With cold-blooded malevo- 
lence she must have prepared with mar- 
velous skill the lethal drops. To isolate 
muscarine from the fungus was he knew 
a wonderful performance, and the stim- 
ulus which had spurred her brain was 
ignoble revenge. Simultaneously the 
thought of the wife presented itself. He 
had forgotten her existence wholly in 
the exercise of his art. Stella interpreted 
aright his thought and glanced at Des- 
mond. He was lying in a stupor : his 
face scarlet from the large doses of the 

alkaloid : his respiration accelerated : the 
pupil of his eyes so dilated as to produce 
temporary blindness. 

" Can I speak? " she asked. 

" I will listen to what you have to say, 
but I make no pledge of silence." 

" I demand none," she replied proudly. 
" You think," she continued, in low, em- 
phatic tones, "that I poisoned this man. 
God knows that once I might have nerved 
myself to take his life. The injury done 
me would have served, even in the eyes 
of the law, as an excuse, but I never 
could have poisoned him ; and long, long 
ago I dismissed from my mind all thoughts 
of revenge." 

"Then who " began Fortescue, in j 
extreme agitation. 

She held up her hand. 

" I call Heaven to witness," she said, j 
in the same monotonous impressive tone, j 
"that I am innocent of the crime you 
charge me with. Do you believe me? " j 

He gazed into her eyes as she leaned 
forward, challenging and courting his ; 
glance. No guilty woman he instantly 
determined could bear herself as this 
woman. The quintessence of candor 
permeated voice, action and face. Truth, 
robed in righteous indignation, sat glow-1 
ing before him. 

In the silence- that followed her appeal I 
an emotion foreign to his experience! 
routed speech. The cool, level-headed! 
man was dumb and confounded, but! 
subtly conscious of the extraordinary! 
change in his attitude towards Stella. 

" I believe you," he stammered at I 
length. " Can you forgive me?" 

" Yes," she returned, a glad light] 
illuminating her face. 

"Then," said Fortescue slowly, as if! 
the words were painful to utter, "the 
guilty person is " 

"Hush," she murmured. "Let me] 
speak. 1 can unravel the skein." 
She fumbled with the pocket of her! 



skirt, and pulled forth a note book, the 
record of her experiments. 

"Begin at the first page," she said, 
handing him the small volume. 

Fortescue took the book, satisfied him- 
self that Desmond needed no attention, 
and began to read. From time to time 
exclamations escaped his lips, tributes 
to genius. When he had finished, some 
warm words of approval and congratu- 
lation brought the color to Stella's 

" You isolated the muscarine only yes- 
terday ?" 

"Yes. Mrs. Desmond was in the 
laboratory and I told her of the Czar 
Alexis and that the fungus was used by 
the Tartars to produce intoxication." 

" It is best to keep such knowledge to 

" I know, I know, but speech with 
a congenial, sympathetic companion 
seems almost a necessity. You, Doctor, 
were indiscreet enough to take me into 
your confidence." 

The riposte silenced him. 

"Mrs. Desmond," continued the nurse, 
" was so kind, so keenly interested, and 
1 owed everything to her : the leisure 
for these experiments, the expensive 

" That is what tempted you to come 

" That, and her friendship for me. I 
was so lonely at the hospital." 

Her simple words cut him. He remem- 
bered, with regret, that he had treated 
her as a tool, a useful servant, not to be 
considered from aught save a scientific 
point of view. 

" About noon, Doctor, Mr. Chetwynd 
called, and Mrs. Desmond left the labor- 

"Ah! Chetwynd !" muttered Fortes- 
cue, recalling his grim jest about attend- 
ing the execution of Desmond. " Yes. 

She obeyed, investing the story with 
dramatic interest, as she detailed in the 
simplest, concisest language the events 
which culminated in the assault of hus- 
band and wife. 

" Horrible," cried Fortescue, glancing 
with undisguised disgust at the swollen 
features of Desmond. Almost he re- 
gretted the night's work." 

" When the fit seized him," proceeded 
Stella, " I did what I could and sent im- 
mediately for Doctor Boak. Mrs. Des- 
mond went to her room. I could see 
that she was utterly unstrung, and 
begged her to go to bed. After the Doc- 
tor had gone, 1 remembered that the lab- 
oratory was in confusion and snatched a 
minute to tidy up. I found Mrs. Des- 
mond sitting in a chair there, complain- 
ing of the heat. Recalling, Doctor, what 
she said and how she looked I am pre- 
pared to stake my life that she took the 
muscarine to kill not her husband, but 

Her loyalty to the woman who had be- 
friended her touched Fortescue, but her 
hypothesis carried no conviction of its 
truth to him. 

"About five o'clock, it might have 
been a little later, Doctor Boak sent up 
a note and the capsules which were car- 
ried to Mrs. Desmond's room. The cap- 
sules were in her possession for some 
five minutes." 

"Time enough to introduce the mus- 

" Then she sent both letter and cap- 
sules to me, and the butler told me that 
he feared she was seriously ill. She 
looked so he said wild. The direc- 
tions in the doctor's note were explicit. 
They were to be administered immedi- 
ately. 1 gave them to Mr. Desmond, 
and leaving him with the butler and his 
valet, hastened to Mrs. Desmond. I 
found her pacing the floor and raving 
about muscarine. Of course, I supected 



nothing, and forced her to swallow a 
large dose of chloral. Her maid, and 1 
undressed her, and she fell asleep as 
soon as her head touched the pillow. I 
was still in her room when Mr. Des- 
mond's man came rushing to say that 
his master was worse. 1 dispatched a 
groom to hunt Doctor Boak, wherever 
he might be, and returned to find my 
patient in convulsions." 

"And you suspected nothing?" 

" Nothing. Your face startled me, 
not expecting you, and your manner 
suggested to me that something was 
wrong. You see I have had no experi- 
ence with cases of acute alcoholism, but 
when you called for atropine, I guessed 
the riddle." 

".Mrs. Desmond will awake soon. 
What is to be done?" 

" I will go to her now." 

" But you need rest. This has been 
an awful night for you." 

He glanced professionally at her bowed 
figure, her weary face, and the purple 
circles beneath her heavy eyes. What 
he asked himself could he have ac- 
complished without Stella? 

" When she wakes 1 must be with her. 
The realization of what she has done will 
overpower her then." 

" Do you feel no horror, no detesta- 
tion ? Of all criminals a poisoner is the 
most hateful. My sympathy for Mrs. 
Desmond is paralyzed. If her husband 
dies she must answer to the charge of 

A man is logical in thought and re- 
strained in action ; a woman is, gener- 
ally, the exact opposite. To this rule 
Stella was no exception despite her 
science and experience. 

"Before Mrs. Desmond should be ar- 
rested for murder," she replied slowly, 
her eyes resting distastefully upon the 
stern face of the Doctor, " I would my- 
self shoulder her crime. She is my 

friend ! She knows my story and still 
loves me. 1 am sorry for her and pity 
her.from the bottom of my heart. If she 
killed fifty men, like the brute who lies 
there, I should still love her, and if I 
could, shield her." 

Her vehemence, so feminine in its ex- 
pression, raised a smile. 

" Go at once to the dining room," he 
said in a kindly tone, " and eat some- 
thing substantial before you go to Mrs. 
Desmond. I insist upon it." 

He accompanied her to the door and 
on the threshold held out his hand. 

"You are a trump anyway, he said 
with a smile still on his face. " Be sure 
and make a hearty meal." 


During the day it became known in 
San Francisco that Desmond was lying 
at the point of death, and the house was 
besieged by callers. Aunt Mary and 
Phyllis hastened from Menlo, and were 
the only persons admitted to Helen's 
presence. Both proffered heartfelt sym- 
pathy and love, but she waved them 
impatiently aside, sitting stony-eyed and 
silent in her chair by the window, par- 
alyzed by suspense, waiting with throb- 
bing pulses for the tardy bulletins. 
This dreadful torpor ! Would it never 
cease ? 

He had been taken ill on Monday 
morning. Throughout Tuesday and 
Tuesday night his condition of coma re- 
mained the same. With the dawn 
of Wednesday there was no change 
whatsoever. Fortescue, intensely in- 
interested in the case, hardly left his 
patient. Doctor Boak, after consulta- 
tion, consented to abdicate in favor of 
his junior colleague. He asked good 
worthy soul no inconvenient ques- 
tions. Of late years he had devoted 
himself to the culture of chrysanthe- 


mums. He admitted frankly to Fortes- 
cue that in obscure cerebral lesions he 
was not quite 'up to date.' A nurse 
was procured and Stella forbidden the 
sick room. Her presence there, if Des- 
mond recovered consciousness, might be 
.attended with undesirable results. 

That Helen should take this blow so 
hardly passed the understanding of both 
Phyllis and Aunt Mary. Respecting her 
extraordinary grief, they sat apart, gaz- 
ing at her sorrowfully with questioning 
eyes. They had offered to leave her, 
but she begged them anxiously to stay, 
faltering out nervously that she dreaded 
to be left alone. Langham came up from 
the Palace Hotel and knocked about the 
balls in the billiard room. His sense of 
duty kept him at his post. In the ab- 
sence of Helen's male relatives he felt 
that no other course was open, and his 
indignation against Henry Barrington 
was the more violent because repressed. 
That gentleman, indeed, had pleaded 
stress of business and remained in the 
house about five minutes. 

" Queer fellows, these Yanks," said 
Fred, chalking his cue; " here is Henry's 
sister likely to be made a widow any 
minute, and he 's thinking of his cursed 
bank. And where the deuce is Dick. 
An Englishman would n't go off, leaving 
no address. He may be wanted by his 
country, or his relations or friends." 

Langham's suit with Phyllis still hung 
fire. Since his arrival in California 
certain scruples had presented them- 
selves. The bent of his mind, decidedly 
magisterial, withheld final judgment upon 
so important an issue as taking to his 
arms an American wife ! 

At three, Tuesday afternoon, Chet- 
wynd called. He told the butler that he 
wished to see Mr. Langham and was 
shown into the library. 

" Gad," said Fred, ' 1 'm glad you 've 
come, John. This sort of thing is terribly 

wearing. Why, you look as solemn as 
an owl ! Between you and me I can't 
help seeing the finger of Providence in 

"Fred, I must speak to Mrs. Des- 

"Impossible, my good fellow. Phyl- 
lis tells me she is quite off her head. 
Women are like that, you know. She 
despised her husband when he was fit 
and well; now it is all the other way. 
See her ? Why, man, she won't see 

Chetwynd seated himself at the writ- 
ing table and scribbled a few lines upon 
a sheet of note paper. Dictated by the 
tact and delicacy of a gentleman, the 
letter contained nothing to offend the 
most censorious eye, but to Helen (ap- 
praising the simple phrases at their 
proper value) the importunity of his 
sympathy, the significance of his love, 
the ghastly impropriety of his presence 
in the house, were each and all insup- 
portable. She decided instantly that 
nothing short of an interview would 
drive him from the State. His love for 
her, at all hazards, must be extirpated. 
Long ago he had deliberately blackened 
himself in her eyes. Now it was her 
turn to play the Ethiopian. 

"Great God!" he cried, when she 
stood before him, in her own pretty 
boudoir with all its bibelots and knick- 
knacks, so woful a stage setting for the 
dramatis personae, "what is the mean- 
ing of this ? " 

His glance embraced her lack-luster 
eyes, her trembling limbs, her pallor, 
her indescribable air of suffering." 

" It means," she said with a shudder, 
" punishment." 

" Punishment ! " he repeated blankly. 
"Punishment? I fail to understand." 

Then she told him simply and incis- 
ively what she had done. No other 
course seemed possible. A half truth 


even would defeat her purpose. The 
dramatic force of her words held him 

"And now," she said huskily, "you 
must go out of the State out of the 
country. You know me for what I am. 
No fatuous memory of the woman you 
loved will oppress you in the future. 
Go! " 

" Helen," he whispered. " Did you 
do this thing for love of me? " 

" What does it matter? " she answered 
wearily. " Our motives are always 
more or less mixed. Please leave me." 

" I shall not go," he said, "till I have 
told you what 1 think of you." 

She misunderstood him. 

" Spare me," she cried faintly, hold- 
ing up her slender hands as if to ward 
off a blow. 

" 1 will go," he answered, " and at 
once. Perhaps it is best for the pres- 
ent. But wherever I may be, the 
memory of your sweet face will be the 


thing I most value in this world or the 
next. You were made for me and 1 for 
you. If 1 loved you less 1 should stay 
with you to torment you, but at your 
bidding 1 go, and at your bidding I shall 
return. As for your story, 1 believe as 
much of that as I please. It makes no 
difference in my love for you. That 
we must both suffer is certain. 1 have 
my bills to meet and you have yours. 
And they must be settled to the ultimate 
farthing. That is what life has taught 
me! We spoke of heaven the other day. 
It is heaven for me to be with you. It 
is hell when we are apart. Yes, 1 go, 
but I must take with me this." 

He seized her in his arms and kissed 
her passionately. Then lifting her from 
the ground he bore her swiftly to a couch 
and laid her down. 

" May the curse of God light upon 
me," he said with emphasis, " if woman's 
lips meet mine till you claim from me 
that kiss." 

Horace Annesley Vacbell. 




number, in an article headed 
" The Silver Question - 
Facts and Principles," Col- 
onel John P. Irish, enjoying 
the repute of being one of 
the ablest champions of the 
single gold standard, adopts 
for premises the following 
propositions of Thomas Jef- 
ferson, viz: 

First. "Just principles will lead us to disre- 
gard legal proportions altogether. The true pro- 

portion between gold and silver is a mercantile 
problem altogether." 

Second. " To trade on equal terms, the meas- 
ure of value should be as nearly as possible on a 
par with the corresponding nation whose medium 
is in a sound state." 

From these Col. Irish deduces that: 

"Therefore the policy of the United States 
should be the single gold standard as now, and 
permanent abandonment of the attempt by law 
to hold the metals at an unnatural parity on an 
artificial ratio." 

In his argument, Col. Irish says: 
" Jeffersonian wisdom dictates the single 


standard." Now Mr. Jefferson was not 
a monometalist, but a bimetalist, as the 
facts of history clearly show. " In 1785 
the American Congress adopted the Span- 
ish milled dollar as the basis and unit of 
our money, making it the lawful dollar 
and standard." Thus in the country the 
single silver standard from 1785 to 1792 
was the legal standard of money. Alex- 
ander Hamilton, the peer of Jefferson 
himself in statesmanship, said in his Mint 
Report : 

"But upon the whole" the silver standard 
being then in vogue " it seems most advisable 
not to attach the unit exclusively to either metal, 
because this cannot be done effectually without 
destroying the character and office of one of 
them as money, and reducing it to the situation 
of mere merchandise. To annul the use of either 
of the metals is to abridge the quantity of the 
circulating medium, and is liable to all the objec- 
tions which arise from a comparison of the ben- 
efits of a full, with the evils of a scanty circula- 

Thomas Jefferson, in returning to 
Hamilton this report, said : 

"1 concur with you in thinking that the unit 
must stand upon both metals." 

Congress passed a bimetallic bill, 
framed in accordance with the recom- 
mendations of these great statesmen, 
fixing the ratio between silver and gold 
at 1 5 to i, and George Washington signed 
the bill'April 2nd, 1792. 

Thus is furnished proof positive that 
Jefferson was a bimetallist ; also that 
Hamilton, Washington and the Congress 
passing the bill were bimetallists. 

Turning to the first proposition of Col. 
Irish, it is clearly seen from the foregoing 
that he fails to represent correctly the 
attitude of Mr. Jefferson with respect to 
his monetary views of gold and silver. 
Also obviously fails to sound the depth of 
meaning intended by the author of the 

In international commerce balances are 
usually settled by weight of the exchange 

medium and not by tale. It is quite likely 
that Mr. Jefferson in making the proposi- 
tion may have had this mode of value 
measure in mind, and so far as feasible 
deemed a more general adoption of it 
advisable. Beyond this is presented a 
problem, " a mercantile problem alto- 
gether," requiring the determination of 
"the true proportion between gold and 

Now to ascertain " the true proportion 
between gold and silver," it will be nec- 
essary to determine the commodity value 
of each. It is difficult to see how this 
can be done without referring the matter 
to first principles. For so long as gold 
and silver have other than a mercantile 
use, their commodity value would be 
affected thereby. Let then the monetary 
or legal value of gold and silver be elim- 
inated throughout the world, and so con- 
tinue until manufactures shall consume 
the present stock of those metals. Were 
this done, it may be safely said, the gold 
that will now buy thirty bushels of wheat 
would not buy three bushels, and the 
silver that will now buy two bushels of 
wheat would not buy a peck ; and that 
these proportions of the commodity pur- 
chasing power of gold and silver would 
hold good throughout general commodity. 
Thus we perceive that uninfluenced by 
legislative enactment, the commodity 
value of gold and silver would be but a 

Law, in fact, not only confers upon 
gold and silver their respective monetary 
values, but largely their so-called com- 
mercial values. Indeed the commercial 
value of gold and silver is for the most 
part a derivative from their legal money 
value. " Use is the sole and supreme 
test of value." In all trade in which gold 
and silver are used as a medium of ex- 
change, "just principles" require not 
more, that "the true proportion be- 
tween " them shall obtain, than shall the 



true mercantile or commodity value of 
the metals themselves. 

Their mercantile value tested by the 
fundamental law of economics as seen is 
insignificant to answer in any tolerable 
degree the requirements of the world's 
business transactions. It seems obvious 
then, that the use of legal money is indis- 
pensable to convenience and thrift in 
trade in a word, to the advancement of 
civilization. In the United States gold 
and silver on an equal footing, and at an 
established parity, were employed as. 
legal money, with happy effect, from 
1792 to 1873. 

During this period of 81 years, their 
value lines were nearly coincident, and 
doubtless would have so continued till 
the present time but for the demonetizing 
crime of silver in 1873. The past is a 
safe criterion by which to judge of the 
future. Experience, the great teacher, 
invokes legislation to restore bimetalism 
and to make as near as possible, the 
money ratio of silver to gold in conformity 
to the commodity values of the two met- 
als alike conditioned standing upon the 
same footing. In this event, the ratio 
would not likely exceed 16 to i, nor fall 
below 15 to i. Col. Irish says that 

"The basis of Mr. Jefferson's scientific con- 
clusion was the great economic truth that law 
cannot create value. ' ' 

True, the legal stamp placed upon gold 
or silver does not impart fineness or 
weight to the substance ; does not change 
its quality or quantity. But law in this 
case does create use, and use creates 
demand upon the world's metal mass, 
limited in quantity, and thereby creates 
value by enhancing its purchasing power. 
It matters not whether the means bind- 
ing together cause and effect is a single 
link or a chain. Law creates money, 
and " money by itself," says Aristotle, 
" has value only by law, and not by 
nature." " Money," says Professor An- 

drews, " is at best a measure of value by 
virtue of being itself a value. A metal 
not so already might however become 
more valuable by being made legal cur- 

With respect to the second proposition 
of Col. Irish, it is to be observed that the 
law of change is ever persistent, and 
varies in its operations in accord with 
the condition of things. In the time of 
Mr. Jefferson, comparatively little money 
was used in domestic transactions. Bar- 
ter, quasi-barter, and the so-called truck 
system, then largely performed the offices 
of money. At that period our foreign 
commerce, in comparison with our domes- 
tic involving the use of money, was 
deemed of vast importance, reaching in 
1800 $85,000,000.00, and in 1820 $115,- 
000,000.00. As applied to the conditions 
then obtaining in the country, the propo- 
sition that, "to trade on equal terms, the 
measure of value should be as nearly as 
possible on a par with the corresponding 
nation whose medium is in a sound state," 
is well worthy of its great author. 

But the conditions now are essentially 
different from those of that period. In 
1890, our foreign commerce, as by the 
United States Statistics, was $1,600,000,- 
ooo.oo nearly, and our domestic com- 
merce, according to Mr. Atkinson, $56,- 
000,000,000.00 our foreign being equal 
to 3 1-5 per cent only of our domestic 
commerce. Justice and wisdom require 
that legislation with respect to our system 
of money shall conform to these conditions. 
That is, if our monetary law is to be framed 
in the interests of commerce, let it con- 
form, so far as may be, to the ratio ; as 
3 1-5 per cent conducive to our foreign 
commerce, to 96 4-5 per cent conducive 
to our domestic. 

But in fact, our domestic commerce as 
determined by Mr. Atkinson, does not 
equal a tithe of the country's transactions 
requiring the use of money. Such being 



the case, the 31-5 per cent assigned to 
foreign commerce, reduces as to import- 
ance in our money problem, to a fraction 
too small to be heeded. 

No inconsiderable portion of our foreign 
commerce, amounting in 1890, to $i,- 
600,000,000.00, is with silver standard 
countries, the Orient and Spanish 
America. This will evidently, from now 
on, vastly increase. The prospects of 
rapid development of the immeasurable 
resources of those countries are bright 
with promise. In effecting those devel- 
opments, their demands upon our mar- 
kets for ships, railroad material, mach- 
inery, and other products will be 
immense. Our commerce with Europe, 
so far as imports are concerned, will 
necessarily greatly diminish as we en- 
large and perfect our manufactures. 
Wisdom, therefore, dictates that we 
cultivate commercial relations more as- 
siduously with the silver money countries 
than with the gold. Their markets are 
ours by nature, and will be so in practice 
if we are discreet and energetic. They 
are at our doors, while wide oceans in- 
tervene between them and our compet- 
itors. Our geographical position defies 
competition. Our monetary policy, so 
far as our foreign commerce is concerned, 
should be shaped in accord with these 
advantages. From a foreign commercial 
standpoint, it would be better for us to 
adopt the silver money standard rather 
than the gold ; but better still for us to 
adopt the bimetallic standard. 

The facts adduced in the preceding 
discussion, incontrovertibly show the pre- 
mises of Colonel Irish utterly impractic- 
able and inapplicable to the existing condi- 
tions of the country's financial and com- 
mercial affairs. Therefore, it logically fol- 
lows, that his conclusion, since it can have 
no higher value than his premises, is no 
less impracticable and inapplicable. Nor is 
it in consonance with the views of their 

author, Mr. Jefferson ; for his, as shown, 
were in favor of bimetalism. The con- 
clusion of Mr. Irish then is entitled to no 
higher dignity than merely his own 
notion without regard to his premises,. 
In its clause "permanent abandonment 
of the attempt by law to hold the metals at 
an unnatural parity on an artificial ratio." 
The term "unnatural," since "money 
by itself has value only by law and not 
by nature" seems redundant and to 
render the expression ambiguous. 

The notion of Col. Irish that "the 
policy of the United States should be the 
single gold standard as now," is subject 
to very grave objections, and will, if 
continued, ere long evidently bankrupt 
the country. Mr. John Sherman, largely 
responsible for the evils that have been 
wrecking the country for the last twenty 
years and upward, pleads guilty to the 
charge of participancy in the crime against 
silver against the people in 1873 ; sets 
forth the truths as to the effects of that 
crime, and for his execrable part therein, 
offers ignorance as his apology, than 
which, except fraud, it would be hard to 
find anything more humiliating. 

Thus in a letter of July i5th, 1878, to 
W. S. Grosbeck, he said: 

" During the monetary conference in Paris, 
when silver in our country was excluded from 
circulation by being undervalued" (the U. S. 
Statistics show that the commercial ratio of silver 
to gold was in 1873, i, and that running 
back to 1834, at no time had it been as great as 
16 to i) " 1 was strongly in favor of the single 
standard of gold, and wrote a letter which you 
will find in the proceedings of that conference, 
stating briefly my view. At that time the wisest 
of us did not anticipate the sudden fate of silver 
on the use of gold that has occurred. This un- 
certainty of the relation between the two metals 
is one of the chief arguments in favor of a mono- 
metallic system. But other arguments showing the 
dangerous Sffect upon industry by dropping one of the 
precious metals from the standard of value, outweigh 
in my mind all theoretical objections to the bimetallic 



John G. Carlisle never uttered more 
substantial truths than when he said, 
February 2ist, 1878 : 

" I know that the world's stock of precious 
metals is none too large, and I see no reason to 
apprehend that it will ever become so. Mankind 
will be fortunate, indeed, if the annual production 
of gold and silver coin shall keep pace with the 
annual increase of population, commerce and 
industry. According to my view of the subject, 
the conspiracy which seems to have been formed 
here and in Europe to destroy by legislation and 
otherwise from three-sevenths to one-half the 
metallic money of the world, is the most gigantic 
crime of this or any other age. The consumma- 
tion of such a scheme would ultimately entail 
more misery upon the human race than all the 
wars, pestilence and famine that ever occurred in 
the history of the world. The absolute and in- 
stantaneous destruction of half the movable 
property of the world, including horses, ships, 
railroads and all other appliances for carrying on 
commerce, while it would be felt more sensibly 
at the moment, would not produce anything like 
the prolonged distress and disorganization of 
society that must inevitably result from the per- 
manent annihilation of one-half of the metallic 
money of the world." 

At. the time these great truths were 
uttered by Mr. Sherman and Mr. Car- 
lisle, gold as a commodity had appreci- 
ated in the preceding six years 14.77 per 
cent; whereas since 1872 to the present 
time, it has Appreciated with respect to 
silver and general commodity 100 per 
cent and upward, and is still appreciating. 
The daily news informs us that European 
money operators are buying up gold at 
advanced rates, whije the prospect is not 
remote that our Treasury will be made 
again an humble suppliant to them for their 
hoarded gold on their own terms. The 
single gold standard has proven and is 
proving most disastrous to the country. 
Thus in 1866 our national debt was 
$2,773,000,000.00. At the prices at that 
time each of the following items would 
have paid it, viz: 1 29,000,000. bbls. of 
beef, or 87,000,000 bbls. of pork, or 
1,007,000,000 bush, of wheat, or 3,362,- 
350,000 bush, of oats, or 2,218,000,000 

bush, of corn, or 7,092,000,000 Ibs. of 
cotton ( 1 867) , or 2 1 3 , 307 ,000 tons of coal , 
or 24,110,000 tons of bar iron. 

Whereas, after paying the yearly in- 
terest and $1,701,020,473.00 of the prin- 
cipal, it would require to pay in products 
at prices in 1894, the remaining debt 
$1,071,979,527.00: 178,663,254 bbls. 
of beef, or 107,197,952 bbls. of pork, or 
2,143,958,014 bush, of wheat, or 4,287,- 
918,028 bush, of oats, or 3,970,294,174 
bush, of corn, or 15,313,993,242 Ibs. of 
cotton (1867), or 267,994,881 tons of 
coal, or 26,145,842 tons of bar iron. 

Thus conclusively showing that in con- 
sequence of the appreciated value of gold, 
it would require far more of the desig- 
nated products to pay the debt of 1894, 
than that of 1866 more by 49,663,254 
bbls. of beef, or 20,197,952 bbls. of pork, 
or 1,136,959,014 bush, of wheat, or 
1,025,568,028 bush, of oats, or 1,752,- 
294,174 bush, of corn, or 8,221,993,243 
Ibs. of cotton (1867), or 54,687,881 tons 
of coal, or 2,035,842 tons of bar iron. 

These, as seen, are staple products, 
and may be taken as fairly representing 
the relative debt paying power of gen- 
eral commodity at the respective dates 
named. In presence of the fact that the 
national debt is equal only to about one- 
fortieth part of the aggregate debt of the 
country principal and interest payable 
in gold the thoughtful American can 
but stand appalled. The national debt 
except the iniquitous bond portion of the 
last two. years was incurred when sil- 
ver and gold, at an established ratio be- 
tween them, were at par. And "just 
principles" demand that in its payment 
the dignity of silver shall not, in the 
least, be impaired demand that as far 
as possible, the payment of a debt, pub- 
lic or private, shall not be made in money 
varying in value from that of general 
commodity at the time the debt shall 
have been contracted. Money is good in 



proportion to its stability of value as 
compared with that of general commodity. 
Perfection in establishing a standard meas- 
ure of value seems unattainable. The 
standard least liable to fluctuation should 
evidently be adopted. Gold monometal- 
ism has proved highly fluctuating ap- 

preciated over 100 per cent in twenty- 
three years and should therefore be 
permanently abolished. Bimetalism long 
tested, proved highly efficient in perform- 
ing all the duties required of money, and 
therefore may safely be re-established, 
and ought so to be. 

Irving M. Scott. 

?# % 


ENCE to the law- 
ful command of 
a superior offi- 

The words rang in my ears as 1 dis- 
mounted and passed the reins over my 
horse's head, and allowed the animal to 
poke his nose among the dry pine needles 
which lay on the mountain trail. 1 tried 
to recall the exact phrasing of the article 
of war which seemed the most appro- 
priate to my offense. It might be con- 
sidered a clear case of disobedience to 
orders, the lawful command of my su- 
perior officer, and in that case, the 
twenty-first article of war, with its grew- 
some penalty of, "death or such other 
punishment as a court martial may di- 
rect," stared me in the face. Possibly, 
however, there were mitigating circum- 
stances to be considered in my favor and 
the court, if the members wished to deal 

leniently with me, might only find me 
guilty of "conduct to the prejudice of 
good order and military discipline," un- 
der the sixty-second article of war ; 
the "devil's article," as it is called by 
the soldiers, since it includes, in its com- 
prehensive scope, all offenders for whom 
a punishment to fit the crime may not be 
found under any other article of war. 

" What does it matter? " I groaned to 
myself. " What difference does it make 
what infernal article I am tried for vio- 
lating. I have only myself to thank for 
my ill luck. Had I done as l.was told to 
do, I might even now be back at the post 
with my prisoners." 

The rain was falling gently in the open 
spaces between the trees, and therefore I 
motioned to my squad of seven troopers 
to lead their mounts to the shelter of a 
clump of cedars on my right, and 1 turned 
my own horse over to the nearest man. 

Left to myself I turned over the events 



of the unlucky day in my mind. I re- 
called how, shortly after guard-mounting 
that same morning, the Colonel had sent 
for me to come at once to his office. 1 
wondered, as I hastened towards the 
Adjutant's office, if the time would ever 
come when the "compliments of the com- 
manding officer " would cease to strike a 
cold chill down my spinal column, and a 
vague presentiment of something dis- 
agreeable to follow. 

The Colonel, I found when 1 reached the 
august presence, was in an excited frame 
of mind ; but this did not surprise me, for 
we Subalterns in the Eleventh Horse were 
used to his fits of excitement over trifles. 
He was pacing up and down the limits of 
his Adjutant's office, his hands clinched 
behind his back, as if to prevent them 
from clawing this air or the hair of the 
nearest second lieutenant. 

"Mr. Romayne," he screamed in his 
high pitched voice, keeping up his walk, 
" The officer-of-the-day reports that two 
of our general prisoners deserters serv- 
ing sentence have escaped from the 
guard house. Something is always going 
wrong when Captain Jones is officer of 
the day ! You will take a detail of six 
men and a non-commissioned officer, and 
recapture these prisoners. You will also 
take the guide, Costello, with you, and 
be governed as to the direction the men 
have taken by what he says. He tells 
me they have gone up the Bear Pass trail 
and he knows every inch of the ground. 
So that is your route, and you ought to 
have no trouble in overtaking the rascals, 
don't be surprised if they resist arrest. 
They'll not come back without a strug- 

I listened in silence, saluted, and turned 
on my heel to carry out my orders. I 
must confess 1 felt discouraged at the 
threshold of my undertaking. I had not 
been long in the army, yet long enough 
to realize that no officer likes to be ham- 

pered with directions as to how he is to 
do what he is ordered to do. Most com- 
manding officers realize that they get the 
best results from their subordinates when 
they tell them simply to do a thing and 
leave them to determine the way to do 
it. I did not fancy the idea of being con- 
fined to the Bear Pass trail. Nor did I 
like having Costello, "Gopher Bill," 
the soldiers called him for a guide. 
From the first time I saw the greasy half- 
breed scout, I felt an unconquerable aver- 
sion for him. Like most young men I 
fancied myself a reader of character and 
I thought that 1 read " liar and rascal " in 
Gopher Bill's bearded face. 

We rode out of the three company 
post, which guarded the eastern end of 
the Indian reservation, at a quick trot, 
less than fifteen minutes after my inter- 
view with the Colonel. 1 rode my hardy 
sorrel gelding at the head of the little col- 
umn. Next came Gopher Bill, riding an 
Indian piebald pony, closely followed by 
a sergeant and six troopers in column of 
files ; for trails are very narrow in the 
White River country. 

I turned half way round in my saddle, 
as soon as we were out of the post, and 
said to Gopher Bill, " You know which 
trail the deserters took, do you? " 

" Yes, Lieutenant. The Bear Paw 
trail," he replied. 

" How do you know this ? " I asked. 

" Squaw man Joe saw them and passed 
them five miles up the Bear Paw trail, 
Lieutenant. 1 seen them turn in this 
way myself just after they was missed." 

" 1 believe you are lying to me," was 
my inward comment as we rode on. 

My distrust of the guide increased 
when I glanced down at the trail and 
failed to discover any signs of recent 
mule tracks in the dust. As we were 
leaving the corral the quartermaster 
sergeant had informed me that the escap- 
ing prisoners were, he thought, mounted 


on mules, which they had found near 
the guard house. 1 mentioned this to 
the guide. 

"Oh, no, Lieutenant, the quarter- 
master sergeant don't know nothin'. It 
was Injun ponies they rode and here are 
the tracks." 

I remembered that the Bear Paw trail 
was a favorite one with the Indians at 
certain seasons, which would account for 
the pony tracks. 1 felt more than ever 
convinced that the guide was deceiving 


me, and the prisoners had not taken this 

1 knew that the only remaining trail 
which they could take, which would 
lead them anywhere near a railroad 
(and deserters seek railroads as ducks do 
water), was the White Oak trail. 1 
also happened to remember that there is 
a " cut off" by way of the Bitter Root 
Creek trail to the White Oak from the 
Bear Paw, and that this cut off started 
just ahead of where we were then riding. 


" The guide is wrong," what, later in 
the day, I called my silly presentiment 
said to me. 

Obeying it, I motioned "Column 
right!" when we reached the cut off 
and we left the Bear Paw trail. The 
soldiers, of course, followed me with the 
unquestioning obedience of the regular. 
But Gopher Bill, his face livid with rage, 
tried to ride his horse abreast of mine 
and said in a voice shaking with passion: 

" The Lieutenant is dead wrong. 
This ain't the right trail. The men we 
are after are not very far ahead on the 
Bear Paw. We 'd better go back there, 
Lieutenant. 1 say we 'd better turn 

I told him to keep quiet. 1 knew what 
I was about. He muttered something in 

reply about the column and his orders 
and the Bear Paw trail. But I rode on, 
ignoring his grumbling. 

An hour later we struck the White 
Oak trail. To my chagrin and disap- 
pointment I saw nothing to indicate the 
recent passage of either mules or ponies, 
and the trail soon became so rocky and 
so confused that it took a more practiced 
eye than mine to discover any signs. 
The day wore on towards afternoon and 
our faithful horses, lagging along the 
rough trail, now at a slow walk, began 
to show signs of fatigue and thirst. I 
ordered a halt and Bill, the guide, ap- 
parently recovered from his ill humor, 
offered to go and look for water. 

We waited for him for nearly an hour, 
but, as he did not return, I concluded 



that he had either lost his way (not 
likely, however, as he knew the country), 
or else had returned to the post to pour 
his tale of woe into the colonel's ear. 
So we mounted and rode on. 

Two hours later the lengthening 
shadows warned me that the afternoon 
was well advanced, and still no sign of 
the fugitives. Then rain began to fall. 
Soon 1 again ordered a halt, and this 
brings me to the time mentioned at the 
outset of this narrative when I went 
over, mentally, the events of the day. 

I had to contemplate the disagree- 
able necessity of making [a dry camp 
where we were for the night; for it was 
not raining hard enough to enable us to 
catch any water, and there was no 
stream or spring, apparently, in all the 
region we had traversed. But the pro- 
spects for a dry camp were as a minor 
evil when I reflected that next day I 
must return to the post with used up 
horses, disgusted men, and the object of 
the expedition worse than not accom- 
plished, for had I not deliberately dis- 
obeyed my instructions and fully deserved 

VOL. xxviii. 3. 

my failure? A court-martial certainly 
awaited me at the very outset of my 
military career. It would be the " devil's 
article " at the very least. Good luck if 
it was no worse. 

With these melancholy forebodings, I 
left my detachment of soldiers, with 
orders to unsaddle the horses and picket 
them for the night, and strolled up the 
trail a little beyond our halting place, 
still hoping against hope for some signs 
of the men we were after. 

All at once I heard the murmur of 
voices some yards ahead. I stole on, 
silently, stooping behind the thick under- 
brush in the direction of the voices. 
From the top of a low knoll I suddenly 
perceived two men, crouching down before 
a partially concealed dug-out and busily 
engaged in putting the finishing touches 
to the rude cabin by piling up logs and 
brushwood before its low entrance. It 
was a surprise to me to see men at work 
in this remote spot, but as they wore 
civilian clothing, and looked like laborers 
and had their faces turned away from 
me, I did not believe that the two men I 




was looking for were before me. In fact 
my attention was distracted from them 
by the movements of a third man, whom 
I now perceived through the crevices 
and chinks between the logs which 
formed a rough barricade to the dug-out. 

Suddenly, whizz! a ball went by my 
head, almost grazing my cheek, immedi- 
ately followed by a loud report and smoke 
from the dug-out. The man within must 
have seen me at about the same time 
that I caught sight of him. 

My hand was at my holster in an 
instant and 1 had my revolver out and 
cocked. Another bullet went singing by 
my head. A large tree was within two 
feet of me. 1 stepped in rear of it and 
fired in the direction of the dug-out, just 
as the two men outside stepped behind 
the breastwork of logs, but not before I 
recognized them as the men 1 had been 
ordered to pursue and capture. 

My joy at finding them was allayed by 
the thought of the possible consequences 
to myself if 1 attempted their capture in 
their stronghold. It made me. uncom- 
fortable to remember how near those 
bullets had come ! 1 had but four more 
loaded chambers in my revolver. 1 
could but hope that the men of my party 
had heard the noise of the firing and 
would come to my assistance. 

Such indeed proved to be the case. 
The sergeant and four of the troopers, 
attracted by the reports, came running 
towards where 1 stood. I indicated to 
them where the men we wanted were 

All was now quiet within the dug-out. 
It was getting too dark to take anything 
like accurate aim. It was evident that 
the men in the dug-out were husbanding 
their 'ammunition, expecting that we 
would attempt their capture by assault. 
It ceased raining and the moon came up, 
making it lighter than before. Sandy 
Merrit, one of my detachment, and a 

soldier always fertile in resources, re- 
marked tentatively: 

" If the Leftenant says so, I'll smoke 
'em out! " 

There were plenty of stubble and 
brush lying around near the opening of 
the dug-out. The wind was blowing 
towards it. Merrit's suggestion seemed 
practicable. 1 said " Go ahead ! " 

He crept forward on his hands and 
knees, while the rest of us lay, with 
pistols cocked, behind such shelter as 
the trees and rocks afforded. An instant 
later a hissing noise and thick clouds of 
smoke arose between my party and the 
dug-out, coming from the damp and de- 
caying brushwood which Sandy had set 
on fire. It was an ill wind for those in 
the dug-out. It blew the place full of 

"Our game's up!" called out a 
choking voice. " We surrender ! " 

"Come out, then," 1 cried, "hands 
up ! One at a time." 

They did so, single file, hands up, be- 
ing covered by the revolvers of half my 
men, while the rest stepped forward to 
disarm and secure them. As the last 
one of the three stepped out into the 
moonlight, Sandy Merrit exclaimed, 

" Well, 1 Ml be gol darned if I ain't 
smoked out Gopher Bill ! " 

Sure enough, our late guide was now 
one of our captives. 

It was a weary march back to the fort 
next day for tired horses and men, and 
Gopher Bill seemed particularly possessed 
of "that tired feeling," as he tramped 
along leading his pony, under guard, 
doing what cavalry men call the "dough- 
boy act." It transpired that he had been 
bought up by the deserters some time 
before their escape from the guard house. 

We reached the fort during the sound 
off at retreat, when I at once reported 
my return to the commanding officer, 
together with the fact that I had taken a 



different trail from the one he had ordered 
me to take. It is unnecessary to add 
that I was not court-martialed. With 

soldiers failure is the only unpardonable 
sin and success sometimes crowns even 
disobedience to orders. 

J. A. Lock-wood, U. S. A. 



? WO hours steam south from 
Singapore out into the fa- 
mous Straits of Malacca, or 
one day's steam north from 
the equator, stands Raffles's 
Light-house. Sir Stamford 
Raffles, the man from whom it took its 
name, rests in Westminster Abbey, and 
a heroic-sized bronze* statue of him graces 
the center of the beautiful ocean esplan- 
ade of Singapore, the city he founded. 

It was on the rocky island on which 
stands this light, that we the mistress 
and 1 played Robinson Crusoe or, to 
be nearer the truth, Swiss Family Rob- 

It was hard to imagine, I confess, that 
the beautiful steam launch that brought 
us was a wreck ; that our half-dozen Chi- 
nese servants were members of the fam- 
ily ; that the ton of impedimenta was the 
flotsam of the sea : that the Eurasian 

keeper and his attendants were canni- 
bals ; but we closed our eyes to all dis- 
turbing elements, and only remembered 
that we were alone on a sun-lit rock in 
the midst of a sun-lit sea, and that the 
dreams of our childhood were, to some 
extent, realized. 

What live American boy has not had 
the desire, possibly but half-admitted, to 
some day be like his hero, dear old Cru- 
soe, on a tropical island, monarch of all, 
hampered by no dictates of society or 
fashion ? I admit my desire, and, further, 
that it did not leave me as I grew older. 

We had just time to inspect our little 
island home before the sun went down, 
far out in the Indian Ocean. 

Originally the island had been but a 
barren, uneven rock, the resting-place for 
gulls ; but now its summit has been made 
flat by a coating of concrete. There is 
just enough earth between the concrete 


and the rocky edges of the island to sup- 
port a circle of cocoanut-trees, a great 
almond-tree, and a queer-looking banyan- 
tree, whose wide-spreading arms extend 
over nearly half the little plaza. Below 
the light-house, and set back like caves 
into the side of the island, are the kitchen 
and the servants' quarters, a covered 
passageway connecting them with the 
rotunda of the tower, in which we have 
set our dining-table. 

Ah Ming, our "China boy," seemed 
to be inveterate in his determination to 
spoil our Swiss Family Robinson illusion. 
We are hardly settled before he came to 

" Mem " (mistress), "no have got 
ice-e-blox. Ice-e all glow away." 


" Very well, Ming. Dig a hole in the 
ground, and put the ice in it." 

" How can dig? Glound all same, hard 
like ice-e." 

"Well, let the ice melt," I replied. 
"Robinson Crusoe had no ice." 

In a half-hour Jim, the cook, came up 
to speak to the " Mem." He lowered his 
cue, brushed the creases out of his spot- 
less shirt, drew his face down, and com- 
menced : 

" Mem, no have got chocolate, how can 
make puddlin'? " 

1 laughed outright. Jim looked hurt. 

" Jim, did you ever hear of one Cru- 
soe ?" 

"No, Tuan!" (Lord.) 

" Well, he was a Tuan who lived for 



thirty years without once eating choco- 
late 'puddlinV We'll not eat any for 
ten days. Sabe? " 

Jim retired, mortified and astonished. 

Inside of another half-hour, the Tukang 
Ayer or water carrier arrived on the 
scene. He was simply dressed in a pair of 
knee-breeches. He complained of a lack 
of silver polish, and was told to pound up 
a stone for the knives, and let the silver 

We are really in the heart of a small 
archipelago. All about us are verdure- 
covered islands. They are now the 
homes of native fishermen, but a century 
ago they were hiding-places for the fierce 
Malayan pirates whose sanguinary deeds 
made the peninsula a byword in the 
mouths of Europeans. 

A rocky beach extends about the island 
proper, contracting and expanding as the 
tide rises and falls. On this beach a 
hundred and one varieties of shells glisten 
in the salt water, exposing their delicate 
shades of coloring to the rays of the sun. 
Coral formations of endless design and 
shape come to view through the limpid 
spectrum, forming a perfect submarine 
garden of wondrous beauty. Through the 
shrubs, branches, ferns and sponges of 
coral, the brilliantly colored fish of the 
Southern seas sport like gold-fish in some 
immense aquarium. 

We draw out our chairs within the 
protection of the almond-tree, and watch 
the sun sink slowly to a level with the 
masts of a bark that is bound for Java 
and the Borneoan coasts. The black, 
dead lava of our island becomes molten 
for the time, and the flakes of salt left on 
the coral reef by the out-going tide are 
filled with suggestions of the gold of the 
days of '49. A faint breeze rustles among 
the long, fan-like leaves of the palm, and 
brings out the rich yellow tints with their 
background of green. A clear, sweet 
aroma comes from out the almond-tree. 

The red sun and the white sheets of the 
bark sail away together for the Spice 
Islands of the South Pacific. 

We sleep in a room in the heart of the 
light-house. The stairway leading to it 
is so steep that we find it necessary to 
hold on to a knotted rope as we ascend. 
Hundreds of little birds, no larger than 
sparrows, dash by the windows, flying 
into the face of the gale that rages during 
the night, keeping up all the time a sharp, 
high note that sounds like wind blowing 
on telegraph wires. 

Every morning, at six o'clock, Ah Ming 
clambers up the perpendicular stairway, 
with tea and toast. We swallow it hur- 
riedly, wrap a sarong about us, and take 
a dip in the sea, the while keeping our 
eyes open for sharks. Often, after a 
bath, while stretched out in a long chair, 
we see the black fins of a man-eater 
cruising just outside the reef. 1 do not 
know that I ever hit one, but I used a 
good deal of lead firing at them. 

One morning we started on an explor- 
ing expedition, in the keeper's jolly-boat. 
It was only a short distance to the first 
island, a small rocky one, with a bit of 
sandy beach, along which were scattered 
the charred embers of past fires. From 
under our feet darted the grotesque little 
robber crabs, with their stolen shell 
houses on their backs. A great white 
jelly-fish, looking like a big tapioca pud- 
ding, had been washed up with the tide 
out of the reach of the sea, and a small 
colony of ants was feasting on it. We 
did not try to explore the interior of the 
islet. We named it Fir Island from its 
crown of fir-like casuarina-trees, which 
sent out on every breeze a balsamic odor 
that was charged with tar-away New 
England recollections. 

The next island was a large one. The 
keeper said it was called Pulo Seneng, or 
Island of Leisure, and held a little cam- 
pong, or village of Malays, under an old 


Punghulo, or chief, named Wahpering. 
We found, on nearing the verdure-cov- 
ered island, that it looked much larger 
than it really was. The woods grew out 
into the sea for a quarter of a mile. We 
entered the wood by a narrow walled 
inlet, and found ourselves for the first 
time in a mangrove swamp. The trees 
all seemed to be growing on stilts. A 
perfect labyrinth of roots stood up out of 
the water, like a rough scaffold, on which 
rested the tree trunks, high and dry 
above the flood. From the limbs of the 
trees hung the seed pods, two feet in 
length, sharp-pointed at the lower end, 
while on the upper end, next to the tree, 
was a russet pear-shaped growth. They 
are so nicely balanced that when in their 
maturity they drop from the branches, 
they fall upright in the mud, literally 
planting themselves. 

The Punghnlo's house, or bungalow, 
stood at the end of the inlet. The old 
man he must have been sixty 
donned his best clothes, relieved his 
mouth of a great red quid of betel, and 
came out to welcome us. He gracefully 
touched his forehead with the back of his 
open palm, and mumbled the Malay 
greeting : 

" Tabek, Titan ? " (How are you, my 

When the keeper gave him our cards, 
and announced us in florid language, the 
genial old fellow touched his forehead 
again, and in his best Bugis Malay begged 
the great Rajah and Ranee to enter his 
humble home. 

The only way of entering a Malay 
home is by a rickety ladder six feet high, 
and through a four-foot opening. I am 
afraid that the great "Rajah and Ranee" 
lost some of their lately acquired dignity 
in accepting the invitation. 

Wahpering's bungalow, other than be- 
ing larger and roomier than the ordinary 
bungalow, was exactly like all others in 
style and architecture. 

It was built close to the water's edge, 
on palm posts six feet above the ground. 
This was for protection from the tiger, 
from thieves, from the water, and for 
sanitary reasons. Within the house we 
could just stand upright. The floor was 
of split bamboo, and was elastic to the 
-foot, causing a sensation which at first 
made us step carefully. The open places 
left by the crossing of the bamboo slats 
were a great convenience to the Pung- 
hulo' s wives, as they could sweep all the 
refuse of the house through them ; they 
might also be a great accomodation to 
the Punghulo' s enemies, if he had any, 
for they could easily ascertain the exact 
mat on which he slept, and stab him 
with their keen krises from beneath. 

In one corner of the room was the 
hand loom on which the Punghulo' s old 
wife was weaving the universal article of 
dress, the sarong. 

The weaving of a sarong represents 
the labor of twenty days, and when we 
gave the dried-up old worker two dollars 
and a half for one, her syrj//-stained 
gums broke forth from between her 
bright-red lips in a ghastly grin of pleas- 

There must have been the repre- 
sentatives of at least four generations 
under the Pimg/iulo's hospitable roof. 
Men and women, alike, were dressed in 
the skirt-like Sarong which fell from the 
waist down ; above that some of the 
older women wore another garment called 
a Kabaya. The married women were 
easily distinguishable by their swollen 
gums and filed teeth. 

The roof and sides of the house were 
of attap. This is made from the long, 
arrow-like leaves of the nipah palm. 
Unlike its brother palms the cocoa, 
the sago, the gamooty, and the areca 
the nipah is short, and more like a giant 
cactus in growth. Its leaves are stripped 
off by the natives, then bent over a bam- 
boo rod and sewed together with fibers 



of the same palm. When dry they be- 
come glazed and waterproof. 

The tall, slender areca palm, which 
stands about every campong, supplies the 
natives with their great luxury an 
acorn, known as the betel-nut, which 
when crushed and mixed with lime leaves, 
takes the place of our chewing tobacco. 
In fact, the bright-red juice seen oozing 
from the corners of a Malay's mouth is 
as much a part of himself as is his sarong 
or kris. Betel-nut chewing holds its own 
against the opium of the Chinese and 
the tobacco of the European. 

As soon as we shook hands ceremoni- 
ously with the Punghulo's oldest wife, 
and tabehed to the rest of his big family, 
the old man scrambled down the ladder, 
and sent a boy up a cocoanut tree for 
some fresh nuts. In a moment half a 
dozen of the great oval green nuts came 
pounding down into the sand. Another 
little fellow snatched them up, and with 
a sharp parang, or hatchet-like knife, cut 
away the soft shuck until the cocoanut 
took the form of a pyramid, at the apex 
of which he bored a hole and a stream of 
delicious cool milk gurgled out. We 
needed no second invitation to apply our 
lips to the hole. The meat inside was so 
soft that we could eat it with a spoon. 
The cocoanut of commerce .contains 
hardly a suggestion of the tender fleshy 
pulp of a freshly-picked nut. 

We left the Punghulo's house with the 
old chief in the bow of our boat he in- 
sisted upon seeing that we were properly 
announced to his subjects and pro- 
ceeded along the coast for half a mile, 
and then up a swampy lagoon to its 

The tall tops of the palms wrapped 
everything in a cool green- twilight. The 
waters of the lagoon were filled with 
little bronze forms, swimming and sport- 
ing about in its tepid depths regardless 
of the cruel eyes that gleamed at them 

from great log-like forms among the man- 
grove roots. 

Dozens of naked children fled up the 
rickety ladders of their homes as we ap- 
proached. Ring-doves flew through the 
trees, and tame monkeys chattered at 
us from every corner. The men came 
out to meet us, and did the hospitalities 
of their village ; and when we left our 
boat was loaded down with presents of 
fish and fruit. 

Almost every day after that did we 
visit the campong, and were always wel- 
comed in the same cordial manner. 

Wahpering was tireless in his atten- 
tions. He kept his Sampan Besar, or big 
boat, with its crew at our disposal day 
after day. 

One day I showed him the American 
flag. He gazed at it thoughtfully and 
said, "Baik!" (Good.) " How big your 
country ?'*' I tried to explain. He lis- 
tened for a moment. "Big as Negri 
Blanda?" (Holland.) I laughed. "A thou- 
sand times larger!" The old fellow shook 
his head sadly, and looked at me re- 

" Tidah! Tidah!" (No, no.) "Rajah. 
Orang Blanda ( Dutchman ) show me 
chart of the world. Holland all red. 
Take almost all the world. Rest of coun- 
tries small, small. All in one little cor- 
ner. How can Rajah say his country 

There was no denying the old man's 
knowledge ; I, too, had seen one of 
these Dutch maps of the world, which 
are circulated in Java to make the natives 
think that Holland is the greatest nation 
on earth. 

One day glided into another with sur- 
prising rapidity. We could swim, ex- 
plore, or lie out in our long chairs, and 
read and listlessly dream. All about our 
little island the silver sheen of the sea 
was checkered with sails. These strange 
native craft held for me a lasting fascin- 



ation. I gazed out at them as they 
glided by, and saw in them some of the 
rose-colored visions of my youth. Piracy, 
Indian Rajahs and Spice Islands seemed 
to live in their queer red sails and palm- 
matting roofs. At night a soft warm 
breeze blew from off shore and lulled us 
to sleep ere we were aware. 

One morning the old chief made us a 
visit before we were up. He announced 
his approach by a salute from a muzzle- 
loading musket. I returned it by a dis- 
charge from my revolver. He had come 
over with the morning tide to ask us to 
spend the day, as his guests, wild-pig 
hunting. Of course we accepted with 
alacrity. 1 am not going to tell you how 
we found all the able-bodied men and 
dogs on the island awaiting us, how they 
beat the jungle with frantic yells and 
shouts while we waited on the opposite 
side, or even how many pigs we shot. It 
would all take too long. 

We went fishing every day. The many- 
colored and many-shaped fish we caught 
were a constant wonderment to us. One 
was bottle-green, with sky-blue fins and 
tail, and striped with lines of gold. Its 
skin was stiff and firm as patent leather. 
Another was pale-blue, with a bright-red 
proboscis two inches long. We caught 
cuttle-fish with great lustrous eyes, long 
jelly feelers and a plentiful supply of 
black fluid ; squibs, prawns, muletts, 
crabs and devil-fish. These last are con- 

sidered great delicacies by the natives. 
We had one fried. Its meat was perfect- 
ly white, and tasted like a tallow candle. 

The day on which we were to leave, 
Wahpering brought us some fruit and 
fish and a pair of ring-doves. Motioning 
me to one side he whispered, the while 
looking shyly at the mistress, "Ranee 
very beautiful ! How much you pay ?" 
I was staggered for the moment, and 
made him repeat his question. This 
time I could not mistake him. " How 
much you pay for wife ?" He gave his 
thumb a jerk in the direction of the 
mistress. I saw that he was really seri- 
ous, so I collected my senses, and, with 
a practical, business-like air, answered, 
" Two hundred dollars." The old fellow 

"The great Rajah very rich ! I. pay 
fifty for best wife." 

I have not tried to tell you all we did 
on our tropical Island playing Robinson 
Crusoe, I have only tried to convey some 
little impression of a happy ten days that 
will ever be remembered as one more of 
those glorious, oriental chapters in our 
lives which are filled with the gorgeous 
colors of crimson and gold, the delicate 
perfumes of spice-laden breezes and with 
imperishable visions of a strange, old- 
world life. 

They are chapters that we can read 
over and over again with an ever-in- 
creasing interest as the years roll by. 
Rounsevelle Wildman. 


MOT two, but one is Life and Death: 

Life is where God doth breathe his breath. 
Death is, of Life, its silent side, 
A shore left lone by ebbing tide. 
Life ebbs and flows, a tide of force, 
Itself the tide, itself the source. 

W. H. Platt. 


The last decade of the Twentieth Cen- 
tury imposes upon the brain an incessant 
travail; the dead walls themselves con- 
spire to disturb the repose of sight and 
spirit; the changing decoration of each 
day, however busy one may be, however 
skeptical one may be, forces attention to 
the arabesque designs in the drawing 
and, mayhap, causes an investigation of 
the bright colors against the dismal gray 
of the city's walls. 

For the purpose of striking more surely 
and convincing beyond doubt, the ad- 
vertiser has allied himself to art; he has 
called to his aid the poetry of allegory, 
and the beauty of dress has opened up 
unexpected avenues of success and, the 
unrestricted regard of the esthete. 

'' He that runs may read." And the 
world has followed the metamorphosis of 
the poster, from the ancient wood cut, 
with the accompaniment of a horrible 
typography, unattractive and disfiguring, 
into the beautiful symbolism of the 
modern poster. 

In referring to posters the current 
issue of the Book Leaf says : 

A good poster attracts the eye of the passer-by. 
So far it surprises only; and for this purpose 
alone might very properly be a splash of crimson 
ink on a field of white. A good poster also tells 
the passer-by something, in a glance; and for 
this purpose it must almost of necessity contain 
a line or more of print. For these two purposes 
alone the poster might be a splash of crimson 
ink on a field of white with a line of information 
below. But a good poster should also convey 
by the picture in it, at a second glance, a thought 
to the passer-by. For this purpose the poster 
might be a crimson cat chased by a yellow dog 
up a sea-green tree. But a good poster must not 
only catch the eye and give a word of informa- 
tion, and by its picture suggest a story it should 

also in its pictorial part, so tell the story as to 
please. We come then to the problem. 

The crimson cat, the yellow dog and the sea- 
green tree may be a combination discordant as to 
color, in no way striking, and as to the idea it 
conveys not necessarily suggestive of anything 
beneath the surface. Whereas, the ideal poster- 

should be suggestive of much, should give by its 
color combination an agreeable sensation, and 
should, to the thoughtful mind at least, suggest 
something, start a train of ideas. 

As a matter of fact the development of the 
poster art in recent years has done much more 



than furnish us with wall signs which tell us 
agreeably and quickly of this, that and the other 
commodity for sale. Posters of the Bradley and 
Beardsley kind have given many people, for the 
first time in their lives, an idea of the artistic 
possibilities which lie in black and white, and of 
the agreeable sensations which may be derived 
from the contemplation of nothing more than a 
beautiful combination of lines. Colored posters 
have given the lie, and very justly, to much of 
the current education in regard to appropriate 
and pleasing color-combinations; and have, more- 
over, opened the eyes of many people to the fact 
that a picture may be broad, and bold, and strik- 
ing, and in its details unnaturally distorted, and 
yet pleasing and full of suggestion. 

Jules Cheret, " master of the poster," 
recreated the art of poster drawing and 
designing some thirty years ago. With 
a gradual growth, aided by the pro- 
fessional and the amateur, by the 
Beardsley and the Bradley, this peculiar 
art has attained its full efflorescence in 
the modern poster. 

The Editor of Paper and Press in an 
article on "tendency illustrating," re- 
marks on Beardsley and his particular 
school in poster art : 



The Beardsley influence may, it is true, prove 
a check upon the tendency of present-day artists 
to imitate Abbey, C. D. Gibson and others, but 
it only means diverting their thought and the 
formation of their style in the direction of 
Beardsley himself and it is a question whether 
this is desirable. Wanting in subjective purity 
purity of its models without which no art can 
hope to endure, it is, moreover, a stimulus to de- 
generate canons in illustrative and decorative 
work, and a fountain of undesirable images for 


-[- 7 14 21 25 
W J 3 I? 22 29 
T 2 9 16 2> 
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popular taste to contact with. Its main tendency 
is in the direction of the sensuous elements of 
human nature, and while it may be very practical 
and certain of applause in its appeal to the animal 
side of mankind, it is none the less a fact that 
this part of us needs no such fuel to make it burn 
fiercely. The types which art is here used to 
interpret appeal by their impure character. Few 
would care to admit that they are true to human 
nature, in any other than its lowest sense. 

While this may in a measure be true, 
there remains that fact that a great 
impetus has been given to the better 
class of advertising and that the illustra- 
tive feature in commercial propaganda 

Auauit I&95T 

has come to stay. Why there should be 
a check to the imitation of the splendid 
healthy drawing of Gibson and Abbey 
the writer does not state. The artists 
mentioned are neither of them decorators 
or poster makers and in their own parti- 
cular field are pre-eminent and worthy 
of all following. 

The many poster competitions of The 
Century Company and other magazines, 
The Fourth Estate and the great dailies of 
New York, The Journal, Herald and 
World, has been of great encouragement 

to the arts of designing, engraving and 
printing and to the shrewd advertiser 
has brought the "dollars of our daddies." 
In these days of presidential campaign, 
it is astonishing that the American politi- 
cian has not yet adopted the poster route 
to reach his constituency, in imitation of 
the French and English politicians. The 
following under the head of " The Poster 


,, Ylp- 




in Politics," is a clear exposition of the 
methods of the seeker for public favor 
across the pond : 

The librarian of the British Museum has issued 
a special appeal to all candidates in the recent 
English elections to forward to him for preserva- 
tion in the archives of that great national library 
copies of bills, placards and pictures which they 
have issued for the purpose of influencing electors. 
Such a collection will undoubtedly be valuable to 




the future historian, and a glance at this 
literature, which came into existence dur- 
ing the English political campaign of 
1895, may serve as a suggestion to the 
politicians who are making American his- 
tory and who so far have not availed 
themselves as extensively as our English 
relations of this form of appeal to the 
voter. The most noteworthy instance of 
the use of the poster in this country was 
during our presidential campaign of 1892, 
when several effective "protection," 
"free trade," and "force bill" cartoons 
were sent out by the National Democratic and 
Republican committees. These exerted a power- 
ful influence in many quarters, especially the 
" force bill " poster in the South. 

A whole volume of congressional eloquence 
may be condensed into a single placard. One 
effective picture in glaring color or bold black 
and white may bring home a political lesson or 
point a moral far better than all the oratory of 
the platform or all the appeals of the pulpit. 
Mural literature has a great advantage over 
other propaganda. Like wisdom in the book of 
Proverbs, the placard cries aloud in the main 
thoroughfares. It stands at the corners of the 
streets. It forces itself upon your attention the 
moment you stir outside your doors. Men can 
afford to read newspapers, they can absolutely 
abjure the public meeting, they can bundle the 
newspapers into the gutter, but unless they shut 
their eyes they cannot prevent themselves from 
seeing the pictures, cartoons and caricatures with 











me Devil 
Deep Sea 





which the party bill-sticker may cover the avail- 
able walls which he must pass when he takes 
his walks abroad. Mr. Carlyle has told us how 
in the hot fever of the French Revolution the 
newspapers preferred the circulation which they 
obtained by means of the bill-sticker to the cir- 
culation secured by the ordinary method of sub- 
scription. It would be possible to construct from 
the placards and pictures issued during the recent 
English election a very faithful and accurate pic- 
ture of the condition of the mind of England 
when the last appeal was made to the country. 
T^eview of Reviews. 

Of course every success brings its 
attendant evils, and in some instances 
the poster designer has reached such a 
degree of atrociousness that it has called 
for a large amount of criticism. This to 
the merchant means money, for criticism 
is advertising; it is notice; the poster has 
in this way reached its destination, mak- 
ing it a profitable investment. 

Grace McGowan Cooke writes in the 
Chattanooga Sunday Times regarding an 
article on the poster in a recent number 
of the OVERLAND, in the following enter- 
taining strain : 

K. Porter Garnett writes of "The Poster," 
and numerous examples of poster work illustrate 
this and an article on "The Arts and Crafts," 
a San Francisco association. 

This poster craze, and a certain trend this 
poster disigning has taken, brings Max Nordau 
and his theories prominently to mind. 

Most of the examples given in this OVER- 
LAND article are admirable designs this can be 
said especially of those posters which were de- 
signed for OVERLAND itself but room is given, 
of course, for some work by Aubrey Beardsley 
and his likes. 

Nothing but Nordau's degeneration theory will 
explain why a man who can draw well deliber- 
ately chooses to draw ill nay, why he draws 
worse than anybody ever could draw before, and 
then calls upon the world to see that he has 
made a discovery in art, and founded a new 

That the world obediently "sees" should 
make no difference to sane people. When a 


PRK I Sl^>< > Nil. 



4 8 


thing purporting to be the picture of a woman, 
and occupying the center of one of these produc- 
tions, partakes of the nature of a serpent, seems 
to be own cousin to a flamingo, shows a tend- 
ency to sport fins like a fish; when the astonished 
gazer is fain to exclaim with good man Polonius, 
" By the mass, 't is like a camel, indeed ; " to 
find with him that " it is backed like a weasel," 
and wind up with the opinion that it is "very 
like a whale," one begins to see that there must 
be something a trifle out of joint with the 

We are told, too, that the coloring of these 
eccentricities is as atrocious as the outlining. 
The miserable manner being heretofore limited 
to advertisements and posters, is being applied to 
illustration by some of the minor magazines, and 
nothing could be more atrocious in effect. 

However it may be, as regarded from 
the standpoint of Miss Cooke, the poster 
that through its beauty of line, its marked 
contrast, or its softness in color, or "atro- 
ciousness' ' of design has caught comment, 
has by that very fact a " raison d'etre." 
Then again, it must be remembered that 
the average citizen is not a judge of 
beauty, and that the artist who designed 
the poster only goes a very short way 
toward giving the general public, the 
" average citizen," a liberal education in 

One of the poster competitions that 
generally attracted attention from the 
professional was that of the Fourth Estate. 
Of the design accepted and to which the 
first prize was awarded the Fourth Estate 
has this to say : - 

" Forever " is the badge borne by the figure 
representing Journalism, or The Press, which 
the judges of the Fourth Estate's art competition 
unanimously decided to be the winner. Forever 
is the right word. It stands for the truth that is 
eternal. It might also be considered to tell of the 
continuous labor that is characteristic of the 
journalist. Undoubtedly it speaks of the life 
that shall last with the freedom of speech in a 
land of liberty. 

Forever is a fortunate word, well chosen, and 
was a lucky token for the artist whose drawing 
was found superior by three shrewd judges. 
His artistic conception of the press is worthy of 
the prize we offered. 

She stands with the sword under sandaled 
foot, and the pen in place of the sword at her 
side. There is nothing commonplace in this 
illustration of the familiar line, " The pen is 
mightier than the sword." 

Her face is strong, fearless and fair. The eyes 
are large, with intelligent observation and tem- 
pered by the merciful knowledge of the weakness 
of men. The mouth is generous, big and sym- 
pathetic. The chin is firmly but roundly 

Journalism surmounts two hemispheres, joined 
by the wires that flash the news of each to the 
other. She holds a trumpet, that all may hear. 
Her head is crowned with a halo of stars. The 
whole conception is new, dignified and worthy. 

As the poet has been wont to woo his muse, so 
now the journalist has a being to worship, an 
idealization of the spirit that makes honorable 
the servitude of labor. He has a goddess to 
listen to his shop talk, one to rouse his ambition 
for the glory attached to the profession. Plodding 
through the darkness in his search for news, or 
hurrying in the light on the way to his assign- 
ment, he has with him, if he will, a fair com- 

Journalism is represented by a figure symbolic 
of its spirit Its influence, resources and dignity 
have been cleverly pictured. The greatest power 
of civilization acquires the personality that art 
has given to other callings. 

Some may object to the press wearing angels' 
wings, and suggest that they should have been 
like those that carry bats on their nightly flights, 
the sort supposed to bear misguided spirits from 
one hot perch to another. It would be futile to 
argue with them, for they are blinded with self- 
righteousness, or having felt the power of the 
press have howled hideously in fright, at the 
sight of sheets whose mission is enlightenment, 
and whose ways are those that work for the 
public weal. 

The Outing Company has not been 
behind in the matter of posters, and while 
the rapacity of the average newsdealer 
has not allowed many of those issued for 
Outing to reach the Pacific Coast, there 
are a few samples in the local collections. 
The drawings have been such as to con- 
form with the publication's ends and 
aims, and the subjects have been hunting 
scenes, or scenes in yachting or summer 
outings. A notable poster for this house 
is that of February, 1896. Here the 




POST NO Bills. 




I'llstickthis up anyway 

Its for the good of the 


publisher has either purposely 
or carelessly expurgated the 
name of the artist from a really 
fine piece of work. The poster 
work of Outing has generally 
been confined to one or two 

Who can doubt the efficacy of 
the modern poster as an adver- 
tising medium, when the success 
attained in one month by The 
Black Cat is remembered ? The 
posters for The Black Cat are 
from the pen of Nellie Little- 
hale Umbstaedter. a former Cali- 
fornian. They are remarkable 
for their simplicity of design and 
for their lack of resemblance to 
the chat noir, the prototype in 
idea of name, but not of con- 
tents. While the French cat is 
of the same color, there is a 
purity of tone and a chasteness 
of morals in the American cousin 
that is strictly Bostonian, and up 
to date in all that is considered 
good literature. It will be of 
interest to art lovers to know 
that James Swinnerton received his first 
tuition in drawing from Nellie Littlehale 






VOL. xxviii. 4. 


R. C. Masten, the ad-smith of the B. F. 
Goodrich Co., of Akron, Ohio, has done 
much to popularize poster art, and inci- 
dentally, by booklet and poster, he has 
benefitted his firm and brought it more 
prominently before the public. The post- 
ers used by this Company have not been 
burdened by intricacy of design, nor have 
they been of the class of high art requir- 
ing a guide book, for the better under- 
standing of the masses. " Miss Foote of 
Chicago" which we reproduce is a sam- 
ple of the "catchy" poster put out by 
this Company. Mr. Masten has issued 
booklets that are gems in their way, all 
in the line of pictorial advertising, nota- 
bly, "Every Man His Own Pocket 
Book," " How to Breathe Easily," " Mar- 
tha and John," " Things Are Not What 
They Seem," " Social Distinctions of 
Hard Rubber," and " The Diary of a 

What magazine reader is there that 
does not recall the posters issued by the 
Lundborg perfumery people, the beautiful 
Japanese designs and the later pictures 

by Louis Rhead ? The pictorial adver- 
tising of this firm is perfectly en rapport 
with the article advertised; there is the 
smell of sweet flowers and new mown 
hay, the fresh red cheeks of an early 
morning maid, taking a stroll through 
caressing grasses, under the shadows of 
the foliage of the still drowsy trees. 
True, this is the day of the designer, 
many of whom never get beyond the 
design and never to the finished picture, 
the first fragmentary thoughts unbur- 
dened by the weight of the finish that so 
generally spoils the picture. 

The Adams and Westlake Company of 
Chicago are to the fore with a practical 
commercial poster advertising the Adlake 
Bicycle. Cissy Fitzgerald, Delia Fox and 
Nat Goodwin, with Francis Wilson on 
the left are represented as riding their 
wheel into public favor. The drawing is 
exceptionally good, and the good-natured 



\ M i TU r 





face of Cissy Fitzgerald is especially at- 
tractive. This poster has received an 
unusual amount of comment from the 
different cycle papers, on account of its 
artistic beauty and its simplicity. The 
Adlake people have made a mistake in 
not placing the name of their artist upon 
this meritorious piece of work. 

The Chicago Photo Engraving Com- 
pany has produced some of the best post- 
ers for commercial purposes, in bright 
combinations of colors that cannot fail to 
attract the eye. The drawing is uni- 
formly good and the subject such as to 
arrest and retain the attention of the 
passerby. The poster " Alone," which 
we reproduce, is a fair sample of their 
work. It is strong in value and correct 
in drawing and tells its story at a glance. 
The picture of the child and the hares is 
a very pleasant conceit in the calendar 
line by Denslow, a former Californian. 

The clean cut drawing and beautiful 
lines of Louis J. Rhead, the sweet faces 
of his women are fittingly used by James 
Pyle & Son in advertising their Pearline. 
This firm makes an offer to forward to 
any one a Louis Rhead poster on receipt 
of ten cents in stamps. The posters used 
by James Pyle & Son have been of such 
unusual artistic merit that they have been 
published in The Ladies Home Journal and 
Scribner's Magazine. The same artist has 
applied his hand to a poster for The 
Packer Manufacturing Company. This 
is considered one of Mr. Rhead's best 
designs. A fair woman is represented 
holding a mass of beautiful blonde hair 
for inspection. The drawing is good, and 
as in nearly all of Mr. Rhead's, it tells the 
story at first glance. The design is dec- 
orative and embodies the proper propor- 
tion of commercial and artistic merit, a 
combination in which so many designs 

Soon after the article on Posters in the 
March number of the OVERLAND was 

published the Editor was in receipt of a 
letter from T. Fisher Unwin in regard to 
the unauthorized use of an English poster 
by the publishing house of Copeland and 
Day. The letter is here published : 


April ist, 1896. 


San Francisco. 
TDear Sir: 

My attention has just been called to the March 
number of your journal containing an . rticle on 
the Poster. On page 299 I notice that you are 
using without my permission a copyright poster 
by Mr. Beardsley. This design was done for 
me, at my suggestion, in accordance with my 
wishes, and the artist paid for it. It was pre- 
pared for the purpose of advertising a series of 
my books entitled the Autonym Library. This 
poster was used throughout England and indeed 
distributed in other countries and also used as 
a*block in various advertisements. I found that 
it was being used by Messrs. Copeland & Day 
of Boston to advertise an English periodical, viz: 
The Yellow Book, which they sold in U. S. A. 
On my calling their attention to the .-atter they 
apologized, and I must now call your attention 
to it and request some explanation. Certainly 
if you are paid for the use of this block, I need 
hardly point out that you have not paid the pro- 
prietor or even the artist. Of course your action 
in the matter is one that I cannot understand 
and I must request an explanation. 
Faithfully yours, 


Of course the OVERLAND was in no 
wise to blame for reproducing a poster 
so widely distributed by the Yellow 

69 CORNHILL, Boston, June 2, 1896. 

"Dear Sirs: 

Replying to your letter of the 23d ultimo, per- 
mit us to say that we can imagine no cause 
whatever for any action on your part regarding 
Mr. Unwin's letter. 1 That we had a very dis- 
agreeable correspondence with Mr. Unwin is 
quite true, but that he accepted any apology of 
ours is quite the reverse. That there is no legal 
point in Mr. Unwin's attitude, is notorious; and 
we are fully convinced that after the above men- 

i The editorial in the New York Evening Post quoted 
elsewhere explains the matter fully. 


tioned correspondence is taken into consideration 
the moral ground is entirely on this side of the 

Yours very truly, 

P. S. 

If, however, you wish to see extracts from 
these letters which passed between us and Lon- 
don we will be glad to have them made for 

Had the OVERLAND known of any 
misunderstanding between Mr. T. Fisher 
Unwin and Messrs. Copeland and Day, 
it is possible that Mr. Beardsley's Poster 
would not have appeared in the maga- 
zine. Whatever the OVERLAND'S sense 
of humor may or may not have been, 
essentially unenglish wit was sufficient 
to make clear that the reproduction of a 
poster for the mere purpose of illustrating 
a certain class of art is no more a theft 
than the use of a photograph or sketch 
of the view as a matter of art of a land 
owners property. 

Mr. Unwin rushes into print and this 
is what the New York Evening Post has 
to say in the matter: 

British stupidity, in the presence of a crackling 
American joke, has had may grievous tales told 
of it, but the stupidest Englishman yet held up 
to ridicule for not seeing the point is a London 
publisher. He had issued and copyrighted in 
England a high-priced poster, designed for one 
of his series of books, and was somewhat sur- 
prised to find it reproduced, without authoriza- 
tion, in the OVERLAND MONTHLY of San Fran- 
cisco. A letter of polite protest to the editor 
brought back a note in which the whole trouble 
was traced to the well-known lack of humor in 
the English character. The editor could not see 
that he was at all to blame, or that "there is any 
explanation due you." Coming to the real 
point, he added: "An American publisher would 
have looked on the whole matter as a joke, but 
of course British insularity prevents appreciation 
in this line." The inference is clear that an 
American, brought up on a broad continent, 
would split with laughter at the merry conceit 
of taking his property without pemission or ac- 
knowledgment. We must say, however, that 
we have known more than one American pub- 
lisher, with nothing insular or British about him, 

who had but the smallest "appreciation in this 
line." In fact, we believe Americans would 
rival even the Scotch in joking "wi'deefee- 
culty," when the point of the jest lies in stealing 
their goods. 

It has been notorious that the proclivi- 
ties of The Evening Post were English, 
but it may safely be inferred that no one 
ever had a thought that this degeneracy 
would show itself in an invasion of 
decadent art. 

The Palmer Pneumatic Tire Company 
is to the fore with a beautiful poster in 
many colors. It is like the Tire it adver- 
tises, made to last, being printed on an 
extra heavy board and mounted in brass, 
Mephisto in doublet and hose holds forth 
on his failure to puncture the Palmer 
Tire. It would indeed seem strange if 
by dint of continuous advertising by 
Poster route and otherwise the Palmer 
Tire were not in use in Hades and other 
suburban resorts. It is certain that the 
scorcher has found it a great desider- 

The DeWitt Publishing House, R. H. 
Russell and Son, have made use of C. D. 
Gibson's beautiful figures in Poster 
work. The Gibson girl does not lend 
herself easily to this style of work and 
aside from the fact that there is always a 
great deal of public curiosity to a see Gib- 
son picture the Gibson poster may not be 
styled a great success. A Gibson girl 
used by the DeWitt Publishing House is 
reproduced in this article and it will not 
take a student of " tendency " illustra- 
ting to see how strange she feels in her 
surroundings. At the same time it 
is doubtful whether a more striking 
poster than " The Quest of the Holy 
Grail," by the same house was ever 
published, there is a strength and a 
virility entirely uncommon. The draw- 
ing is broad and there is a feeling that 
(like an old memorial window) it tells 
eternal truths. 

Pierre N. Boeringer. 



NE object in presenting 
these sketches to the 
readers of the OVER- 
LAND is to show the 
military histories, with- 
out any interpolation, 
of those named. They 
have been prepared 
with great care, and they modestly set 
forth the deeds of men who helped to 

1 Continued from the April number. 

preserve the Union. They will enable 
the sons and daughters of veterans, and 
their children unto remote generations, 
to know that their ancestors were in the 
service of their country and did their 
duty. For future use and the instruction 
of posterity we cannot have too much 
war literature of the right sort, and what 
kind is better than that which tells of 
the valor of those in the field, of the men 





who were satisfied to die in their coun- 
try's cause ? 

In these sketches it will be observed 
that all but two or three named, entered 
the service as enlisted men, and note 
how distinguished some have become. 
The name of the ex-soldier, statesman 
and true American, whose splendid en- 
graving heads this article, is the best 
known man in the United States; a 
man whose love for the ex-Union soldier 
is only equaled by the love his old com- 
rades of the Grand Army of the Republic 
feel for him. He, a soldier in the ranks 
of the Union army a third of a century 
ago, today the 'coming man for the 
highest position in the gift of the sover- 
eign people of this great country he bat- 
tled to save from disunion. What an 
object lesson to the youths of our land, 
to inspire in them a patriotic love. The 
circumstance shows that this country 
appreciates its defenders, and what is 
more to the point, thousands of ex-sol- 
diers of the South are awaiting their 
opportunity to help elevate a former 
courageous foe, now an ardent friend to 
the whole American people. 

The lessons of the war should not be 
forgotten. Its end has been to make 
better lives and an increase of that nat- 
ural and unselfish patriotism which does 
not evaporate in excitement, but settles 
into a clear appreciation of the real work 
the fathers of this Republic did nearly a 
century and a quarter ago. The North 
and South are no longer a foe, but 
fellow-citizens, friends, brothers ; and as 

once the gray and blue stood up against 
each other, so now they are ready to re- 
spond to the call of a common country, 
whether to fight a foreign foe with bullets 
to defend our land, or to fight with 
ballots to preserve and protect our home 

The Memorial Days which have re- 
cently been commemorated both North 
and South, recalled to mind those Com- 
rades who are above the clouds, and re- 
minded those on earth of the pure and 
unselfish patriot spirits of Grant, and Sher- 
man, and Sheridan, and Thomas, and 
the hosts of others who have gone be- 
fore, and who will tell of the mysteries 
of their deaths to Comrades who later 
join them. And there, no doubt, those 
who wore the " Blue," and those who 
wore the "Gray," mingle together and 
tell how they met in the shock of battle, 
and each striking for the heart of the 
other, their young souls freed from earth, 
were sent upward through the battle 
cloud to their God together. 

Over the graves of those gone, the 
lessons of their lives are not naturally 
forgotten. The flowers that are liber- 
ally bestowed in memoriam exhales their 
fragrance upon the living Comrades, im- 
parting a reverence and patriotic love 
that can never be defeated. 

On the muster roll of patriots in the 
archives at Washington, appears the 
name of William McKinley, Jr. When 
the country's call for volunteers was 
sounded, William McKinley enrolled 
as a private soldier and was mustered 
as such, June 11, 1861, in the 23d 
Ohio Volunteer Infantry. In this capa- 
city he served until April 15, 1862, when 
he was made Commissary Sergeant 
of his regiment, in which position he 
showed not only a careful regard for his 
comrades' wants but an unusual disregard 
for his own safety. It is an accepted 
theory that all those who are connected 
with the Commissary and Quartermas- 
ter's Departments during war, enjoy 
remarkable immunity from danger, and 
many an unnecessary sneer is directed 
against those branches of the service 
sometimes even by the officers them- 
selves, like the present Mayor of Sacra- 
mento does, who was for a part of the 
war a Regimental Quartermaster. It 
must be recorded to the credit of the 




commissary department that McKinley, 
at the battle of Antietam, Sept. 17, 1862, 
performed an act that was not only he- 
roic in itself, but gave great comfort to 
his comrades in the ranks who had been 
battling from early dawn. 

It will be remembered that the battle 
began at daylight, and that preparations 
for it had been taking place even earlier, 
but before the men in the ranks had had 
an opportunity to provide a breakfast of 
hard bread and bacon not even a simple 
cup of coffee, the fight was on and con- 
tinued almost unremittingly until after 
sunset. The unresigned spirits of our 
troops were nearly broken by thirst and 
hunger, when early in the afternoon 
McKinley appeared with hot coffee and 
warm meats, which he served with his 
own hands to the rank and file of his reg- 
iment, utterly regardless of the danger. 
He went further and supplied other reg- 
iments in his brigade the same way, per- 
forming an act that had never occurred 
under similar circumstances in any army 
of the world, thus showing not only the 
highest degree of courage, but a tender 
regard for the welfare and comfort of his 
comrades whose exhausted condition was 
relieved by his soldierly care. 

His devotion to duty attracted the at- 

tention of his superiors, and on February 
7, 1863, ne received his first commission 
that of Second Lieutenant. In the fol- 
lowing August he was made First Lieu- 
tenant and less than a year later, July 
25, 1864, was promoted to a full Cap- 
taincy, and for gallant and meritorious 
services during the war was brevetted 
Major. After a service of about four 
years, during which time he experienced 
almost every hardship the volunteer sol- 
dier was called upon to endure, he re- 
ceived an honorable discharge from a 
regimental organization which was first 
commanded by General Rosecrans, after- 
wards by President Hayes, and during a 
part of the war by the late Stanley 
Matthews, Associate Justice of the Su- 
preme Court of the United States. 

It was during the war that Major Mc- 
Kinley was raised to the sublime degree 
of a Master Mason. In company one day 
with a Union surgeon who was making 
the rounds of an official visit, he noticed 
the latter's solicitous care of a wounded 
Confederate, and upon being asked the 
reason for such, the surgeon told McKin- 
ley that the wounded soldier was a brother 
Mason, whereupon McKinley expressed a 
desire to become one himself, saying that 
the brotherly service he had witnessed 
more than anything he had ever heard 
about the mystic order, commended it to 
his favorable notice. An opportunity 
soon after presenting itself, Major Mc- 
Kinley was made a Mason within the' 
body of a just and legally constituted 
lodge of such in an obscure village in the 
very land which he was helping to pre- 
serve to the Union. 

Comrade McKinley is a member of the 
G. A. R., and when at home in Canton, 
Ohio, never fails to attend the meetings 
of his Post. He is also a Companion of 
Ohio Commandery, Loyal Legion. 

Colonel Harrison Gray Otis, president 
and general manager of the Times- Mirror 
Company and principal owner and editor 
of the Los Angeles Times has reason to 
be proud of an enviable war record. Not 
alone this but he has reason to feel proud 
of his descent from James Otis, the fa- 
mous American patriot and orator, who 
emigrated to America from England at an 
early period in our Colonial history, set- 
tled in Hingham, Massachusetts, and won 
immortal fame in the splendid task of aid- 


ing to achieve our national independence. 
The grand-sire of Col. Otis was a Rev- 
olutionary soldier, who served in the 
glorious days of '76, was wounded in 
battle and pensioned. The father of Col. 
Otis, when only sixteen years of age 
emigrated from Vermont in 1800, pene- 
trated the western wilderness, crossed 
the Alleghanies with a party and went to 
the new territory of " the Ohio," then an 
Indian country, settling at Marietta, near 
which place Harrison Gray Otis was born 
February 10, 1837. The latter's early 
educational advantages were limited to 
about three months' attendance at the 
usual country log-schoolhouse each win- 
ter, until he was about fourteen years old 
when he became a printer's apprentice, 
and subsequently a printer. His last 
service in that capacity before the war 
of the Rebellion was in the office of the 
Louisville Journal, under Geo. D. Pren- 
tice. While a resident of Louisville, 
young Otis was elected by the few or- 
ganized Republicans of that city as a 


delegate to the National Republican Con- 
vention which met in Chicago, May, 1860, 
and nominated Abraham Lincoln for the 
Presidency. For him Otis later voted, 
viva voce, under the Kentucky law. 

Soon after the first call for troops to 
defend the Union, Mr. Otis returned to 
Ohio, where he was enrolled as a private 
soldier in the Twelfth Ohio Volunteer 
Infantry, June 25, 1861, "for three years 
or during the war." A few days later 
he was mustered as Sergeant of Company 
I, and ten days after enlisting was in the 
field with his regiment in Western Vir- 
ginia. During that year he was in the 
Kanawha, Carnifex Ferry, Cotton Moun- 
tain, Fayette Courthouse and other cam- 
paigns. The following March he was 
made First Sergeant of his company, and 
as such took part in several skirmishes 
and in the important battles of Bull Run 
Bridge, South Mountain and Antietam, 
being wounded in the last engagement, 
and where his services earned for him the 
shoulder straps of a Second Lieutenant, 




to rank from Sept. 30, 1862. Without 
leaving his regiment on account of his 
wound, he participated in Gen. George 
Crook's campaign against J. E. B. Stuart 
in October, when the rebel raid around 
McClellan's army, and into Maryland 
and Pennsylvania, was repelled. 

Otis was promoted to First Lieutenant 
to rank from March 21, 1863, and served 
with his regiment in the campaign against 
McCausland's rebel column in West Vir- 
ginia, in May and June of that year, and 
a month later was with his regiment in 
pursuit of the flying cavalry column of 
John Morgan in Southern Ohio. Return- 
ing to the Kanawha after Morgan's cap- 
ture, Lieutenant Otis and his regiment 
made two expeditions against the enemy 
on the line of Sewall Mountain, Lewis- 
burg, Greenbriar River and Droop Moun- 
tain, the campaign extending deep into 
the winter. Later he was commended in 
published orders for his services while 
with a picked corps known as "Blazer's 
Scouts," operating against bushwhackers 
in the New River and Sewall Mountain 

In May, 1864, he was with Crook and 
Averill in their aggressive raid, destroy- 
ing the tracks of the Virginia and Ten- 
nessee railroad and the salt works in 

Southwest Virginia, and again with Crook 
while cooperating with Hunter in his 
campaign up the Shenandoah Valley, 
through the Alleghanies and against the 
same line of railroad, the James River 
Canal and the " rebel granary," Lynch- 

On the ist of July. 1864, he was pro- 
moted to Captain, and by transfer be- 
came consolidated with the 23d Ohio 
Veteran Volunteer Infantry, originally 
commanded by General Rosecrans, later 
by Colonel [President I Hayes, then by 
the lamented Cornly, and in which reg- 
iment " Billy" McKinley served success- 
ively as Commissary Sergeant, Lieuten- 
ant, Captain and Brevet Major chiefly 
on Staff duty. 

In his new command Captain Otis was 
in the Shenandoah Valley under Hunter 
and Sheridan, at Kernestown, Kabletown 
and Winchester, being severely wounded 
at Kernestown, July 24, 1864. After 
recovering from his wound, he performed 
all regimental duties, and also served on 
courts-martial, military commissions and 
official boards. While his regiment was 
in quarters during the succeeding winter 



at Cumberland, Md., Captain Otis was 
the senior officer present for duty, and as 
such was in command for several months. 

The last campaign in which Captain 
Otis was engaged was that in the Shen- 
andoah Valley in April, '65, when his 
regiment co-operated with the Army of 
the Potomac in the finish of the war. 
During this last campaign he was as- 
signed to duty as Provost Marshal at 
Harrisburg, Va., suppressing partisan 
marauders, parolling Confederate prison- 
ers, recovering public property and pre- 
serving the peace in his district. 

After faithfully serving his country for 
over four years in the field, participating 
in fifteen actions and having been twice 
wounded in battle, Captain Otis was 
honorably mustered out of service July 
26, 1865. During his service he received 
seven promotions, and the unsolicited 
brevets of Major and Lieutenant Colonel 
"for gallant and meritorious services 
during the war." 

Colonel Otis has been a Commander 
of Stanton Post No. 55, Los Angeles, 
since 1882, prior to which he was Com- 
mander of Lincoln Post, Washington, 
D. C., in 1869. He is also a Companion 
of California Commandery, Loyal Legion, 
in both of which organizations he takes 
active interest. 

The life pursuit and special pride of 
Col. Otis is his famous California journal, 
the Los Angeles Times, which he has 
been with since its infancy and whose 
creation is mainly his work. He has 
made it one of the foremost newspapers 
of the country, distinguished for enter- 
prise, courage, independence and patriot- 
ism. Col. Otis has been a most unselfish 
laborer in the interests of Los Angeles. 
He is one of the hardest of workers and 
one of the hardest of hitters. A big, 
broad, brainy man, he has a kindly na- 
ture if it is rightly reached; a warm 
friend when he professes to be such and 
hating shams of every kind. There is a 
saying in Los Angeles that " he never 
knows when he is licked." The reason 
is obvious he doesn't get " licked." 

When the country called for Volunteer 
defenders of the Union in 1861, Judge 
Waymire was teaching school in Oregon 
trying to earn money to go through a 
course at Havard. At the same time he de- 
voted those portions of his time not given 


to school duties, to the study of law. In 
1852, fatherless and only ten years of age, 
he with his widowed mother, in a company 
of immigrants led by his maternal grand- 
father, James Gilmore, made the over- 
land trip from his native State, Missouri, 
to Oregon, where they founded a settle- 
ment near Roseburg. He belongs to a 
race of pioneers. Neaily 200 years ago 
his ancestors were pioneers in Pennsyl- 
vania and North Carolina ; early in this 
century they removed to Ohio and Indi- 
ana ; later to Missouri ; in 1846 to Ore- 
gon and in 1852 to California and South- 
ern Oregon. 

Applying himself to study in the inter- 
vals of farm work he was at seventeen 
possessed of a good general education, 
with a fair knowledge of mathematics 
and Latin, the rudiments of Greek, and 
had learned phonography. From the 
time he was fourteen he earned his own 
living, and before reaching eighteen was 
a teacher receiving $50 per month and 

The political campaign of 1860 found 
him an ardent Republican, although he 
had been brought up among relatives 
who were pro-slavery in their views. 



Though not old enough to vote young 
Waymire was active and zealous as a 
Republican and made many public 
speeches for Mr. Lincoln and the party. 
This interest, together with his reporting 
the proceedings of the Oregon Legisla- 
ture for the newspapers, brought him to 
the notice of the lamented Colonel E. D. 
Baker, who was in 1860, after an excit- 
ing contest elected to the United States 


Senate, it was upon Baker's advice 
that young Waymire took up the study 
of law, which he pursued with the en- 
ergy that has characterized his life, 
until the war for the Union demanded 
the services of loyal men. The require- 
ments of the war took away from the 
Pacific frontiers all the regular army and 
there was much apprehension of a suc- 
cessful movement for the establishment 
of a Pacific Republic. To meet these 
emergencies, volunteers were called for. 
Promptly closing his school, the money 
he had saved for college expenses 
was invested in a horse and equipments, 
and on December gth, 1861, young Way- 
mire enlisted as a private soldier in Com- 
pany B, First Oregon Volunteer Cavalry. 
During the following year he was with 
his command and engaged in protecting 
the frontiers and the overland route, go- 
ing East to Fort Hall, on the Snake 
River. Returning to Fort Walla Walla 
for the winter, the young cavalryman 
eagerly seized the opportunity to resume 
his studies which he kept up unremit- 
tingly when not on duty. In February 
'63, he received the chevrons of a Cor- 
poral and a month later was detached on 
recruiting service. In the performance 
of this duty his abilities were recognized 
and his superiors surprised him by com- 
missioning him Second Lieutenant of 
Company D, April 23rd, 1863. 

Rejoining his command as an officer, 






Lieutenant Waymire was sent in charge 
of an expedition against a party of Snake 
Indians that had committed depredations 
upon some immigrants at Bruneau River. 
After a rapid march he surprised the In- 
dians who beat a hasty retreat into and 
across the river, followed by the Lieu- 
tenant and his intrepid party who 
plunged into the turbulent stream, all 
the while making a running fight in 
which a number of the marauders were 
killed and the balance put to flight. In 
this engagement Waymire was attacked 
by three Indians, two of whom he 
wounded, and had it not been for timely 
relief he would have been overpowered 
and killed. The results of his first ser- 
vice as a Commander were successful ; 
the Indians were driven off, their horses 
captured and a large supply of ammuni- 
tion taken in their camp, after which the 
latter was destroyed. 

General Alvord who was in command 
of the Department recognized Lieutenant 
Waymire's pluck and ability and in Feb- 
ruary 1864, ordered him with twenty- 
five men and ninety days' rations, to 
proceed from Fort Dalles to the south 
fork of the John Day's river and there 
afford protection to the Whites from pre- 
datory Indians whose raids embraced a 
line one hundred miles long. Lieutenant 
Waymire had just reached his majority 
and was compelled to use his own judg- 
ment in the disposition of his handful of 
men. Leaving five of his command at 

the fork of the river he pushed on with 
the balance to Canyon City, twenty 
miles distant. Here he learned that the 
Indians had killed several miners in that 
vicinity and driven off a number of 
horses. He induced the miners to raise 
volunteers to accompany him in pursuit, 
and a party of fifty under command of 
Joaquin Miller, (the Poet) as Captain, 
accompanied Lieutenant Waymire. The 
march was through deep snow which 
continued to fall for thirteen days. With- 
out tents or other shelter than the forests 
afforded, the command reached Stein's 
Mountain on Harney Lake, when cold 
rains began and the measles broke out 
among some of the men. Here twenty- 
two of the miners, discouraged, returned 
home, leaving the young Lieutenant 
with fifty-two men.' With these he 
pushed on until April 6th, when he came 
upon a village which he immediately 
attacked and drove the enemy to the 
mountains. At 3 o'clock the next morn- 
ing he rode in pursuit and about twenty 
miles southward encountered the Indians 
numbering between three hundred and 
five hundred, whom Lieutenant Way- 
mire attacked. It was a daring and im- 
petuous movement and a hot battle con- 
tinued for six or seven hours, during 
which the enemy was severely punished, 
while Lieutenant Waymire lost five men 
and a number of horses. But his object 





was accomplished for the home of the 
Indians was located and information ob- 
tained by which future campaigns were 
successfully made. 

Lieutenant Waymire was compli- 
mented in general orders, and years 
after General Alvord wrote him a letter 
in which he said, "I always remember 
you as the pioneer of General Crook's 
expedition to Southeastern Oregon." It 
was Crook's expedition that conquered 
a permanent peace. The Adjutant Gen- 
eral of Oregon made a report of this 
affair to the Legislature in which the 
courage and coolness of Lieutenant Way- 
mire was highly commended and the 
opinion was expressed that if given the 
opportunity "he would rank high as a 
military leader." 

During the following summer he 
served with his command on frequent 
raids, and in the fall was detailed to help 
recruit and organize a regiment of Infan- 
try, after which he resigned to become 
Private Secretary to the Governor of 
Oregon, severing his connection with 
the Army, December ist, 1864. Later, 
in January, 1867, he accepted a Second 
Lieutenancy in Troop M, First United 
States Cavalry, and was stationed at 
Camp Lyon, Idaho Territory, as Post 
Quartermaster and Commissary. He was 
promoted to a First Lieutenancy April 
8th, 1869, but tiring of slow promotion 

and inactivity he resigned August 2nd, 

Returning to Salem, Oregon, he re- 
sumed his studies and was admitted to 
the bar by the Supreme Court of Ore- 
gon in September, 1870. He commenced 
the practice of law in Salem. He re- 
moved to Sacramento in December 1871, 
and in July 1874, he removed to San 
Francisco where he has ever since held 
a high rank in his profession. 

In 1881, Governor (now Senator) Per- 
kins appointed him to fill a vacancy upon 
the bench of the Superior Court in San 
Francisco where his industry and pa- 
tience were widely remarked, and at 
the close of his term he retired from 
office with the universal respect of the 

His practice has been confined to civil 
cases but has been very general extend- 
ing to several of the States and to Mex- 

In January 1884, Judge Waymire was 
elected by the Grand Army of the Re- 
public, one of the Directors of the Vet- 
erans Home at Yountville. He was 
elected President of the Board in March 
1885, and served as such continuously 
until April 1893. During his entire con- 
nection with the Home he has been an 
earnest and sincere friend and comrade 
of the Old Soldier. It was greatly owing 
to his indefatigable labors that a branch 





of the National Soldiers' Home was es- 
tablished at Santa Monica, California, in 
which nearly two thousand Veterans are 
happily housed and provided with com- 
forts in their old age. 

As a delegate to the National Encamp- 
ment at Portland, Maine, in 1885, he did 
much towards securing San Francisco as 
the place for the National Encampment 
in 1886. 

In 1890 President Harrison appointed 
him a member of the Board of Visitors to 
West Point. He is now one of the Reg- 
ents of the University of California, and 
while a member of the last Legislature 
introduced and materially aided the en- 
actment of the law establishing the Affil- 
iated Colleges, appropriating $250,000 
for that purpose. Recently he has been 
very active and efficient in securing the 
vote of California in the National Repub- 
lican Convention for Major William Mc- 
Kinley for President. 

Comrade Waymire is a member of 
George H. Thomas Post, San Francisco, 
and a companion of California Command- 
ery Loyal Legion. Coming from Revo- 
lutionary stock on both sides, there were 
representatives of his family in the wars 
of 1812-15 and later in the Indian wars. 
Adding to these his own services in pre- 
serving the Union, his unswerving 
loyalty to the party with which he be- 
came actively identified before obtaining 

his majority, what better or brighter 
heritage could he leave to his children 
and their children for all time? 

Comrade Henry C. Dibble is well 
known to every surviving veteran in 
California, Nevada and Arizona, where 
he has been active in Grand Army 
circles, and in Louisiana where he re- 
sided for a long time after the war. He 
is still in the prime of life, for his service 
in the army was rendered when he was 
a mere boy; it was cut short in 1863 by 
the loss of a leg. Among the survivors 
of the conflict who have been prominent 
in public affairs it would be difficult to 
find one into whose life there has been 
crowded a greater number of interesting 
and stirring incidents. 

Descended from pre - revolutionary 
stock, he was in the host of young 
patriots and enthusiasts who went to the 
front in 1861. He served in the New 
York Marine Artillery under Burnside in 
North Carolina; was on the Lancer at 
the taking of Roanoke Island, ashore 
with his battery at the engagement 
before Newbern and in several minor 
affairs along the shores of Pamlico Sound 
during the year 1862. Early in 1863 
the Marine Artillery organization was 
mustered out; he returned North and 
immediately enlisted in the I4th New 
York Cavalry, which was then being 



raised in New York City. The battalion 
which he joined was sent to New Orleans 
and the regiment participated in the cam- 
paign in Western Louisiana under Gen- 
eral Banks, which culminated in the 
investment of Port Hudson on the Missis- 
sippi. During the siege which followed 
Corporal Dibble was severely wounded 
and suffered the amputation of a leg. 



After his discharge late in 1863 he was 
tendered an appointment as a Captain in 
the Veteran Reserve Corps by General 
Banks, but his wound broke out afresh, 
necessitating a second amputation, and 
he was unable to continue in the service; 
he declined the commission. 

Taking up his residence in New Or- 
leans with relatives he studied law and 
was admitted to the bar by the Supreme 
Court of the State just at the close of the 
war in 1865, though he was not yet 
twenty-one years of age; he subsequently 
graduated from the Law School of the 
Louisiana University with the degree of 
L.L. B. 

During a residence of eighteen years 
in New Orleans Judge Dibble was one of 
the busiest of the busy men in public 
life during that eventful period. He 
served for three years when quite young 
as a Superior Judge, was Assistant and 
Acting Attorney General for four years, 
was for six years President of the Board 
of Education of New Orleans and held 
various other public positions. In the 
State Military Service he was Judge 
Advocate with the rank of Brigadier- 
General. During the whole time, ex- 
cept while on the bench, he was in active 
politics, being chairman of the local 
committee in New Orleans and was 
twice a candidate for Congress. 

Judge Dibble has resided in San Fran- 
cisco since 1883 where he has been 



active in public and political life, at the 
bar and among his comrades of the war 
for whom he has an ardent attachment. 
He served for three years as Assistant 
UniU-d States Attorney and was a con- 
spicuous member of the Legislature from 
1889 to 1893. He is known tar and 
wide as an eloquent speaker and as a 
forcible writer. In the Grand Army he 
has held various positions; has been 
twice elected Commander of Lincoln 
Post and has served as Junior Vice- 
Commander of the Department. He is 
now on the staff of Department Com- 
mander Masteller. 
Colonel Walter Scott Davis, of Auburn, 


Cal.t was born at Milton, Massachusetts, 
July 15, 1837. He is a blood connection 
of Sir Walter Scott and comes from an 
old line of English and Scotch ancestry. 
On the paternal side his earliest ances- 
tors arrived from England in 1636 and 
settled in the Dorchester Colony of 
Massachusetts. His maternal line first 
came to America in the early half of the 
eighteenth century. During the Revo- 
lutionary War Col. 1 'avis' .^ri-at-grand- 
father was in the Massachusetts line, 
and in the War of 1812-15 the father of 
Col. Davis faithfully served his country. 
With an inherited taste for the military, 
Col. Davis in his youth attached himself 


to a local organization in Boston, and 
when the country's first call for volun- 
teers was made he was already prepared 
with a military training to enter the ser- 
vice and did so as a Second Lieutenant 
in the 22d Massachusetts Volunteer In- 
fantry, August 7, 1861. This was the 
same regiment in which General Nelson 
A. Miles commenced his military career 
as a Lieutenant. Immediately after be- 
ing armed and equipped the regiment of 
Lieutenant Davis took the field and was 
assigned to the Army of the Potomac. 
Soon after he was detached for staff duty 
and served first as an aide-de-camp and 
subsequently as Assistant Adjutant Gen- 
eral to General Martindale, commanding 
ist Brigade, ist Division, 5th Army 
Corps. Still later in the war he was on 
the Staff of General Charles Griffin, 
commanding 5th Army Corps. It was 
not long after going to the front that his 
intelligent discharge of duty brought him 
to the notice of his superiors and he was 
tendered the Lieutenant Colonelcy of a 
New York regiment which he declined, 
preferring to remain on staff duty where 
he felt he could be of greater service to 
his country. In this sentiment he was 
generously supported by his commanding 
generals who, in every official report 
made favorable mention of Lieutenant 
Davis' gallant conduct on the field, and 
of his ready comprehension and quick 
execution of orders with which he was 

For his fidelity and worth as an officer 
he received rapid promotion, reaching the 
grade of First Lieutenant June 28, 1862, 
and less than two months thereafter that 
of Captain. At the battle of Malvern 

i Hill the concussion of an exploded shell 
quite near knocked him several times 

Jhis own length from his horse and he 

'was rendered unconscious for four hours 
from its effects. But he was not per- 

jmittedto escape with such a casualty. 
At Games' Mill a musket ball passed 
through his right leg, and again at Fred- 
ericksburg another embedded itself in 
the opposite member. At the engage- 
ment of Jerico Ford Capt. Davis saw the 
importance of holding an unguarded 
position of great value to our arms 
and took upon himself authority to 
place a battery in position sup- 

B' ""^ed by a very limited number of 
DL. xxviii. 5. 

Infantry, but which he so judiciously 
disposed as to make his strength seem 
much greater, and this point of vantage 
he held until reinforcements arrived, thus 
saving our army from what might have 
been a serious disaster. For this prompt 
service he received the warmest com- 
mendation of his commanding general 
and was soon after surprised upon the 
receipt of a commission conferring upon 
him the brevet rank of Major for gallant 
and meritorious service on the field of 
battle. For his gallantry at the engage- 
ment at Peeble's Farm he was brevetted 
Lieutenant Colonel, both of these honors 
coming to him unexpectedly, and to the 
present day he is ignorant of the source 
from which they were inspired. Soon 
after the war had ended Col. Davis was 
tendered the brevet rank of Brigadier 
General, which he declined on the 
grounds that if the honor had been 
earned by him during the war he should 
have received it at that time, but as a 
compliment it was without any signifi- 
cance, and he preferred to go down to 
posterity with the rank that had been 
conferred upon him as a reward for actual 
services rendered on the fields of battle. 

During the war Colonel Davis partici- 
pated in the second battle of Bull Run, 
and those of Antietam, Chancellorsville, 
the Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Cold Har- 
bor, Petersburg and many other engage- 
ments of less magnitude and importance, 
including every action in which the First 
Division, Fifth Army Corps was en- 
gaged, from Yorktown to Petersburg, ex- 
cept that of Gettysburg. At the close 
of the war Col. Davis was honorably 
mustered out of the service with a record 
which will be a proud inheritance for his 
children. He immediately returned to 
his home and at once took up the duties 
of an active life which he has continued 
to the present. He was elected a First 
Class Companion of Massachusetts Com- 
mandery Loyal Legion, Aug. 7, 1868, but 
upon his removal to California transferred 
his membership and now belongs to Cali- 
fornia Commandery. 

There is an interesting episode in the 
life of Col. Davis connecting him with the 
famous Fitz-John Porter event. It will be 
remembered that Pope's Inspector Gen- 
eral (Roberts) preferred charges and 
specifications against General Porter for 



a violation of the Ninth Article of War, 
the specifications setting forth that Por- 
ter disobeyed a lawful command of Pope 
in the face of the enemy at Manassas, 
Va., on the morning of August 29, 1862. 
Porter was also charged with a violation 
of the Fifty-second Article of War, the 
specification alleging that he shamefully 
retreated in the face of the enemy at 
Manassas on the 29th and 3Oth of Au- 
gust, 1862. 

A general court martial was appointed 
consisting of nine general officers of which 
Major General David Hunter was Presi- 
dent and Colonel Jos. Holt, Judge Advocate 
General of the Army, Judge Advocate 
and Recorder. To all of the charges and 
specifications General Porter pleaded 
" not guilty." The Court was in session 
from November 27, 1862, until January 
10, 1863, when it decided that General 
Porter was " guilty " and sentenced him 
to be cashiered and to be forever dis- 
qualified from holding any office of trust 
or profit under the Government of the 
United States. The sentence was ap- 
proved and confirmed by President Lin- 
coln and carried into effect. 

Colonel Davis was present on the 
occasion of Porter's alleged violation of 
Pope's orders, and when, about seven- 
teen years since, the matter was re- 
opened, Col. Davis was a witness before 
the Commission, and after undergoing a 
most rigid examination in which every 
effort was made to disconcert him, but 
without success, his testimony being so 
lucid and directly in Porter's favor that 
counsel for the latter declared that it was 
greatly owing to the positive manner and 
wonderful memory of Col. Davis that an 
injustice of many years' existence was 
partly emoved, and the punishment of 
General Porter to some extent militated 
by his restoration to a retired rank in the 
regular army. 

Col. E. W. Jones, of Los Angeles, was 
born November 28, 1840, at New Hart- 
ford, Connecticut. His direct ancestors, 
both paternal and maternal, were amoii^ 
the earliest settlers of New England and 
both his great-grand-fathers were officers 
of the line in the Revolutionary W;ir. 

Col. Jones was a student at a Southern 
college when the war broke out and late 
in 1861 escaped from the South and re- 
turned to his home in Connecticut. In 

June, 1862, he obtained authority to en- 
list men for the war ; was sworn in hirnH 
self as the first of his recruits; raised al 
company for the igt\\ Connecticut In-J 
fantry, and was elected its Captain.! 
The regiment was mustered into the| 
United States service on September utM 
and left for the front September 15, r862J 
All being from Litchfield county it was| 
designated the "Mountain County" Re-1 
giment, and served for three months on! 
patrol duty at Alexandria, Va. It wasj 
then ordered into the fortifications bacM 
of Alexandria where a year later it was! 
changed to artillery and designated the! 
2d Connecticut and as soon as possible! 
recruited to a full complement of twelve! 
companies and 1800 men. It was not! 
what they cared for and all longed fori 
relief from the tiresome routine of garj 
rison duty and incessant drilling and 
begged to be sent to the front. In the! 
spring of 1864 these welcome ordera 
came and the regiment joined Grant's 
army at Spottsylvania. It had the high! 
honor of being assigned to the 2d Brigade! 
(Upton's), ist Division, 6th Army CorpsB 
From that time to the close of the waj 
the regiment held its own in every batt 
and minor engagement with the daunt* 
less veterans of that brigade. 

In " Battles and Leaders of the Civil 
War," vol. 4, page 219, the regiment isl 
mentioned as showing "a mute anfl 
pathetic evidence of sterling valor" ati 
Cold Harbor where its dead and woundedJ 
distinguishable by their new uniforms! 
were thickly scattered over the field upl 
to and upon the breastworks of the! 
enemy which it carried and held, and 
with occasional reliefs continued to hol(H 
for twelve days under heavy fire and in- j 
cessant labor in strengthening the mosj 
advanced portion of the lines. At CoU| 
Harbor the Colonel was killed and Capi 
tain R. S. MacKenzie became Colonel off 
the regiment. Of Colonel MacKenzie 
Grant says in his memoirs that he waJ 
"one or the most promising younJ 
officers in the army." Led by such al 
man no regiment could fail to distinguish j 
itself. At the first attack on Petersburg 
the first movement to take the WeldonB 
Railroad, in the Shenandoah Valley wit 
Sheridan at Winchester, Fisher's Hilfl 
and Cedar Creek, at Hatcher's Run, at 
Petersburg again on the 25th of March M 



1865, at the attack on the defences of that 
city on the morning of April 2d, then all 
afternoon and night in the bloody trenches 
of the captured rebel works at Fort 
" Damnation," moving into Petersburg 
on the heels of a retreating enemy on 
the morning of . April 3d, at " Little 
Sailor's Creek" and finally at Arjpomat- 
tox, the 2d Connecticut Artillery did its 
duty under the red cross of the First 
Division of the Sixth Corps. 

Sheridan says of the battle of Win- 
chester: " For a moment the contest 
was uncertain, but the gallant attack of 
Upton's Brigade of the 6th Corps restored 
the line of battle." Col. Jones was in 
every engagement with his regiment. 
He was in command of the regiment from 
the middle of the forenoon to the end of 
the battle at Cedar Creek and there a 
day or two after was promoted to Major. 
He was brevetted Lieutenant-Colonel on 
April 6, 1865, for gallant and meritorious 
services' before Petersburg and at Little 
Sailor's Creek. 

Since the war, after spending ten 
years in Utah and Idaho, he came with 
his family to California in 1882, making 
his home at Los Angeles where he has 
resided ever since, and in which city he 
is a prominent man of affairs and highly 
esteemed by all. He is a comrade of 
Stanton Post, No. 55, of that city and a 
companion of California Commandery, 
Loyal Legion. 

Henry Glenville Shaw was born in 
England in 1843. His father, William 
Shaw, was a native of Dublin, the in- 
ventor of the first numbering machine 
and afterwards proprietor of the Mel- 
bourne, \\istra\iaDailydge. His mother 
was the daughter of a Scotchman, whose 
father was killed at the battle of Water- 
loo while fighting under Wellington. The 
subject of this sketch has resided in the 
United States since he was nine years 
of age and was educated in the public 
schools of New York City. In 1862, he 
was an apprentice in the Cleveland, 
Ohio Herald office. In May that year 
he went to the front with the " Cleve- 
land Grays," mustered in as Company E, 
84th Ohio. Volunteer Infantry. During 
its three months' service the regiment 
did garrison duty in Maryland and Vir- 
ginia. Private Shaw re-enlisted in Octo- 

ber, 1862, in the i25th Ohio Volunteer 
Infantry, and was promoted First Ser- 
geant. The regiment participated in all 
the engagements fought by the Army of 
"the Cumberland after the battle of Mur- 

On the second day of the battle of 
Chickamauga, Shaw was shot through 
the right side and back. A Confederate 
surgeon bandaged his wound that night, 
but with that exception he lay unattended 
on the battlefield from Sunday noon until 
Thursday night. With about 2,000 
other paroled wounded soldiers, who 
were also prisoners, he was subsequently 
ambulanced under a flag of truce into the 
Union lines at Chattanooga. He was 
sent to Camp Dennison Hospital, near 
Cincinnati, where he remained until 
May, 1864. 

As soon as he was able to move, Shaw 
rejoined his regiment while it was in 
front of Atlanta, where he received a 
commission as Second Lieutenant, he 
having been one of three sergeants of 
the regiment specially recommended by 
Colonel Opdycke, for promotion, for 
good conduct at Chickamauga. 

Lieutenant Shaw thereafter served 
with his regiment until the end of the 
war, and was engaged in the battles 
around Atlanta and at Spring Hill, Frank- 
lin and Nashville. 

When our army fell back before the 
advance of Hood's forces into Tennessee 
the pursuit was very vigorous. During 
the withdrawal of the Union army across 
Duck river, opposite Columbia, on No- 
vember 27th, 1864, Lieutenant Shaw 
was given charge of a detachment of 
thirty men, made up of details from all 
the regiments in Opdycke's Brigade, 
with orders not to retire until the fort in 
the town had been blown up. The army 
retreated across the stream during the 
night. The rear of the column, suppos- 
ing that all had safely got over, set fire 
to the railroad bridge. At daylight the 
magazine was exploded and the enemy's 
skirmishers drove Shaw's party back to 
the river. When the forgotten little de- 
tachment reached the bridge the flames 
were leaping up the high trestle work. 
The planks having been removed before 
the blaze was started, Lieutenant Shaw's 
party had to pick their way over the 
wide ties and through the sparks and 



blinding smoke. The Confederates in 
the gray of the morning huddled close to 
the south bank of the river, but their 
commander had chivalrously ordered 
them not to fire on fugitives in so des- 
perate a plight. As the last blue-coat 
cleared the burning bridge the rebels 
took off their hats and cheered. 

In April 1865, Shaw was promoted to 
First Lieutenant and after being mustered 
out, returned to New York City where 
he began work, at first as a compositor 
in Harpers Brothers' establishment and 
afterwards as a reporter on the Jersey 
City Times and New York Sun, of which 
latter paper he was assistant night editor. 

In Jersey City he was elected Captain 
of Company E, 4th' Regiment New Jersey 
National Guard, soon attaining the rank 
of lieutenant-colonel. He then took the 
leading part in the introduction of the 
present system of military marksman- 
ship. He organized the first great State 
rifle shooting tournament in the United 
States at Clifton, New Jersey, acting as 
executive officer. To Colonel Shaw's 
personal efforts was directly due the or- 
ganization of the National Rifle Associa- 
tion in New York in 1871. While serv- 
ing as a director of that body he coined 
the word " Creedmoor " the name by 
which the great range has been ever 
since known. 

Colonel Shaw came to California in 
1872 under an engagement with the San 
Francisco Chronicle. He introduced as a 
new feature in San Francisco journalism 
a department devoted to the National 
Guard. His criticisms of its shortcom- 
ings were taken kindly. The effect was 
almost magical. The revolution which 
followed in methods was largely accom- 
plished by the skill and tact with which 
he exposed weak points. He organi/nl 
the California Rifle Association, of which 
he was President for two years. It was 
during his administration that the marks- 
manship fever took its rise and that Cali- 
fornia sent a team to New York which won 
the Inter-State Championship of Amer- 
ica at Creedmoor. In 1875 Colonel Shaw 
conducted a great rifle shooting meeting 
at the Presidio of San Francisco, by con- 
sent of General Schofield, at which were 
present Governor Pacheco and Staff and 
the representatives of nearly every regi- 
ment in the State. The regular army 

soon caught the spirit of the movement 
and adopted substantially all the methods 
introduced both on the eastern and west- 
ern shores of the continent for the new 
training of the soldier. 

As a journalist Colonel Shaw has filled 
many responsible positions. He was in 
1874 part owner and editor of the Santa 
Cruz Sentinel. He published the Pacinc 
Life in San Francisco for four years. He 
next edited the Territorial Enterprise in 
Virginia City, Nevada, for five years 
and has since held editorial positions on 
the Los Angeles Tribune and the Los 
Angeles Express. He is at present doing 
editorial work on the Stockton Mail. 
The only public offices he ever held were 
those of Deputy Collector of Customs 
at Redondo Beach, California, and Regent 
of the Nevada State University. To the 
latter place he was elected by the joint 
unanimous vote of the Legislature. 
Though a Republican the Democrats paid 
him the compliment of voting for him ; 
the first time in the history of that State 
that both political parties ever thus acted 
together in making an appointment. He 
also served as Brigade Inspector on the 
staff of General Mathewson. Colonel 
Shaw is a companion of California Com- 
mandery, Loyal Legion, and a Royal 
Arch Mason. 

Captain William Armstrong Phillips 
was born in County Down, Ireland, June 
13, 1828, he immigrated to the United 
States in 1850. He entered the U. S. 
Navy as Acting First Assistant Engineer, 
and had the good fortune to be assigned 
to duty on that famous and historic old 
ironclad monitor, " The Monadnock." 

Serving in the North and South Bloc- 
kading Squadrons it can easily be imag- 
ined that such service was full of adven- 

He served in the blockade of Charleston 
Harbor and was present at the evacuation 
of that City and its fortifications and the 
destruction of the enemy's ironclads. For 
a brief period he did blockade service at 
the mouth of the Savannah River watch- 
ing for the rebel ram "Stonewall," and 
was attached to the fleet sent to Havana 
under Admiral Godon after the same ship. 
The Monadnock left Havana and pro- 
ceeded to the James River there to assist 
in the fall of Petersburg and evacuation 
of Richmond. 



Hostilities having ceased the Monad- 
nock was destined for further honors 
having received orders to fit out at the 
Philadelphia navy yard for a voyage 
through the Straits of Magellan to San 
Francisco, one of the most memorable 
ever made by such a craft, from the fact 
that grave doubts were from the very 
first entertained about the gallant ship 
and her heroic crew ever reaching their 
destined harbor. 

Completing her equipment at Hampton 
Rhodes, she sailed from there November 
2d, 1865, in company with the Steamers 
Vanderbilt, Powhatan and Tuscarora, un- 
der command of Commodore John Rod- 
gers Capt. F. M. Bunce (now Admiral) 
commanding the Monadnock. When cross- 
ing the gulf stream on the way to St. 
Thomas, W. I., the fleet encountered a 
fearful gale that separated ithe Monadnock 
from the other vessels. The Tuscarora 
making bad weather abandoned the 
squadron, and the Vanderbilt and Pow- 
hatan were driven out of sight of the 
Monadnock. It was at onetime supposed 
by the officers of the Vanderbilt that the 
Monadnock had met the fate of the orig- 
inal Monitor. 

However she arrived in safety at St. 
Thomas, and received a visit from that 
old Mexican hero Santa Anna. 

At Rio de Janeiro, Jany. 9, '66, Don 
Pedro II paid her a visit together with 
Conde de Eu, Officers of State and House- 
hold of the Emperor when a royal salute 
was fired by the Vanderbilt, after which 
the Monadnock fired two 15 inch guns to 
show the royal party the effect of her 
rebel extinguishers. 

When passing through the Straits of 
Magellan news was received that the 
harbor of Valparaiso was under blockade 
and no vessels would be allowed to enter. 
The day before arriving at Valparaiso 
orders were issued to raise turrets, load 
guns with solid steel shot and clear decks 
for action, should a forcible entrance be 
necessary but the harbor was entered 
without asking permission. The City of 
Valparaiso was defenceless through state- 
ments made by French and English rep- 
resentatives that if the Chilenians would 
not fortify no bombardment would be 
permitted. Upon the arrival of the United 
States vessels Commodore Rodgers and 
Gen. Kilpatrick then U. S. Minister to 

Chile together with the French and Eng- 
lish Admirals entered into negotiations 
with the Spanish Admiral to prevent the 
bombardment, but failed in their purpose. 
The result of their conferences somehow 
leaked out, and to Admiral Rodgers is due 
the credit of compelling the Spanish Ad- 
miral to give the inhabitants twenty-four 
hours' notice before opening fire upon the 

The French war vessels having left 
port, the English Admiral declined to 
interfere, excusing himself by saying that 
as he had only two wooden ships at his 
command he could not cope with the 
Spanish Ironclad "Numancia" to which 
excuse Admiral Rodgers was credited 
with proposing to the Englishman to 
withdraw his ships and if he would only 
shoulder half of the responsibility he 
(Rodgers) would do all the fighting. Ru- 
mor had it in Valparaiso at the time that 
its citizens were about to present the 
Englishman with a wooden sword as a 
token of his valor. Preceding the Span- 
ish fleet to the harbor of Callao, Peru, 
Captain Phillips was there an eye wit- 
ness to the bombardment of a well forti- 
fied City by the Spanish " Armada." A 
four hours' engagement crippled the fleet 
and it had to withdraw with many killed 
and wounded, Admiral Nunez being se- 
verely wounded while conducting the 
movement of his squadron. 

June, 1866, the Monadnock arrived at 
San Francisco. She was sent to Mare 
Island, put out of commission and Capt. 
Phillips was transferred to the U. S. S. 
Vanderbilt as engineer in charge. That 
vessel was placed at the service of her 
"Majesty, Queen Emma," to carry her 
to her island home, after a prolonged tour 
of Europe. Upon her arrival she was 
greeted by her people with a right royal 
native welcome, and the officers of the 
Vanderbilt were accorded a kind recep- 
tion and handsomely entertained by mem- 
bers of the Royal family and citizens. 
Returning to San Francisco Engineer 
Phillips tendered his resignation and on 
May nth, 1868, received an honorable 
discharge. Immediately thereafter he 
entered the service of the merchant ma- 
rine as Chief Engineer, and in 1871 was 
appointed Superintendent of the Oregon 
line of steamships which position he oc- 
cupied for over ten years during which 


time he served four years in the Board of 
Education of San Francisco being elected 
twice to that office and in 1880 was ap- 
pointed State Harbor Commissioner by 
Governor Geo. C. Perkins. 

When the Veterans Home Association 
was founded (March /th, 1882,) Capt. 
Phillips was one of the first incorporators 
of that institution serving on the execu- 
tive committee and as its Treasurer until 
January, 1884, when he resigned. 

The Captain is a comrade of George 
H. Thomas Post No. 2 and a Companion 
of California Commandry Loyal Legion. 
On May 8th, 1891, he was appointed by 
the Secretary of the Treasury Local In- 
spector of Boilers and Steam Vessels, a 
position which he intelligently and faith- 
fully fills. 

There are few survivors of the War of 
the Rebellion who rendered more valu- 
able services to the Union than did Gen- 
eral Edward Bouton, of Los Angeles. 
His soldierly character is the part of a 
proud inheritance dating back to the 
early half of the seventeenth century 
when Sir Edward Boughton, of Barches- 
ter, County of Warwick, England, of 
whom General Bouton is a lineal descend- 
ant, was baronetted August 4, 1641. In 
the Revolutionary War General Bouton's 
grandfather, Daniel Bouton, distinguished 
himself as the commander of a Connecti- 
cut organization, and was wounded at 
Bunker Hill. At the battle of Stonington 
this grandsire served under the eye of 
Washington who commended his skill 
and courage. The father of General 
Bouton fought against England in the 
war of 1812, and with such examples it 
was only natural for the son to follow in 
the footsteps of his illustrious sires. 

When volunteers were called for Gen- 
eral Bouton raised a battery of light 
artillery in the City of Chicago, which 
was then his home. This organization 
was officially designated as Battery I, 
First Regiment Illinois Light Artillery, 
but throughout the entire war never lost 
its identity as Bouton's Battery, and its 
participation in the battle of Shiloh will 
cause it to live in history as long as the 
records of that memorable engagement 
are preserved. 

In a sketch of this character it would 
be impossible to give the details of Cap- 
tain Bouton's services and those of his 

battery in that sanguinary conflict. It 
will be well remembered that on the first 
day's battle, Sunday, April 6, 1862, the 
army under Grant was compelled to fall 
back, and about 2 P.M. Bouton's Battery 
had changed its position towards the left 
of our line, taking a commanding position 
about a thousand yards from and in front 
of Pittsburgh Landing. Its value was 
well understood by the rebel commander 
and its capture meant the destruction of 
our commissary and other supplies stored 
there, as well as our river transports, 
thus preventing Buell's approach and the 
rendering of any service by our gunboats 

A rebel battery of six six-pounder guns 
opened fire on Bouton from about six 
hundred yards distant, and then com- 
menced one of the most wonderful artil- 
lery duels that ever took place. The 
rebels brought into action an additional 
battery of four twelve-pounder howitzers, 
thus subjecting him to a heavy cross fire. 
Both rebel batteries failing to drive 
Bouton from the ridge, a brigade of Mis- 
sissippi Infantry charged his battery in 
front, which Bouton met by guns double 
shotted with canister, breaking the 
enemy's ranks and sending them back in 
disorder. The artillery duel was then 
resumed and continued until approaching 
darkness caused both batteries to cease ;' 
and it was just as well, for Bouton had 
fired the last round of ammunition his 
caissons contained. The position thus 
maintained by Captain Bouton and the 
few infantry supporting him, unques- 
tionably saved the day at Shiloh. 

In the second day's engagement Cap- 
tain Bouton with his battery made a 
daring dash across a cotton field sub- 
jected to a most galling fire from infantry 
and artillery, occupying and holding a 
position from which two of our batter irs 
had been driven, and with canister at 
short range assisted in forcing Breckin- 
ridge from nearly the same ground a 
portion of our army occupied at the com- 
mencement of the first day's battle. 

Passing from this period to a year 
later, during which Captain Bouton 
served as Chief of Artillery of Sherman's 
division, an order was issued to recruit 
colored troops and Captain Bouton \\ as 
commissioned Colonel of the 59th R< 
ment. Although General Sherman was 


reluctant to part with his best artillery 
officer, he admitted that if any one could 
make a soldier out of a " darkey " it was 
Bouton. He not only made soldiers of 
them, but good and efficient soldiers, and 
| for the ability he displayed was soon 
after placed in command of a brigade. 
It was while discharging the duties of a 
brigade commander that General Bouton 
formed a guard with four hundred and 
fifty men, and defended the rear of Gen- 
eral Sturgis' demoralized army, which 
was retreating from Forrest's victorious 
forces, after our disaster at Guntown, 
Miss., and held the rebels, about eight 
thousand strong, in check from the battle 
field to Germantown, Tenn., some eighty- 
one miles, constantly under fire for two 
days and nights, constituting one of the 
most sublime examples of heroism during 
the war. 

Only a month after this occurrence, on 
the 1 3th of July, 1864, General Bouton, 
in command of about four thousand five 
hundred men, white and colored, made a 
march of twenty-two miles in a single 
day, going from Pontetoc to Tupelo, 
Miss., and guarding a heavy train of 
three hundred wagons, during which he 
fought four distinct engagements against 
superior numbers, in each being success- 
ful. This achievement was pronounced 
by his superiors to be without a parallel 
in the war. 

When General Bouton was selected to 
act as Provost Marshal of Memphis, 
Tenn., he was vested with unusual power. 
Prior to his taking the office a most 
scandalous condition of affairs existed. 
Permits for shipping supplies had been 
freely given and these supplies found 
their way into the enemy's lines and 
helped to sustain and furnish vitality .to 
the very enemy our armies were seeking 
to subdue. Cotton was shipped back in 
payment of such supplies on which vast 
fortunes were realized. Different officers 
had been placed in charge of these im- 
portant matters, but the temptation to 
" speculate " was too great for them to. 
resist, and in despair President Lincoln 
telegraphed an imperative order to "place 
an honest officer in charge if one could be 
found." General Bouton was selected. 
He immediately began a rigid system of 
restraint upon those engaged in contra- 
band commerce, which soon put a com- 

plete stop to the practice, receiving the 
approbation and thanks of President 

As a comrade of Stanton Post, No. 55, 
of Los Angeles, he is held in the highest 
esteem, and as a companion of California 
Commandery Loyal Legion, none has a 
higher record. He is a prominent man 
of affairs in Los Angeles and as a citizen 
respected by all. 

E. B. Jerome was born in Carrollton, 
Greene County, Illinois, June 2d, 1844. 
His father, Theo. F. Jerome, was of 
Huguenot descent, his ancestry coming 
to this country in 1666. His mother was 
a sister of Senator E. D. Baker, of Ore- 
gon, the soldier, statesman and orator, 
who was killed at Ball's Bluff. 

Jerome's father came to California in 
1849, leaving the boy in Illinois with his 
mother. He attended the public schools 
till about fifteen years of age, and then 
commenced his collegiate course at Bereah 
College, Jacksonville, Ills., intending to 
become a civil engineer, but at the first 
call .of Abraham Lincoln, offered himself, 
volunteering as a drummer in the i4th 
Illinois Regiment, Col. John M. Palmer. 
When his uncle, Col. E. D. Baker, raised 
his celebrated California Regiment, he 
sent for young Jerome and after. having 
him enlisted as a private in Company E., 
promoted him to be 2d Lieutenant. He 
afterwards, when Col. Baker completed 
his Brigade, served on the Staff of Baker 
as Captain and aide-de-camp until the 
latter was killed, his remains being 
brought from the field by the subject of 
this sketch in conjunction with others, 
such as the brave Captain Berial, and 
Col. Geo. Stone. Some time after the 
death of Col. Baker young Jerome was 
commissioned by President Lincoln, in 
March, 1862, as 2d Lieutenant in the 
First Regular Cavalry. At this time his 
father, who had returned to Illinois in 
1857, and had gone again to the mines in 
Idaho, was reported to have been killed 
by the Indians, and his mother urged him 
to go to Idaho in search of information 
and facts. President Lincoln, who was 
a warm friend of the family, advised him 
to comply with his mother's request, and 
to decline the commission, which he did, 
and afterwards, learning of his father's 
safety, he urged his mother to come with 
him to this country, which she did and 


for many years was an honored resident 
of San Francisco. She died in August, 
1892, but his father yet lives, a hale and 
hearty man of 81 years. 

Mr. Jerome arrived in San Francisco 
in 1863, bringing with him a personal 
letter from President Lincoln to Governor 
Stanford. He secured a position in the 
San Francisco Post Office, which he held 
for four years, and then, in 1867, Gen- 
eral John F. Miller, who was Collector 
of Customs, offered Mr. Jerome the posi- 
tion in the office which he has since held 
for 28 years, under various titles, such 
as a Secretary, Deputy Collector, Chief 
Clerk, etc., under ten different Collec- 
tors, enjoying the confidence of such 
Collectors and the great body of the 
mercantile community. 

Mr. Jerome has taken a very active 
part in Grand Army matters, and was 
a charter member of the first post 
organized in this State, the old Starr King 
Post, and which is now known as Lincoln 
Post No. i, San Francisco. He was also 
the first Commander of Admiral D. D. 
Porter Post of Oakland. When the Vet- 
erans' Home at Yountville was projected, 
Comrade Jerome became one of the 
original organizers and was Chairman of 
the Committee which first raised funds 
for that object. He is a Companion of 
California Commandery Loyal Legion 
and member of the California Pioneer 
Association of which he has served sev- 
eral times as a Director. 

Captain J. L. Skinner, of Los Angeles, 
was born in Jamaica, Windom Co., Vt., 
Nov. 29, 1838. Removing to Massach- 
usetts, he, at the breaking out of the war, 
was a clerk in Amherst. He immediately 
responded to the first call for troops, but 
the company he offered his services to 
failed in obtaining a maximum number of 
enlistments and in consequence Capt. 
Skinner's first offer was unavailing. 
Upon the next call, he, with three asso- 
ciates, enrolled from among the loyal 
patriots of Amherst and adjoining towns 
a full company in two weeks, and divest- 
ing himself of every feeling but devotion 
to the Union, cheerfully waived his right 
to a commission, enlisted as a private but 
accepted the position of First Sergeant of 
Company D, 27th Massachusetts Volun- 
teer infantry. 

Taking the field in the fall of '61 it was 

sent into Maryland where it performed 
ordinary duty during the winter until 
January 7, '62, when Sergeant Skinner's 
regiment became a part of Burnside's 
Coast expedition, which resulted in the 
important captures and occupation of Ro- 
anoke Island, New Berne and Golds- 
boro, N. C., and enabled Lieutenant 
Skinner (who had been promoted,) to gain 
some practical knowledge of war. 

In the battles of Kingston, Whitehall 
and Goldsboro, the regiment of Lieut. 
Skinner bore a conspicuous part, and 
throughout the campaign in North Caro- 
lina, its marches were long and tedious, 
the men often dragging howitzers through 
swamps and passing sleepless nights in 
drenching rains. 

In 1863 he was with his command at 
the siege of Washington, which continued 
for eighteen days, and later at Gum 
Swamp, Dover Cross Roads, Beaufort, 
Trenton and New Berne, N. C. During 
this campaign he was made a First Lieu- 
tenant dating from May 29, 1863. Thence 
he and his regiment went to Fortress 
Monroe, Hampton, Newport News, Nor- 
folk and Portsmouth, Virginia. 

Up to May 16, 1864, Lieutenant Skin- 
ner was with his regiment in all its 
engagements and campaigns, but on this 
date, at the battle of Drewry's Bluff, 
one of the hottest, if not the very fiercest 
fight in which his regiment was engaged, 
as its severe losses will testify he was 
captured and taken to Libby prison. 
Thence he was sent with others to the 
officers' camp at Macon, Ga., and later 
transferred to Charleston and to Colum- 
bia, S. C. From the latter place he 
escaped Nov. 4, 1864, but was recaptured 
four days after. Nothing daunted, Capt. 
Skinner, (for during his imprisonment he 
had been promoted to a Captaincy Sept. 
29, 1864,) again attempted his escape, 
this time on the 29th of November, and, 
after weary marches through swamps, he 
at last, emaciated from two weeks' fasting 
and fatigue, reached our squadron off the 
mouth of the Santee River. From this 
point he was sent to Fortress Monroe, and 
on January 21, 1865, was honorably mus- 
tered out of service to date from Decem- 
ber 31, 1864. The sword which he lost 
at Drewry's Bluff fell into the hands of 
Captain Hill of a Virginia Confederate 
regiment, who used it until the war ended, 



when his sister returned ittoCapt. Skin- 
ner since he has resided in California. 
r~ Returning to his old home Capt. Skin- 
ner was soon after appointed Postmaster 
of Amherst, which position he continued 
to hold for twelve years and which he 
resigned to come to California. He lo- 
cated in Sacramento where he entered 
the employ of W. P. Fuller & Co., remain- 
ing there for four years, thence going to 
Los Angeles with the same firm, where 
he now is and has been for the past ten 

Comrade Skinner organized E. M. Stan- 
ton Post No. 36, Department of Massach- 
usetts in 1867, and was its Commander 
four years. He was also its Adjutant, 
Officer of the Day, Senior Vice, and in 
1876 Senior Vice Commander of that 
Department, beside being several times 
a delegate to National Encampments. 
In California he was two years Comman- 
der of Sumner Post of Sacramento, during 
which period its membership increased 
from fifty-five to one hundred and eighty. 
In 1886 Dept. Commander Smedberg ap- 
pointed him Special A. D. C., with power 
to establish Posts and muster recruits 
wherever he could do either. His roving 
power enabled him to establish a number 
of new Posts while his activity produced 
a very large number of new Comrades to 
the Order, for Comrade Skinner mus- 
tered recruits wherever he found any 
eligible a barn, or freight-shed answer- 
ing the purpose as well as a Post room. 

For one year Comrade Skinner was 
commander of Stanton Post No. 55 of Los 

Doctor E. T. M. Hurlbut, of Sebasto- 
pol, has an army record that was vouch- 
safed to few who entered the ranks. In 
August 1862, he was enrolled in the 
24th New York Independent Light Bat- 
tery, and in less than two months was 
in the field. At Newport Barracks, 
North Carolina, there were about five 
hundred men at the Post which was 
without a surgeon. Doctor Hurlbut was 
examined and found qualified to act as 
hospital steward and was detached for 
that service, at the same time perform- 
ing all the duties of an acting assistant 
surgeon. After the battle of White Hall, 
N. C., Doctor Hurlbut was ordered to 
Newberne with his Battery and later to 
Plymouth, N. C., in all those places 

acting in the capacity of Assistant Sur- 

During the yellow fever epidemic at 
Beaufort, N. C., he was in charge of 
medical supplies at that place and 
filled the responsible position of apothe- 
cary until he was ordered to Morehead 
City, N. C., to take charge of a hospital 
ward as Assistant Surgeon under Sur- 
geon J. M. Palmer, the latter's attention 
having been attracted to Doctor Hurlbut 
while serving at Plymouth. The arrival 
of a part of Sherman's army at More- 
head City caused Surgeon Palmer to re- 
move Doctor Hurlbut back to Beaufort 
where he was placed in charge of a 
refuge camp and some time later of the 
general hospital. It was here that Doc- 
tor Hurlbut's experience was taxed to the 
utmost. In addition to having full charge 
of the general hospital he professionally 
attended to a ward of another, which 
contained about one hundred and fifty 
patients who were visited daily and their 
wants administered to. And this char- 
acter of service the Doctor continued to 
perform until the war ceased and he was 
honorably discharged. 

The attempt was frequently made to 
reward him with a commission, but not- 
withstanding the fact that he was nearly 
always performing the duties of a medi- 
cal officer, and rendering services as such 
that were cheerfully recognized and en- 
dorsed by his professional superiors, the 
circumstance of his entering the army 
before quite completing a medical 
course and securing a diploma, operated 
against his claim for a commission, as 
there was always some one on the Board 
of Examiners who opposed a commission, 
whilst officially testifying to his valuable 
services and endorsing his ability and 
efficiency as an acting surgeon. 

Doctor Hurlbut immediately resumed 
his medical studies after the war closed 
and in February 1867, graduated with 
high honors at the University of Buffalo, 
N. Y. 

He went to Los Angeles to live and 
during his residence there established a 
large practice and good record. During 
his residence in that city he became a 
Comrade Jof Stanton Post and for the 
years 1888-89 was surgeon of the same. 
Removing to Northern California he se- 
lected the lovely Sonoma Valley for his 



home and lives in Sebastopol, where he 
now commands a leading position in his 
profession and practice, and where he is 
respected for his ability as a physician 
and surgeon and honored for his manly 
qualities as a citizen. He is at present 
Commander of Ericsson Post, No. 164, 

Captain Josiah A. Osgood of Los An- 
geles, was born in Chelsea, Mass., Dec. 
6, 1841. Both his paternal and maternal 
great-great-grandfathers fought in the 
battle of Bunker Hill and throughout 
those of the Revolution, his maternal 
great-great-grandsire having been killed 
while conveying dispatches for General 

Capt. Osgood entered the service as 
Private of Co. C. 24th Massachusetts 
Volunteer Infantry, in Oct. 1861, at a 
time when he had just completed a pre- 
paratory course and was about to enter 
Harvard College. His regiment was one 
of the crack organizations of Massachu- 
setts, and was immediately sent to the 
front where he was assigned to Burn- 
sides' command. Young Osgood was 
made Corporal soon after his enrollment 
and was assigned to the Color Guard 
a position known to every old soldier as 
one of honor and demanding a high order 
of courage. In this capacity he served 
throughout the expedition to North Caro- 
lina, participating in the engagements at 
Roanoke Island, New Berne, Little Wash- 
ington, Trenter's Creek, and taking part 
in the various raids made into the enemy's 
country, and for a year perfoiming most 
active and wearisome service. 

When, in the latter part of 1862,. Gov- 
ernor Andrews concluded to make officers 
of new regiments from worthy non-com- 
missioned ones of old organizations, 
Corporal Osgood was sent home for pro- 
motion, and was made Captain of Co. K. 
47th Massachusetts Infantry. Soon after 
the regiment was organized, uniformed 
and equipped, it was sent to New Or- 
leans, and reported to Banks for duty, 
and at the time of the Red River Expe- 
dition it was held for service in and about 
New Orleans, as it was splendidly dis- 
ciplined and could be relied upon to quell 
any disturbance likely to arise in that 
then turbulent city, but at the same time 
it was poorly equipped with the old and 
almost obsolete Austrian rifle, a weapon 

that could better be relied upon in the 
hands of men who would fearlessly use 
the bayonet when the worthless con- 
struction of the weapon rendered powder 
and shot inoperative. 

In and about New Orleans, Capt. Os- 
good served with his regiment for a 
period of about a year, during which time 
the terrible sanitary condition there de- 
veloped in his system disease which re- 
duced him from a strong and robust 
young man to an almost human wreck 
weighing hardly one hundred and fifteen 

In this condition he was mustered out, 
but partially recovering, he again ten- 
dered his services to the government. 
Upon examination his condition was 
found to be such that the surgeon 
declared his life would be forfeited 
through disease in a few weeks, if he 
was permitted to go to the front again. 
Capt. Osgood then took a trip to Europe 
where he remained for nearly a year in 
the hope of recovering his health. In 
this he was partially successful, but to 
the present day he feels the effects of 
exposure to which he was subjected 
while on duty in the swamps of Louisiana. 

On his return from Europe Capt. Os- 
good entered upon a course of study in 
the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, and finishing his education there 
embraced the profession of surveying in 
which he is now occupied. 

Capt. Osgood went to Los Angeles 
nine years ago when he became a Com- 
rade of Stanton Post No. 55, and of which 
he is Past Commander. He was also 
one of the first to become a Companion 
of the Loyal Legion and is now a mem- 
ber of California Commandery. In his 
profession and in social and business cir- 
cles, Capt. Osgood is a well known and 
popular resident of Los Angeles where 
he has resided since 1887. 

Among Ohio's native sons who early 
responded to the call for volunteers was 
Comrade John A. Whiteside of Lincoln 
Post, San Francisco. Born in Camden, 
Feby. 8, 1843, he was just eighteen years 
old when the war began. At that time 
he was passing through an examination 
to graduate at Miami University, but 
casting aside his future prospects he en- 
rolled himself April 18, 1861, as a mem- 
ber of the " University Rifles," which 



became Company B, 2Oth Ohio Volunteer 
Infantry. In this organization he served 
first as First Sergeant and as Second 
Lieutenant for three months, receiving 
while in the field, his graduating diploma 
in the Scientific Department of the Uni- 
versity he had abandoned. 

In 1862 he became attached to the 
medical corps of the 6th Ohio Infantry, 
in which capacity he served until March, 
1863. From this organization he was 
transferred to Company B, 86th Ohio 
Infantry, of which he became " Orderly 
Sergeant," which position he retained 
until fall of that year, when, owing to 
the political excitement then engendered 
in Ohio by reason of Vallandigham's 
copperhead teachings, a number of tem- 
porary military organizations were cre- 
ated to uphold the laws and preserve 
peace at home. Comrade Whiteside be- 
came Lieutenant Colonel of one of these 
battalions which performed such service 
in Preble County, Ohio. 

After this excitement had subsided, he, 
in the winter of 1863, entered the volun- 
teer Navy, and served as Mate on the 
U. S. S. Essex and later as Executive 
Officer of the U. S. S. Huntress, both 
vessels being in commission and forming 
a part of the Mississippi Squadron then 
doing such excellent service by patrolling 
the River, preventing the transfer of rebel 
reinforcements and the introduction of 
contraband supplies for the aid and com- 
fort of the enemy. In this official capacity 
Comrade Whiteside continued until the 
close of the war, when he received an 
honorable discharge, after a somewhat 
broken but singularly varied experience 
as soldier and sailor for a period of four 

Returning to his old home in Ohio, his 
military training peculiarly fitted him for 
service in the National Guard and he 
was elected a Lieutenant Colonel. He 
remained identified with the State military 
until coming to California, where he at 
once sought association among his old 
comrades of the war, and is now an active 
member of Lincoln Post No. i. 

Along about the Christmas holidays in 
'59, Hermann L. Judell arrived in San 
Francisco on a trip around the world, 
and, forming a fancy for the climate he 
remained to seek his fortune. He was 
only a youth, having been born in Ham- 
burg, December, 1846. 

When the war broke out he was not 
fifteen years old, but he promptly offered 
his services. His youth and stature were 
a barrier to his ambitions, as the authori- 
ties would not accept him without par- 
ental consent or that of a guardian. 
Young Judell took steps to obtain the 
latter and in February, '62, he was 
"mustered in" in Company D, First 
Washington Territorial Infantry, more 
than half that organization having been 
recruited in California. Judell's activity 
and ability being readily recognized, he 
was sent to Sacramento and Folsom on 
recruiting service, where he remained 
until May following, meeting with flatter- 
ing success. The regiment having en- 
rolled its quota, the California contingent 
embarked for Vancouver where the or- 
ganization was armed, equipped and 
completed. In the following September 
it was sent into the field to the Siletz 
Indian Reservation on Yaquina Bay. At 
this place there were six thousand In- 
dians of the Klamath and Rogue River 
tribes, and it became the duty of Judell's 
regiment to assist in keeping them in a 
state of subjection and prevent an out- 
break against the white emigrants who 
were then beginning to occupy the great 

At this time the present site of Boise, 
Idaho, had been selected as a depot for 
the distribution of supplies and in conse- 
quence vast quantities of valuable gov- 
ernment stores were kept on hand there. 
To guard this property the company of 
Judell formed part of an expedition of 
about one thousand troops and covered 
the extreme northwest overland route, 
keeping it open and affording protection 
to the early settlers. That fall the In- 
dians were committing many depredations 
at a large cattle ranch about sixty miles 
northwest from Fort Boise, and an expe- 
dition was formed with fifty volunteers 
to drive away the marauders. Young 
Judell was one of these, and well mounted 
the little party came up with a large 
number of Snakes or Shoshone Indians 
and steadily drove them into their moun- 
tain resorts, after being compelled to 
abandon their horses on account of heavy 
snows and follow on foot. This kind of 
service was kept up during the entire 
winter, the troops suffering from extreme 
cold, lack of sufficient shelter, clothing 
and subsistence. 


In the spring of '63 a garrison of four 
companies was left at Fort Boise and the 
remainder of the troops were distributed 
in detachments as far as Salt Lake City. 
Judell belonged to that stationed at Fort 
Douglas, and when a party of emigrants 
collected at Salt Lake his command would 
afford it escort towards Fort Boise or un- 
til meeting with another detachment. 

These expeditions were nearly always 
accompanied by attempted depredations 
from hostile Indians who hung upon the 
flanks of the settlers. It was not alone 
Indians that our troops had to contend 
with ; the Mormon element was just as 
rife in these respects. On one occasion 
a Paymaster of the Army en route from 
Boise to Salt Lake was attacked and 
robbed of many thousands of dollars in 
greenbacks, and this act was supposed 
to have been committed by Mormons 
disguised as Indians. It was this officer 
whom young Judell and a detail after- 
wards escorted in safety to Omaha. 

Returning from this duty he formed 
part of a command of about two hundred 
Union troops and went upon the trail of 
some six hundred Utes, Shoshones and 
Piutes. Overtaking them at War Eagle 
Mountain the Indians were cleverly cor- 
ralled and charged upon. During this 
battle the Indians lost about one hundred 
killed and the balance of their force was 
scattered in every direction. This same 
band had but a short while before cap- 
tured, killed and scalped ninety China- 
men whom they had encountered on the 
plains and who were without the power 
of resistance. 

In February, '65, Judell's command re- 
turned to Boise, meeting with and dispers- 
ing small bands of hostiles all the way. 
From here he returned to Vancouver and 
in April, '65, was honorably mustered 
out after more than three years of active 
service. He then returned to Boise and 
engaged in business, remaining there 
until 1870, when he returned to San 
Francisco where he now resides and is 
well known as a man of business. 

Comrade Judell is a member of Geo. H. 
Thomas Post. 

Major William Oliver Gould, who has 
long been Actuary of The Pacific Mutual 
Life Insurance Company, was born in 
Exeter, New Hampshire, June 29, 1828. 
He was residing in Kansas, when the 

Rebellion began, and on August 16, 1861, 
enlisted as a private in Company E, Fifth 
Kansas Volunteer Cavalry. Two days 
after he was appointed First Lieutenant 
of Engineers, and assigned to the Kansas 
Brigade, commanded by General J. H. 
Lane. He continued to serve in this or- 
ganization throughout its active career in 
South-eastern Kansas and Western-Miss- 
ouri, seeing much of that trying warfare 

scouting after marauding parties that 
tries the nerves of the bravest soldier. 

His excellent judgment and business 
qualities commended him to his supe- 
riors, and when Kansas was called upon 
for more troops he was assigned to duty 
at Leavenworth for recruiting service, 
and by his efforts helped raise the Elev- 
enth, Twelfth and Thirteenth regiments 
of Infantry, Kansas Volunteers. His 
success in this duty caused his appoint- 
ment as Assistant Commissary of Mus- 
ters, and in that capacity was ordered to 
Fort Gibson, I. T., where he remained 
until November, 1863, when he was 
transferred to the Fourteenth Kansas 
Cavalry, and with his regiment went to 
Fort Smith, Arkansas, participating with 
it in several minor engagements. He was 
again detached from his regiment for staff 
duty as Mustering Officer which he filled 
until on March 19, 1864, he was promoted 
to the Majority of his regiment, the I4th 
Cavalry, which position he held until 
honorably discharged on August n, 1865 

lacking less than a week of having 
been four years continuously in the Union 
Army. After he had been made a Major 
he was made Mustering Officer of the Dis- 
trict of Kansas, Department of Missouri. 

There is probably no official place in 
the army, particularly during actual war, 
which calls for the exercise of more care 
and intelligence from a staff officer than 
that of the Commissary of Musters. It 
is most important to the officers or men 
being mustered, for all their rights of pay 
and emoluments depend upon the exact- 
ness with which the rolls are prepared ; 
then there is the subject of time service 
of which all are so jealous. As the Mus- 
tering Officer is a part of the General's 
personal staff he is not exempted, like the 
Quartermaster and Commissary of Sub- 
sistence, from going upon the field of 
battle. Major Gould saw his share of 
service during the war, and when it is 



considered that Kansas lost a larger num- 
ber of troops during that time in propor- 
tion to the number she was called upon 
to raise, than any other State in the 
Union, it means a great deal. Comrade 
Gould is a member of Geo. H. Thomas 
Post, and Past Commander of California 
Commandery Loyal Legion, having be- 
longed to both societies for many years, 
well known and respected by all. 

Among the Masonic fraternity he is 
very prominent, having taken all the de- 
grees in York Rite and the Order of The 
Temple. He is a 32 Degree in the Scot- 
tish Rite and is a Past Master, Past High 
Priest, Past Eminent Commander and 
Past Grand Commander all of Kansas 
Masonic Societies. In those of San Fran- 
cisco he is held high for his activity, zeal 
and everything which makes a good man 
a good Mason. 

There are few Comrades with better 
records as soldiers or as members of the 
order than Edw. S. Salomon. Of Ger- 
man birth, he came to this country and 
located in Chicago in 1855, where he 
began the study of law and in two years 
was admitted to practice. When the 
war of the Rebellion broke out he imme- 
diately offered his services to the Union 
and was made Second Lieutenant in the 
24th Illinois Infantry and with that regi- 
ment went into active service, first in 
Missouri under Grant, but subsequently 
in Kentucky under Buell. His baptism 
under fire was atFrederickston, Mo., and 
at Murifordville, Ky., he gained further 
experience in real war. Passing through 
well merited promotions he was mustered 
as a Major early in 1862. 

Through some disagreement among the 
officers with Colonel Hecker, Major Sal- 
omon with about twenty other officers 
espoused the cause of their old Comrade 
and resigned. They immediately pro- 
ceeded to organize another regiment, the 
82nd Illinois Infantry, which was as- 
signed to the Army of the Potomac, and 
going to the front participated in the 
battle of Gettysburg. In this engage- 
it was commanded by Lieutenant Colonel 
Salomon, and he was officially com- 
mended by his Division General for the 
highest order of coolness and determina- 
tion throughout the battle. 

When the Army of the Cumberland 
needed reinforcements at Chattanooga, 

Colonel Salomon with his regiment, 
which was a part of the Eleventh and 
Twelfth Corps, was sent there and took 
part in those most dramatic of all battles 
of the war Missionary Ridge and Look- 
out Mountain. 

When Sherman opened his campaign 
in the early spring of '64, Colonel Salo- 
mon and his regiment were at the front 
and engaged in the most memorable 
events of the war Resaca, New Hope 
Church, Alatoona, Kenesaw Mountain, 
Peach Tree Creek and other battles 
which led to the capture of Atlanta. 
From the latter place Colonel Salonon 
" marched to the sea, " and after reach- 
ing and moving toward Johnston's army 
fought at Averysboro, Bentonville and 
other places the very last engagements 
of the war. 

Perhaps nothing attracts more highly 
the confidence reposed in him than the 
brevet rank of Brigadier General, which 
the President conferred upon him in 
March, 1865, "for distinguished gallantry 
and meritorious service." 

After the great army of nearly a mil- 
lion men had passed in review in Wash- 
ington and was mustered out, General 
Salomon returned to Chicago and civil 
life. He was elected County Clerk and 
held that important office for four years, 
going thence to Washington Territory of 
which President Grant had appointed 
him Governor, but from which he re- 
signed in 1874, coming to San Francisco, 
where he has ever since been engaged 
the practice of law. Among his pleasant 
memories is the remembrance of an ele- 
gant and massive silver service which 
was presented to him by Chicago friends 
headed by General Sheridan, together 
with a handsomely engraved testimonial 
of respect and personal regard. 

As a comrade in the Grand Army his 
record is as bright as were his services 
as a soldier. In 1867 he served as Com- 
mander of Ransom Post, No. 4, in Chi- 
cago. In 1882 he was unanimously 
elected Commander of James A. Garfield 
Post, No. 34, San Francisco, and again 
1886. During the National encampment 
held in San Francisco he was one of the 
most active and untiring members of the 
Grand Committee. As Chief of Staff 
during the grand parade he brought into 
use those trained qualities gained in 


years of active service, which made the 
procession move throughout its long line 
of march with perfect precision. 

In 1887 he was elected Department 
Commander of California and Nevada, 
and during his term of office he probably 
visited more Posts officially than any 
other similar officer in the same Depart- 

Theodore V. Brown, who was honored 
by his comrades of the Grand Army with 
election as Grand Marshal of this year's 
Memorial Day Parade in San Francisco, 
is a native of the same little country 
town Matbach that gave' birth to the 
poet, Schiller, and he has made clever 
translations of his great townsman's po- 
ems. He ran away from home and en- 
listed in the U. S. Army when but little 
over seventeen years of age, being pos- 
sessed with a desire to help wipe out the 
Mormons, who in 1857 were making it 
warm for Albert Sidney Johnston. He 
served under that distinguished soldier in 
a regiment (loth Infantry) commanded by 
Lieut. Col. Chas. F. Smith. 

When the war began Brown went East 
with his regiment, and as he knew some- 
thing of medicine, was appointed a hos- 
pital steward. Having been attached to 
the 3rd U. S. Infantry he was present at 
the battles of Games' Mill, Malvern Hill, 
Second Bull Run, Antietam, and Freder- 
icksburg. The gallant Major Rossell, 
commanding the regiment, was one of 
the first to be hit at Games' Mill, and 
Brown helped to carry him to the rear 
where he soon expired. 

At Malvern Hill he assisted the surgeon 
of the regiment, Dr. Geo. M. Sternberg, 
tlu- present Surgeon General of the Army, 
in amputating an artilleryman's arm un- 
der a heavy fire from the enemy's artil- 
lery, and a few days afterwards when, at 
Harrison's Landing on the James, all the 
doctors of his brigade became sick aiul 
were put on transports and sent north, he 
was ordered to collect all the sickest men 
of the brigade, take them to a barn not 
far away, and do the best he could for 
them ; which he did. 

In March, 1863, Brown was relieved 
from duty with the ijd Infantry and or- 
di-rrd into the Medical Director's office, 
Hr,uk]iiarU-rs Army of the Potomac. In 
August of the same year he accompanied 
the regular troops to New York City to 

assist in putting down the Draft Riots, 
and in October he was ordered to report 
to General W. W. Averell commanding 
an independent Cavalry force of about 
4000 men in West Virginia. He accom- 
panied that officer on his famous " Raid 
to Salem " in December, 1863, being eight 
days and nights in the saddle five of 
which without food. The Jackson river, 
usually an insignificant stream, had be- 
come a raging torrent from a three days' 
fall of rain and snow, and was encum- 
bered with drifting ice. This the raiders 
were obliged to swim seven times in 
twenty-four hours, losing only seven men 
by drowning. Most of the officers and 
men, including the general, had their feet 
more or less frozen : still, when at one 
time the roads were for forty-eight hours 
so frozen and slippery that a rider risked 
his neck at every step, they had to foot 
it and keep up, or be captured. The 
sufferings in store for the captured sol- 
dier were so well known, that nearly all 
managed to keep up, few falling into the 
hands of the pursuing force. Not only 
this, but when the horses proved to be 
unable to drag the six guns over the slip- 
pery roads, details of soldiers, many of 
them with frozen feet, had to do it. 

In June, 1864, Brown was ordered to 
the headquarters of General Franz Sigel 
at Martinsburg, W. Va., and with him 
retreated before the advancing forces of 
Jubal A. Early when he made his great 
raid into Maryland and Pennsylvania in 
July, 1864, Martinsburg being the first 
place to be attacked. 

In August of the same year he was 
ordered to report to Surgeon J. Boone of 
the ist Maryland Regiment, Potomac 
Home Brigade, who was directed to or- 
<jani/e a depot field hospital near Harper's 
Ferry for the accommodation of the worst 
wounded of General Sheridan's army in 
the Valley, and did not know how. Two 
hundred men were needed as a guard and 
working force. As the hospital was not 
under the orders of General Sheridan but 
reported direct to Washington, it was 
thought useless to apply to Sheridan for 
men, so Brown made raids at night with 
a sergeant and twelve men whom Dr. 
Boone had borrowed from his regiment, 
and pretending to be a Provost Guard, 
stole two hundred stragglers in three 
nights. Then one hundred hospital and 



the same number of wall tents were 
pitched on a flat topped hill sloping down 
to the Potomac river, and when, after a 
week's work, the hospital was reported 
ready to receive wounded, a force of 
nineteen surgeons, six hospital stewards, 
and three chaplains reported for duty. 
The guard and the working force were 
given separate camps, and a chain of six- 
teen sentinels was put around the foot of 
the hill, so that no one could enter or 
leave the hospital without a permit. 
Brown was Chief Steward and Executive 
Officer, and managed things pretty des- 
potically, putting seven Brigade Quarter- 
masters under charge of the guard one 
night for interfering with him in the 
unloading of wounded, and it took some 
of them two days to round up their wag- 
ons afterwards. 

In November, 1864, Brown was ordered 
into the office of the Surgeon General of 
the Army, in Washington City, where 
he remained on duty until February, 
1866, when, at his own request, he was 
sent to California. Since then he was on 
duty for five years with Explorations and 
Surveys west of the icoth Meridian un- 
der Capt. Geo. M. Wheeler, Corps of 
Engineers and a number of frontier posts, 
and it is largely owing to his representa- 
tions and suggestions through the me- 
dium of the Army and. Navy Journal, and 
otherwise, that the Canteen System was 
introduced in the Army. He availed him- 
self of the privilege of retirement after 30 
years' service in May, 1890, and has been 
at the head of one of the leading hospitals 
on the Pacific Coast (the German Hos- 
pital) ever since. 

General Samuel Woolsey Backus was 
born in Poughkeepsie, New York, Nov. 
6, 1844. His great grandfather, Colonel 
Nichols, was a distinguished officer of the 
Revolution and commanded a portion of 
the American army at the battle of Ben- 
nington, Vermont, August 16, 1777. His 
grandfather, Gurdon Backus, of Nor- 
wich, Conn., built the Flag Ship Sara- 
toga, commanded by Commodore Mc- 
Donough, and fought aboard her at the 
battle of Pittsburgh, September nth, 

In the fall of '62, when it was dis- 
covered that volunteers organized in 
California would be held for service on 
the Coast many who desired to fight the 

rebels determined to go East and there 
become a part of the Union army. Among 
others General Backus offered himself 
and he was enrolled in Company L, Sec- 
ond Massachusetts Cavalry, this com- 
mand being formed in part from which 
was known as the " California Battal- 
ion." It was immediately sent into the 
field for active service with the Army of 
the Potomac, and first performed out- 
post duty in the vicinity of the National 

In the spring of '63, it was employed 
in scouting along the Potomac River 
alertly watching Lee's movements who 
was maneuvering to get into Maryland. 
Having accomplished this duty it was 
sent out through London and Fairfax 
Counties, Virginia, in quest of Mosby's 
marauders. Failing to come up with the 
guerrillas, the command to which Backus 
was attached obtained much valuable 
experience and a knowledge of the coun- 
try which serve a good purpose for future 

It the latter part of June the Regiment 
was attached to the Twelfth Army Corps 
and was sent to oppose the rebel cavalry 
under J. E. B. Stuart. A forced march 
did not enable the command of Backus 
to prevent the enemy's advance, but it 
brought up with the latter's rear guard 
near Brookville, Maryland, where, on the 
first of July, a spirited engagement took 

Hanging on the enemy's heels the 
Second continued to harrass the rebels, 
making many stragglers prisoners of 
war, and following Stuart's column into 
Pennsylvania, then en route to the aid of 
Lee at Gettysburg. 

After Lee's defeat the California bat- 
talion, occupying the right of the line, 
was sent with a cavalry force into Vir- 
ginia, making a rapid reconnoissance 
east of the Blue Ridge and through 
Ashley's Gap into the Shenandoah, to 
watch Lee's retreating army. At 
Ashley's Gap the command encountered 
the enemy, driving them from their posi- 
tion with considerable loss on both sides. 
During the balance of that summer and 
fall the Californians were constantly en- 
gaged with the commands of Mosby's, 
Imboden's and other Confederate cav- 
alry, covering extensive momements, 
sometimes meeting defeat but oftener 



victory, always experiencing those hard- 
ships the cavalry was called upon to en- 

In the beginning of '64, the same dash- 
ing tactics were employed by the Cali- 
fornians. One day they would be har- 
rassing the flank of the enemy ; another 
day guarding a valuable train of supplies 
and another capturing such from the 
enemy. When Early's command was 
driven out of Maryland this Battalion 
was on the right and at the head of the 
column performing service that won for 
it the hearty encomiums of the com- 
manding general. The Californians were 
brigaded with the Regular Brigade, 
Colonel Charles Russell Lowell com- 
manding, who was killed in the battle of 
Cedar Creek. 

It was with the gallant Sheridan in his 
campaign to Winchester a campaign 
noted for hardship, daily fighting and 
brilliant success which began at Shep- 
ardstown August loth, and ended in the 
famous battle of Cedar Creek, October 
igth a period of more than two months 
during which no less than twenty-two 
engagements were fought, in all of which 
the Californians bore a conspicuous part. 
Following up the enemy their battalion 
was in the advance and made many cap- 
tures of cannon, small arms and prison- 
ers. It went into winter quarters about 
the first of December, but had hardly 
become comfortable when a raid was 
ordered during which the men and their 
animals suffered severely from the in- 
tense cold, but finding some relief on 
again reaching camp at Winchesher. 
Here the troops remained until February 
'65, when " boots and saddles" sounded 
and the Californians were on a march of 
three hundred miles to Pittsburg, through 
rain and mud, almost every step being 
contested by stubborn fighting of the 
enemy. During their march, railroads, 
canals and every species of property 
that would be beneficial to the enemy 
were destroyed. Arriving in front of 
Petersburg the Californians took part in 
those brilliant operations which resulted 
in the fall of Petersburg and Richmond 
and the surrender of Lee. 

In all these campaigns General Backus 
was a participant, excepting the few 
days when he was specially detailed 
with others as escort to President 'Lin- 

coln on his entry into Richmond April 5, 
1865, and as a reward for his fidelity he 
was promoted to a Lieutenancy in Com- 
pany F, Second California Cavalry. 
Returning to this State he served with 
his company and as Commander of Fort 
Bidwell, winter of 1865-66, until there 
was no further need for troops even on 
the Pacific Coast, and in June 1866, he 
was honorably mustered out after a con- 
tinuous service of nearly four years. 
Served as Assistant Adjutant General 
2nd Brigade N. G. C. from 1875 'to 

In 1880 Governor Perkins appointed 
General Backus Adjutant General of 
California which position he filled for 
several years, bringing with him that 
actual experience gained by long service 
during the war, and which proved of 
such value to our National Guard. 

General Backus served two terms as 
Post Master of San Francisco. He was 
first appointed by President Arthur and 
again by President Harrison. This last 
appointment was brought about by the 
business community of San Francisco, 
which appreciated the efficiency and 
skilful administration of General Backus 
during his first term. He introduced 
many needed reforms in the Post Office 
during his long service that have become 
permanently adopted. 

Comrade Backus is one of the organ- 
izers of the G. A. R. on this Coast, and 
Past Commander of Lincoln Post No. i, 
Past Department Commander of Califor- 
nia and Nevada, and Past National Senior 
Vice Commander-in-Chief, Grand Army 
of the Republic. He is also a Companion 
of California Commandery Loyal Legion 
and Past Commander of the same, and 
in both these patriotic organizations he 
has always taken great interest, his ap- 
pointment of many worthy ex-soldiers to 
positions in the Post Office showing a 
genuine regard for their welfare that 
might be well emulated by others. 

Past Department Commander Theo- 
dore H. Goodman, was born in Mt. Morris, 
New York, July 12, 1830. Prior to his 
coming to California in 1859 he had been 
connected with several Eastern railways. 
Arriving in San Francisco he accepted,'a 
position with Freeman's Express Com- 
pany, since merged into Wells, Fargo & 
Co. When President Lincoln made his 



first call for troops, Comrade Goodman 
immediately resigned from the Express 
Company and intended to go East to join 
some portion of the Union army there. 
He was disappointed to learn the call was 
only for three months' men, and this de- 
termined him not to go East at that time. 

When the second call was made Good- 
man joined the Second California Cav- 
alry, entering the service as First Lieu- 
tenant of Company A, Sept. 10, 1861. 
His soldierly presence, attention to duty 
and ready regard for discipline, as well 
as the superior clerical abilities he pos- 
sessed, caused the regimental commander 
to make him Adjutant, in which position 
he served until May 22, 1862. Into this 
new position Adjutant Goodman brought 
his early business training, and it was 
greatly owing to his capacities that the 
Second California Cavalry became so 
quickly and completely organized and 
placed in the field. 

He was promoted May 21, 1862, to be 
Captain of Company G of his regiment, 
where he remained until Jan. 31, 1863, 
when he resigned. Capt. Goodman's 
Company was sent to southern parts of 
the State and performed efficiently such 
duties as it was ordered to ; scouting after 
hostile Indians, protecting public property 
and that of the settlers. 

After leaving the army he went East, 
with the expectation, it was thought, of 
joining some Union organization then in 
the field against the Confederates. But 
his former railroad experience as an offi- 
cer made him a valuable acquisition to 
any such corporation, and he became 
General Passenger and Ticket Agent of 
the Atlantic and Great Western Railway. 
In this position he made a most enviable 
record which he has continued to uphold 
during the long period he has been Gen- 
eral Passenger Agent of the Central and 
Southern Pacific Companies, now nearly 
thirty years. In his official relations Cap- 
tain Goodman has the highest regard and 
devotion from his subordinates. He has 
a kind and generous nature, although a 
certain natural and habitual air of dignity 
about his movements might lead some 
to mistake this for haughty reserve. His 
long service in the important and re- 
sponsible position he now .occupies, prob- 

ably exhibits more than anything else 
in what esteem he is held by his superior 

Captain Goodman became a charter 
member of Geo. H. Thomas Post in 
1879 an d is n w a member. In 1888, he 
was elected Commander of the Depart- 
ment of California and Nevada G. A. R., 
and as such intelligently and faithfully 
represented his Comrades at the National 
Encampment the same year at Columbus, 
Ohio. He is also a Past Commander of 
California Commandery Loyal Legion. 
As a member of these societies many 
Comrades and Companions have reason 
to remember with gratitude his singular 
acts of kindness. 

These men have been selected as rep- 
resentative defenders of the Union, not 
because of any particular claims they 
may possess to superiority over other 
members of the Grand Army, not be- 
cause of their irreproachable standing as 
citizens in the community, not because 
of any honors won during the war or dis- 
tinction since gained in civil life, but be- 
cause they may be cited as fair exam- 
ples of those whose names are on the 
muster roll of an organization held to- 
gether by a spirit of comradeship that no 
other order can ever possess. Their ties 
are welded by the memories of the war 
during the dark days of the Rebellion, 
when possibly the lives of hundreds of 
thousands and the safety of the country 
hung upon the courage and fidelity of a 
single sentinel. Their badge is more 
honorable than any shield, for it is em- 
blazoned with heroism and patriotism. 
Those who wear it remember that in the 
cause it commemorates, four hundred 
thousand lives were sacrificed ; that three 
hundred thousand Union soldiers and 
and sailors were crippled for life; and 
that more than a million devoted mothers, 
widows, sisters, and orphans, were left 
to mourn for the loved ones who did not 

And may it be that in generations to 
come there will linger a loving memory 
of those Comrades of the Grand Army of 
the Republic, the last of whom will in a 
few more years have followed the solemn 
sounds of the muffled drum to his final 
resting place. 

Frank Elliott Myers. 

VOL. xxviii. 6. 



N a rather notable paper 
on an economic subject 
the President of the 
United States, Grover 
Cleveland remarked : 
" It is a condition and 
not a theory that con- 
fronts us." The ob- 
servation appears to 
me to be as applicable 
to the discussion of the 
question of Japanese competition with 
Western nations. It is no longer neces- 
sary to confine ourselves to theories. 
The existing facts have been observed 
on so extensive a scale that we have a 
large body of evidence from which to 
make deductions that ought to be more 
satisfactory to a practical people than 
conclusions reached by the a priori 

The mental exaltation produced by a 
resort to deductive argument is appreci- 
ated by the writer who is willing to con- 
fess the pleasure derived by following 
the line of reasoning adopted by Mr. W. 
H. Mills in his interesting paper on " The 
Prospective Influence of Japan upon the 
Industries of America," which appeared 
in the June number of the OVERLAND, 
and the temptation to meet him on his 
own ground is almost irresistible. But 
it will be avoided so far as possible, and 
the reply which I have been requested to 
make will be confined as nearly as prac- 
ticable to a relation /)f such facts as will 
combat the optimistic views of Western 
superiority over the Japanese enter- 
tained and advanced by Mr. Mills. . 

It will be wise perhaps to point out in 
the beginning that Mr. Mills is in error 
in assuming that the present discussion 
is the result of the apprehensions or pre- 
judices of American protectionists and of 
the advocates of bimetallism in this 
country. He does not state in exact 
terms that this is the case, but it may 
reasonably be inferred from the prom- 
inence he gives to the expressions of two 
United States Senators, and the stress 
he lays on the antipathy to Mongol- 
ian immigration, that he thinks the dis- 
cussion has been precipitated by Am- 

Nothing could be further from the 
truth than such an assumption. The 
subject had been ably discussed in Eng-j 
land long before it received serious atten- 
tion in this country. The Consular 
Agents of Great Britain in Oriental ports 
for years past have been faithfully not- 
ing the rapid development of the modern 
industrial system in Japan and China 
and pointing out its effects on British 
trade. The matter has so exercised . 
English intellect that it forces itself into 
all sorts of discussions. A recent and 
most curious instance of this is contained 
in Lecky's " Democracy and Liberty." 
Professor Lecky, who is a pronounced 
free trader, has been so much impressed 
by the modernization of industry in the 
Orient he does not hesitate to throw out ] 
the intimation that the condition of labor 


throughout the whole world may be 
revolutionized by the n'ew development. 
After relating that " Japan has followed 
swiftly in the steps of India," and that 


it already possesses a large, flourishing 
and rapidly growing cotton manufacture," 
he goes on to say that: 

"In the great awakening which is taking place 
in the East the same industry is likely to spread 
through other countries, where the manufacturer 
may have his cotton growing at his door, where 
the cost of living and the price of labor are a 
mere fraction of what they are in Europe, where 
labor is so abundant that machinery might 
easily be worked the whole of the 24 hours by 
relays of fresh laborers.'' 

Captain Lugard, who has made an 
especial study of Asiatic markets with 
reference to the extension of British trade 
speaks in the September number of the 
'Nineteenth Century of " the rise of a new 
commercial power, Japan, which bids 
fair to become a successful rival of Eng- 
land in the markets of China and the 
East," and Sir Alfred Lyall in the same 
review declared that "we are discover- 
ing not without anxiety, that by forcing 
open the gates of commerce with the in- 
dustrial races of Asia we have let out 
upon ourselves a flood of formidable com- 

In a noteworthy article under the cap- 
tion " 1920"- which appeared in the De- 
cember Contemporary Review the writer 
says: "We shall have to face, in the 
near future, a very serious or even ruin- 
ous commercial competition," and he 
sums up by saying that "the general 
outlook for the future is very threatening 
for Great Britain whose prosperity is so 
largely based upon and bound up with 
commercial success. We seem likely to 
be underbid by Eastern competition, 
first, in all the Eastern markets, and 
then in the natural and inevitable course 
of things in all the world's markets." 

When we add to expressions such as 
the above the predictions of Sir Edwin 
Arnold that Japan will attain commercial 
supremacy; the testimony of the cor- 
respondent of the London Times, who 
made a special investigation of the sub- 

ject, and pointed out the enormous ad- 
vantages of Japan; the warnings of 
numerous English consuls who have 
carefully noted the facts which are prac- 
tically only beginning to attract attention 
in this country; the offering of large 
money prizes by Englishmen for the best 
essays on the subject of Oriental compe- 
tition, and the fact which Mr. Mills does 
rne the honor to mention, that an article 
on the subject of Japanese commercial 
development, prepared by me for the 
Chronicle, " has been extensively copied 
in English publications," it must be 
admitted that Mr. Mills has made a mis- 
take in assuming, even by indirection, 
that the talk about the dangers of Ori- 
ental competition is merely the product 
of prejudice diligently made use of by 
American politicians to attach the people 
of this country still further to the doctrine 
of protection. 

Mr.. Mills presents an interesting sketch 
of the industrial progress of Japan and 
concludes it with the observation that 
" the inherent capacities of its people are 
clearly disclosed in the statement that a 
well defined form of organized society, 
with a well established central authority 
in government, with other attributes of 
civilized life, had existed in Japan for 
2,500 years at the time when modern 
civilization found these people and pro- 
nounced their condition to be one of 
arrested development." It is not quite 
clear that an arrest of development is 
due to lack of capacity. A stationary 
stage in human progress sometimes 
merely represents a breathing spell. If 
Mr. Mills' theory were sound the indict- 
ment of incapacity would have to be 
brought against all Western peoples, for 
their development was certainly arrested 
during the long period known as the 
" dark ages." For centuries Europe re- 
mained under a cloud. Commercial en- 
terprise was only sporadic in character. 


Measured by modern standard there was 
no progress. Population increased with 
incredible slowness, and the compara- 
tively few inhabitants seemed to main- 
tain existence with difficulty. But the 
discovery of America changed conditions 
as if by magic. -It is not necessary to 
inquire here whether the new vent for 
enterprise caused the awakening or 
whether it was the abundant supply of 
the precious metals derived from the 
mines of the new world. We only need 
to refer to it to emphasize the fact that 
there was a period of arrested develop- 
ment in Europe, which the subsequent 
exploits of its people abundantly prove 
was not due to lack of inherent capacity. 
So too with Japan. Her civilization 
developed along certain lines and finally 
there was an arrest of progress. But 
with the readvent of the Westerns, who 
forcibly imposed upon the Japanese 
their ideas and methods, came .a re- 
markable change. They were scarcely 
influenced by the Dutch and Portuguese, 
whose trading and visits Mr. Mills de- 
scribed. The Dutch and Portuguese 
were merely bent on trade. They were 
not propagandists as were the Americans 
and English, particularly the latter, who 
unquestionably, as every line of Sir 
Harry Parkes' diplomatic correspondence 
attests, were bent on inducing the Japan- 
ese to adopt Western habits so that they 
would become large customers of British 
manufactured goods. The operations of 
the Japanese and the Dutch and Portu- 
guese were like the currents in two 
sluggish streams flowing side by side 
without interfering with each other; but 
when the Americans and English came 
the result was such as may be witnessed 
when a mighty stream, fed by the copi- 
ous rains of one section, discharges its 
turbid waters into another great river 
nearer the ocean, imparting to the latter 
all its characteristics, including its muddi- 

Mr. Mills calls attention to the fact 
that an attempt was made sometime be- 
tween 1600 and 1610 to introduce the 
art of shipbuilding, as understood by the 
Europeans, into Japan, and infers that 
because absolutely no progress was made 
for over three hundred years in this in- 
dustry that the Japanese lacked both 
capacity and appreciation. But there is 
a well authenticated story which may 
perhaps explain this. It is related in an 
American official document that when 
the ruler of Japan, on the occasion of a 
noted European interference, saw the 
efficiency of the fighting ships of the 
Westerns, he promptly told his officers 
that it would be senseless to attempt to 
cope with such superior machines. His 
discovery of Japanese impotency seems 
to mark the rude awakening of the na- 
tion which first manifested itself in extra- 
ordinary attempts, to imitate the customs, 
dress and everything else of the power- 
ful people who had invaded their shores. 
The contempt with which the Dutch and 
Portuguese, whom they only knew as 
traders, were regarded, gave place to a 
wholesome respect and appreciation of 
the abilities of the invaders. In the be- 
ginning the peculiar manifestations of the 
changed spirit of the Japanese excited 
gentle amusement among European resi- 
dents and travelers in that country. 
The spectacle of a people who had devel- 
oped a convenient and tasteful dress for 
both sexes discarding it for the stiff and 
highly inconvenient European garb, pro- 
voked sympathy. It must be confessed 
that the first appearance of Japanese in 
billycock hats must have seemed ludi- 
crous, but these who made fun of the 
tendency to imitate, did not see back of 
it the menace of meeting the Westerns 
on their own ground, or they might have 
considered the matter more seriously. 
Had the Japanese merely taken to the 
wearing of billycock hats, provided by 
foreigners, the amusement would have 


been strongly tinctured with satisfaction 
over the prospect of thirty or forty 
millions of new customers for English, 
French, German and American manu- 
factured goods. But when the Japanese 
began to make their own billycock hats 
and weave the fabrics from which they 
fashioned their European-cut clothes, and 
not only this, but to presume to sell 
billycock hats and European clothes in 
competition with the foreigners who had 
planted themselves on Japanese soil, the 
point of view changed. Then it began 
to be perceived that the remarkable 
imitativeness, allied with the acknow- 
ledged skill and taste of the Japanese, 
might result in the creation of a formid- 
able competition whose operations would 
make the once expressed belief that the 
Orientals would always be the customers 
of Western workshops vanish like an 
iridescent dream. 

How well founded this apprehension 
was the present extraordinary develop- 
ment of Japan's manufacturing industries 
exhibits. Every day fresh testimony is 
being added to that we already have on 
the subject. Not alone by protectionists 
desirous ot proving a case is the evidence 
being piled up that Japan is bound to 
become a formidable manufacturing rival ; 
the free-traders who are anxious to break 
the force of the protectionist argument 
are contributing to the general stock of 
information. We have the statement of 
the American Minister to Japan, Mr. 
Dun, made in the middle of May, that 
"with unlimited cheap skilled labor, an 
abundance of coal and magnificent water 
power, the indications are that in the near 
future the manufacturing industries of 
Japan will increase enormously." "In 
the near future " is a vague phrase, but 
it must be remembered that Mr. Dun, as 
a free-trader, is trying to make the best 
of his case, and there is a suspicion that 
he wishes to divert attention from the 

imminence of the trouble by an admis- 
sion. There is, however, abundant proof 
that Japanese manufactures have already 
increased at such a pace that the record 
of American progress has been paled. 
Some of it will be adduced later on in this 
article, but before parting from Minister 
Dun it is desirable to call attention to a 
remarkable suggestion thrown out by him 
which has an ominous ring. In the same 
paragraph in which he speaks of the en- 
ormous prospective increase in the near 
future of Japan's manufacturing indus- 
tries, owing to her possession of " un- 
limited cheap skilled labor, etc." he says : 
" When the new treaties come into 
operation there will, however, be nothing 
to hinder American enterprise from taking 
advantage of these great opportunities by 
starting factories in Japan." 

It does not occur to Minister Dun to 
assert that American manufactories can 
successfully compete on even terms with 
the "unlimited cheap skilled labor of 
Japan," for the terrible advantages of 
that country have been too painfully im- 
pressed on him ; and being an appointee 
of a "tariff reform," i.e. free-trade ad- 
ministration, he does not venture to sug- 
gest protection, but desirous of imparting 
some comfort he points out that the manu- 
facturers of the United States may trans- 
plant their capital and machinery to a 
place where it may be operated profitably. 

Adam Smith, the so-called father of 
modern political economy, is responsible 
for the obscuration of a tendency which 
he had himself noticed, but which he care- 
fully avoided discussing. He stated in 
his "Wealth of Nations" that he had 
" been assured by British merchants 
who had traded in both countries that the 
profits of trade are higher in France than 
in England ; and it is no doubt on this 
account that many British subjects choose 
rather to employ their capitals in a country 
where trade is in disgrace, than in one 



where it is highly respected." He then 
goes on to explain that "the wages of 
labor are lower in France than in England, 
and seemsto think that an impelling cause 
of this kind will always operate power- 
fully enough to remove capital from the 
countries in which labor is highly recom- 
pensed to those where the working man 
is not so largely rewarded. 

The mobility of capital which the 
above observation illustrates would have 
attracted more attention had Smith not 
dwelt with such persistency upon his 
theory of the creation of capital. In 
scores of places in his book he emphasizes 
the idea that seems to be continually 
present in his mind that each country 
must create its own capital. His princi- 
pal argument against artificial stimulus to 
manufactures rests on the postulate that 
the country devoid of a manufacturing 
industry ought not to possess one until 
by accretions of savings in primary in- 
dustries it can spare enough capital for 
the purpose without injuring agricultural 
or pastoral pursuits. He says in Book 
IV., chap, i, that "no regulations of 
commerce can increase the quantity of 
industry in any society beyond what its 
capital can maintain. ' It can only divert 
a part of it in a direction into which it 
might otherwise not have gone, and it is 
by no means certain that this artificial 
direction is likely to be more advantageous 
to the society than that into which it 
would have gone of its own accord." 
Had Adam Smith given due importance to 
the fluidity of capital, and had he not 
underrated the capacity of man to create 
it, he would have foreseen the enormous 
part which the surplus capital of England 
would play in the development of the in- 
dustries of rival countries. We have the 
authority of J. Thorold Rogers for the 
statement that "there are said to be 
% 10,000,000,000 of foreign indebtedness 
known or ticketed as English property," 

and the winner of one of the prizes re- 
cently offered by the London Statist, for 
the best essays on Imperial Federation, 
figures the foreign credits held by Eng- 
lishmen at the enormous total of $i 5 ,000,- 

These vast holdings of Englishmen re- 
present in large part capital employed in 
the development of industries in countries 
foreign to Great Britain. An immense 
amount of British capital is invested in 
the United States, and has been employed 
in the construction and operations of rail- 
roads, the opening of mines, and the 
prosecution of manufacturing industries. 
Of course it would be preposterous to 
assert that any portion of this capital, 
which has been tempted into American 
enterprises by the protective tariffs of 
the United States, was at the expense' 
of the agricultural development of the 
country. This, however, seems to be 
the assumption of American free-traders 
who have servilely followed a part of 
Smith's text and who have failed to per- 
ceive that he wrote at a time when it 
would have been almost impossible to 
foresee the conditions of modern industry. 

But apart from the failure of Smith and 
his earlier followers to divine modern 
conditions, the argument above quoted 
would hardly have fitted those which 
prevailed in England when Smith wrote. 
He informs us in several places that manu- 
factories react favorably upon agriculture, 
and in Book I., chap. 21, he develops the 
idea that there can be no satisfactory ad- 
vance in agriculture unless it is preceded 
by a highly developed manufacturing in- 
dustry. He says : 

Though it is late, therefore, in the progress of 
improvement before cattle can bring such a price 
as to render it profitable to cultivate land for the 
sake of feeding them, yet of all the different 
parts which compose this second sort of rude pro- 
duce they are perhaps the first which bring this 
price ; because till they bring it, it seems impos- 
sible that improvement can be brought near even 



to that degree of perfection to which it has arrived 
in many parts of Europe. 

In further elucidating this idea he says : 

It is of more consequence that the capital of a 
manufacturer should reside within the country. 
It necessarily puts into motion a greater quantity 
of productive labor and adds a greater value to 
the produce of the land and labor of the society. 

There can be no question about the 
truth and force of this observation. When 
the great spool cotton manufacturing con- 
cern of Paisley, Scotland, concluded to 
transfer a portion of its capital to the 
United States, for the purpose of availing 
itself of the advantages of our protective 
laws, a direct benefit was conferred on 
agriculture. The improvement of the 
lands in the vicinity of the immense con- 
cern established in this country was pro- 
moted, and farmers profited thereby. 
And what is true of this one concern is 
equally true of all the industrial concerns 
planted in the United States with foreign 
capital. The agriculturist would never 
have had occasion to complain of the re- 
sults of the fructifying influence of im- 
ported capital if the measurer of values 
had not been tampered with, compelling 
him to surrender more than an equitable 
share of his produce for its use in the 
development of the country. 

There is no doubt that the manufac- 
turing industry would have made pro- 
gress in Japan without the assistance of 
outside capital, but its phenomenally 
rapid expansion can only be explained by 
the fact -that foreigners, as they did in 
this country, are availing themselves of 
the opportunity to profitably employ the 
" unlimited skilled cheap labor ' ' of Japan 
that Minister Dun speaks of. How rapid 
this development is even those who are 
narrowly observing can hardly tell. 
When the writer first heard Mr. Mills' 
interesting paper read a gentleman who 
had the fortune to be a listener cor- 
roborated a detail which suggested that 

the Japanese had been unable to spin the 
finer counts of yarns, and were content- 
ing themselves with the manufacture of 
the coarser variety of cotton goods. The 
inference was that a people who had con- 
fined themselves to the production of 
coarse cotton manufactures could not be 
considered formidable competitors of those 
who had developed the textile industry 
to its present high state of perfection. 
Had the observation been correct its force 
would have been admitted, and there 
might have been some reason for assum- 
ing that the Japanese would confine them- 
selves to the production of the coarse 
cotton cloths required for the dense popu- 
lation of the country. But we are told 
by Kaneko Kentaro, Japanese Vice-Min- 
ister of State for Agriculture and Com- 
merce, that in " in 1895 there had been 
more or less production of smaller kinds 
of smaller (yarn)" and that " the pro- 
duction of smaller -kinds of thread is in- 
creasing year after year," so we must 
perforce assume that in the very near 
future all the fine counts of cotton yarn 
used in Japan will be spun in that country. 
This may also be inferred from the ex- 
plicit statement of the official above 
quoted, that when all the spindles in 
Japan, and those of new plants pro- 
jected and under way t are set to work 
"there will be an excess after it has 
supplied the home demand, and the 
amount of cotton cloth or thread exported 
will be greatly increased." 

There is no escape from the logic of 
such statements. Translated into plain 
English they mean that Japan is already 
on the verge of supplying her home 
demand, and that she will soon become 
a large exporter of her surplus pro- 
duction She began exporting long be- 
fore she had developed the ability to sup- 
ply the home demand, a circumstance 
both significant and ominous. 

An editorial writer in the " New York 



World" commenting on the expansion of 
the Japanese cotton spinning and weav- 
ing industry remarked that it would be 
time enough for Americans to feel ap- 
prehensive when the Japanese found 
themselves able to supply their home 
market and the markets of the Oriental 
countries they are in close touch with. 
The remark is about as sensible as it 
would be for the inhabitant of a town in 
a gorge like that in which Johnstown is 
situated, to say it will be time enough to 
manifest anxiety about a flood of waters 
let loose by the breaking of a dam, when 
all the towns above are swept away. 
The flippant commentator of the World 
entirely overlooked the fact that India 
has already developed a large cotton 
spinning and weaving industry, and that 
China threatens to emulate the Japanese 
example, and apply its still larger supply 
of cheap labor to the same manufactures. 
What the result of such a contest will 
be may easily be divined. In the Lon- 
don Times of December 12, 1895 was 
printed the account of an interview be- 
tween Lord George Hamilton, Secretary 
of State for India, and a delegation of 
Lancashire cotton manufacturers, who 
were protesting against the imposition of 
the Indian Government of a duty of five 
per cent on manufactured cottons im- 
ported into India. During the discussion 
his Lordship stated that "Great Britain 
is the greatest producing and exporting 
country in the world." " I do not know," 
he added, "if many people are aware 
that, taking the returns of the last ten 
years, the exports of cotton manufactures 
alone comprise twenty-five per cent, on 
the average, of the whole total exports 
of Great Britain and that they amount 
on average to the enormous total of 60,- 
000,000 sterling per year." The simple 
contemplation of the fact contained in 
this statement ought to convince anyone 
that the success of Oriental competition 

in this one industry would bring disaster 
to the Western world. It is not necessary 
as the writer in the World assumes that 
Japan should commence shipping manu- 
factured cotton goods to us to feel the 
evil effects of the competition, she only 
needs to accomplish the occupation of the 
Oriental markets to produce disastrous 
results. If England and Germany are 
shut out of the Orient the protection wall 
of the United States would have to be 
reared as high against them as though 
we were confronted with a flood of direct 
imports from Japan. 

Mr. Mills in his article lays great stress 
on the efficiency of labor and contends 
that the admitted superiority of the 
Westerns will more than offset the as- 
sumed advantage of Japanese cheap 
labor. But this is a broken reed to lean 
upon. Results are more to the point 
than theories. We know that the su- 
perior Englishmen in the Lancashire cot- 
ton weaving and spinning districts have 
been unable to earn dividends for the 
owners of the mills in which they work, 
many factories in Oldham and other 
places having been operated at a loss 
during several years past, while joint 
stock companies operating cotton factor- 
ies in Japan have earned dividends rang- 
ing from fifteen to thirty-six per cent., 
per annum. Some doubt is also thrown 
upon the greater efficiency of labor theory 
by the frank statement of William Tat- 
tersoll in an article in the " Fortnightly " 
of February of 1896. Mr. Tattecsoll was 
selected by the cotton manufacturing in- 
terest of Lancashire to state its position 
on the question of the Indian duties. In 
the course of his argument he declares 
that " in face of the keen competition to 
which we are yearly more subject, Lan- 
cashire cannot afford to be handicapped 
in competing with India even to the ex- 
tent of one and one-half per cent, for 
although seemingly a small percentage, 



it is equal to .1,000 per year in favor of 
India on every 1,000 looms, which of it- 
self is a profit for which Lancashire man- 
ufacturers would be thankful." Surely 
there is no exultant note in this state- 
ment such as we should be likely to hear 
if the manufacturers of Lancashire felt 
confident that they could hold their own 
through the superior skill of their work- 
ingmen. Running factories at a loss year 
after year has taught them the vanity of 
the Cobdenite assumption , and as practical 
men they realize that dividends tell the 
story more truthfully than the a priori 
conclusions fraudulently put forth as the 
results of induction. 

The absolute unreliability of the super- 
ior efficiency of labor theory is being dis- 
proved every day in Europe. The almost 
pitiful attempts of English trades-union 
managers to persuade their fellows on 
the Continent to conform their standard 
of hours of labor to that of English work- 
ingmen show how keen is the contest, 
and that the better informed of the Eng- 
lish working classes realize that the in- 
evitable tendency of unrestricted com- 
petition is bound to reduce labor to that 
economic condition in which wages are 
constantly being pressed to the limit of 
subsistence. Lecky in his " Democracy 
and Liberty " notes this condition of 
affairs and says: 

"It is far from improbable that, in no very 
distant future, some of the chief centers of the 
cotton manufacture may be in these regions (the 
Orient); or, if the legislative tendencies that now 
prevail in England increase, it is also probable 
that the machinery that works them may be 
largely provided by English capital. The capit- 
alist, discouraged and restricted at home, will 
find his profit but what would be the fate of the 
English workman ? " 

The legislation here referred to is that 
which supports the pretensions of the 
trades unions, and the discouragement 
and restrictions of the manufacturer, 
which Professor Lecky speaks of, are 

those which he meets when attempting 
to cut down the wages or increase the 
hours of labor of his workingmen in his 
efforts to hold, his own against the labor 
which is supposed to be inefficient be- 
cause of its cheapness. 

In the space at the command of the 
writer it would be impossible to fully 
discuss Mr. Mills' assertion that " How- 
ever nominally cheap the labor employed 
in agricultural production in Japan, it 
becomes dear when judged by the stand- 
ard of productiveness;" and his further 
declaration that, "farm labor in Califor- 
nia is cheaper by what might be termed 
an infinite degree without exaggeration." 

It cannot have occurred to Mr. 
Mills, when he took this ground, 
that valuable inferences representing re- 
lative cheapness can only be drawn from 
carefully observed results. We are re- 
minded by Mr. Mills, in comparing Japan 
with the United States, that the former 
has a territorial area of only 155,000 
square miles, comprising thirty million 
acres of cultivable land, or a quantity of 
7,000,000 acres less than California pos- 
sesses. And yet Japan with the smaller 
area produces nearly enough food to feed 
forty millions of people, and has an ex- 
tensive system of farming such as Kra- 
potkin and others, who have made a 
special study of the subject, say must be 
resorted to in the future if peace and the 
present state of health continues to ob- 
tain throughout the world. 

Mr. Mills tries to destroy the force of 
the writer's assumption, made in an 
article on the subject which appeared in 
the Chronicle, that the state of education 
and simplicity of life are such in Japan 
that there is little hope that the standard 
of living in the Orient can be brought up 
to anywhere near the level of that of the 
working classes of the Western world by 
arguing that it would be foolish "to 
assume that a race of men will become 


producers of wealth on a very large 
scale without becoming consumers on a 
correspondingly increased scale is to at- 
tribute to them the stolidity of purpose 
to become rich without other object than 
the mere love of being productive with- 
out any corresponding personal benefits 
to themselves." Mr. Mills here fails to 
distinguish that a nation may grow 
wealthy without an equitable distribu- 
tion of the increased wealth. He must 
be aware that in Russia the producers of 
wheat consume rye bread, being too 
poor to consume bread made from the 
wheat they raise. He also knows that 
Germany has created a colossal beet 
sugar industry without increasing her 
consumption of sugar in anything like 
the ratio of her production. It is one of 
the curious anomalies of this industry 
that the United States and Great Britain, 
which produce scarcely any beet or other 
sugar, consume nearly fifty per cent 
rflore sugar than the countries of contin- 
ental Europe which yield a tremendous 
quantity annually. 

In 1887 the Continent produced 2,732,- 
ooo tons of sugar and consumed only i,- 
900,000 tons, while the United States 
and England together absorbed 2,600,000 
tons. The beet sugar production of Ger- 
many, according to Mulhall, was 297,000 
tons in 1879. Licht's estimate of the 
crops available for 1895-96 is that Ger- 
many will have 1,560,000 tons of sugar. 
There are no exact data of consumption 
at hand, but it is not, according to one 
authority, likely this year to exceed 23 
pounds per capita per annum. If this is 
correct then we have the spectacle of a 
five fold increase of production, while 
during the same interval the consump- 
tion has only advanced from 15 to 23 
pounds per capita per annum. In one 
case a 500 per cent increase and in the 
oiher 50 per cent, a ratio which com- 
pletely negatives Mr. Mills' assumption 

"that the consumption of any people 
keeps pace with their productive capa- 

There is no more foundation for such 
ari assumptson than that under existing 
economic conditions the effective con- 
suming ability of the world can keep 
pace with the production of improved 
machinery. The distinguished econom- 
ist Malthus formulated a theory which 
most thinkers have recognized as sound, 
namely, that the production of food 
stuffs only increasing in arithmetical 
ratio, population which increases in a 
geometrical ratio must overtake pro- 
duction and ultimately press the limits of 
subsistence. It is true that since Malthus 
wrote ratios of production, and the ability 
to effectively consume have undergone a 
great change owing to the multiplication 
of improved machines. But this ma- 
chinery, which so greatly increases pro- 
duction, is largely in the hands of a class 
which has reached the limit of its con- 
sumptive ability, while those who mani- 
pulate the machines are becoming rela- 
tively few in number. Thus we have 
presented to us the phenomenon of ability 
to produce increasing at a tremendous 
pace, while the number of consumers is 
relatively declining and the consumers 
are constantly becoming less able to 
absorb the products. The term labor 
saving is perfectly familiar to us, but has 
any one formed a concept of its ultimate 
possibilities ? If a machine can be made 
which will do the work of a thousand men, 
why not one that will displace 10,000 or 
a 100,000? What becomes of these dis- 
placed men? Adam Smith and his dis- 
ciples jauntily assume that the man 
driven out of one employment by im- 
proved machinery could easily betake 
himself to another. But the modern 
world knows the difficulty of such a 
transference. The country which gave 
birth to Smith's idea supports at the pub- 


lie expense a million paupers and has 
perhaps a couple of million more, un- 
known to the official statistician, within 
its borders whose poverty can largely be 
traced to improved machinery. 

It is because machinery can be inde- 
finitely supplied that the world has been 
compelled to reject the economic theories 
which Mr. Mills extolls. He says : 

The commercial policy of Great Britain ap- 
pears to be devised with reference to the most 
advantageous trade relations with all the nations 
of the world. The policy of America appears to 
be devised with reference largely to commercial 
exchange with ourselves. 

This does not exactly state the case. 
The theory or policy of the American 
protectionists is founded on the observa- 
tion of the fact that the conduct of a 
roundabout foreign trade is economically 
wasteful. Adam Smith fully illustrates 
the truth of this. Protectionists contend 
that it is absurd to import those things 
which can be economically produced at 
home, and assert that any exchange of 
commodities between nations except of 
those kinds which are not mutually pro- 
ducable, if the term may be used, is both 
illogical and unprofitable. It is foolish, 
they insist, for Americans to import iron 
and steel and cotton from Great Britain 
because the United States produces those 
things in abundance and must produce 
them to preserve her existence ; but it is 
sensible and profitable to import coffee 
from Brazil because it cannot be raised in 
the United States. In short, they agree 
with Adam Smith that "the capital em- 
ployed in the home trade of any country 
will generally give encouragement and 
support to a greater quantity of labor in 
that country, and increase the value of 
its annual produce more than equal capi- 
tal employed in the foreign trade of con- 
sumption ; and that the capital employed 
in this latter trade has in both these re- 
spects a still greater advantage over an 

equal capital employed in the carrying 
trade." Even if Americans did not 
have the stimulus of a sound economic 
axiom like the above to impel them to 
devote themselves to developing the 
resources of their own country rather 
than to turn to the less profitable pur- 
suits of a trade of foreign consumption, 
whether roundabout or direct, there are 
causes at work which would force them 
in upon themselves and prevent them 
imitating the commercial policy of Great 
Britain, which was not chosen by the 
people of that country but was imposed 
upon them by circumstances. It is a 
fact which is becoming more and more 
recognized that the capabilities of peo- 
ples are very nearly balanced, and that 
the hitherto fancied natural advantages 
of one country or nation over another in 
manufacturing were simply due to prior 
occupation of the field or superior accum- 
ulations of capital invested in improved 
machinery. But the facility with which 
capital is created when the work of de- 
veloping the resources of a country is 
once vigorously entered upon soon wipes 
out such advantages. As a consequence 
we see England forced to abandon her 
ideas of commercial supremacy and com- 
pelled to engage in a competitive struggle 
with rivals which she once despised. 
There is not a self respecting modern 
nation which is not now eagerly striving 
to effect its industrial emancipation not 
alone for economic but for political rea- 
sons as well. Under such circumstances 
economic maxims, no matter how beau- 
tiful or apparently symetrical, must dis- 
appear, for when nations conclude that 
commercial and industrial independence 
are essential to the preservation of their 
integrity all other considerations will be 
swept aside. As a matter of fact the 
free trade idea has run its day. Pro- 
fessor Lecky tells the truth when he 
asserts that free trade is only retained 


as a policy by Great Britain for selfish 
reasons and because that country cannot 
help itself. He says : 

In England more than in any other great 
country, free trade holds its ground, and it still 
governs our commercial legislation. But Eng- 
land is very isolated, and if I read aright average 
educated opinion, the doctrine has become some- 
thing very different from the confident Evangel 
of Cobden. It has come to mean little more 
than a conviction that, if all nations agreed to 
adopt free trade, it would be a benefit to the 
world as a whole, though not every part of it ; 
that though protective duties are of great value 
in fostering the infancy of manufactures, they 
should not be continued when these manufac- 
tures have reached their maturity, or be great- 
est when there is no probability that they may 
one day be disregarded ; that free trade is the 
manifest interest of a great commercial country 
which does not produce sufficient food for its 
substance, while its ships may be met on every 
sea, and its manufactures might almost supply 
the world ; that cheap raw materials and cheap 
food are essential conditions of English manufac- 
turing supremacy. 

There is not sufficient space to discuss 
all the points raised in this paragraph ; 
it is only quoted to show that England 
has adopted the free trade policy because 
she believed it essential to the mainten- 
ance of her commercial supremacy and 
because she hoped that her factories 
would become the workshops of the 
whole world. To achieve this object 
her economists have laboriously built up 
a theory which will yet come home to 
England to plague her. If the prime 
object of the removal of all restraints 
from import trade was to give the British 
the cheap food and raw products so 
essential to carrying out the policy of 
promoting her manufacturing supremacy, 
it may occur to the nations having cheap 
food and raw products to make them still 
cheaper and keep them at home so as 
to promote manufactures in their own 
midst. Indeed this has already been 
done to some extent, although not by 
premeditation and the singular and al- 

together anomalous result has been to 
provoke free trade opposition. The case 
of Germany's bounties to sugar pro- 
ducers is referred to. This policy has 
so greatly stimulated the production of 
beet sugar in Germany that the cane 
sugar industries of certain English col- 
onies have been nearly destroyed, and 
the business of refining sugar has almost 
become a lost art in England. This re- 
sult has promoted the extraordinary 
spectacle of an English commission act- 
ually begging the Germans to cease 
making sugar cheaper. 

But this is digressing into a general 
discussion of the question of protection, 
pardonable enough under the circum- 
stances, for Mr. Mills' article, to which 
this is a rejoinder, depended almost 
wholly upon the a priori assumption 
of free traders that we need not 
fear Japanese competition. To return 
to this detail of the subject, and to per- 
haps fittingly conclude it, it may be well 
to note an exception taken by Mr. Mills 
to a statement in my article in which 1 
took the liberty of questioning the accur- 
acy of some figures presented by him in 
a letter which was published in the Call. 

Mr. Mills, if he was not misquoted, 
said that "our imports from Japan of 
manufactured silk in 1894 aggregated 
$16,234,182 while our imports of silk in 
the form of manufactured articles only 
reached the value of $755,404." Com- 
menting on this I pointed out that while 
the total imports of all kinds of silks in 
the year named amounted to #11,458,- 
132.86, the proportion of manufactured 
silk goods was $4,205,460. 

The noting of this inaccuracy was un- 
important, but the deduction I drew from 
the fact that in the total Japanese ex- 
port trade of $56,982,957 in 1894, the 
manufactured goods amounted to #17,- 
604,304 was highly so and seems to me 
to be very significant. If we bear in 



mind that after a century of atten- 
tion to manufacturing the people of 
the United States have only succeeded 
in making the proportion of their manu- 
factured exports to the exports of the 
rude products of the soil reach 23 per 
cent, and that the Japanese in scarce a 
score of years have reached the pro- 
portion of 31 per cent of manufactured 
to rude products in their exports the 
importance of the observation will be 

It would be a waste of space to repeat 
all the details which have led the writer 
to the conclusion that the Japanese are 
destined to become formidable competi- 
tors of Western peoples, but it may not 
be amiss to correct an impression which 
Mr. Mills' limited list'of exports of manu- 
factured articles from Japan may have 
created by printing a tolerably complete 
one. According to the official reports 
the Japanese in 1894 exported bamboo 
ware, beverages, books, boots and shoes, 
carpets, cotton manufactures, fans, drugs, 
furniture, glassware, hats and caps, 
ivory ware, jinrikishas, lacquer ware, 
lanterns, leather and ware, imitation 

paper, matches, mats, metal ware, brass 
wire and ware, bronze and ware, copper 
wire and ware, gold and silver ware, 
paper, paper ware, screens, silks, soaps, 
straw braids, tortoise shell, cigarettes, 
umbrellas, and wooden ware. These 
different articles the Japanese exported 
to the value of $17,604,304 in 1894. An 
inspection of the list shows that with few 
exceptions they are such things as come 
in direct competition with similar ware 
manufactured in Europe and this coun- 
try. We are told by trustworthy ob- 
servers that they display extraordinary 
skill in the manufacture of all these art- 
icles, and that they have taken advan- 
tage of their unrivalled powers of imita- 
tion to copy some of our most valuable 
patented machinery, there being no in- 
ternational agreement which would re- 
strain such an act. The circumstances 
here presented and an infinite quantity 
of equally strong evidence convinces the 
writer that Sir Edwin Arnold was not 
visionary when he declared that Japan 
had a better chance in the race for the 
commercial supremacy of the world than 
any other nation. 

John P. Young. 




ANY of you doubtless 
remember that de- 
lightful scene in the 
Vicar of Wakefield, 
where the principal of the University of 
Louvain says to the young hero, " You 
see me, young man? 1 never learned 
Greek, and don't find that I have ever 
lissed it. I have a doctor's cap 
id gown without Greek; I have ten 

'Portions of an address delivered at Mount Tamalpais 
lilitary Acadtmy. 

thousand florins a year without Greek; 
I eat heartily without Greek; and in short, 
as I don't know Greek, I don't believe 
there is any good in it." z 

The worthy gentleman of Louvain has 
many sympathizers in our own time, 
successful men of the world, who feel 
that anything of which they are them- 
selves ignorant cannot be essential as a 

2 For this illustration, as well as for several other sug- 
gestions I am indebted to Professor Butcher's admirable 
book " Some Aspects of Greek Genius." 



preparation for life. It is natural that 
Greek should bear the brunt of the attack 
which is often made against our whole 
system of classical education, and I shall 
therefore confine myself chiefly to this 
side of my subject, in this plea for the 

For the purposes of our discussion we 
may accept the popular distinction be- 
tween education which is practical, and 
that which has for its object the training 
and enlarging of the mind, and the 
acquisition of wide intelligence. This 
distinction has been used a thousand 
times to give point to the current argu- 
ment against the study of the classics. 
"We have not time for Latin and 
Greek;" the busy world tells us. "Give 
us something more practical. Now this 
word " practical " plays so important a 
part in every discussion of this question, 
that it may be worth our while to stop 
for a moment and see what it really 

Practical education, we should all 
agree, is that education which a man 
will use in his daily life. To ascertain, 
then, what studies are truly practical, 
we must inquire how much education 
the average man actually uses in his 
ordinary occupations. The answer is a 
very easy one. Every man must be 
able to read and write ; he must know 
enough of arithmetic to perform the 
ordinary computations of business ; and 
if we add to this a slight acquaintance 
with the history and politics of our 
country, we have mentioned all the 
branches of study which are universally 
necessary. 1 say universally neces- 
sary, for, of course, each man must add 
to this general education the knowledge 
of those subjects with which he, in parti- 
cular, expects to deal. The miller must 
understand the manufacture of flour, the 
bookkeeper must understand accounts, 
the physician and apothecary must un- 

derstand physics. So, too, the clergy- 
man must know something of Hebrew, 
and the professor of Sanskrit must be 
familiar with the Vedas. But all of these 
subjects may be left out of our considera- 
tion at present, since we are not now 
speaking of special, or professional edu- 
cation, the necessity of which we should 
all admit, but of that education which 
men in general must have, to prepare 
them for the duties of every day life. 

On this basis the only practical sub- 
jects are reading/writing and arithmetic. 
Even English grammar may be omitted, 
for every one knows that correct speech 
is far more easily learned by imitation, 
than by formal study. If, then, educa- 
tion is to be conducted on a severely 
practical basis, a boy needs only to go 
through the grades of the common school, 
and then he must decide at once what 
his life work is to be, and devote himself 
strictly to preparation for that. The 
high school, the academy and the uni- 
versity, will practically disappear, since 
the public cannot afford to keep up elab- 
orate courses in physics for the few who 
are to become electricians, or provide 
instruction in Latin for the handful of 
teachers and others whose life work will 
require them to use that language. The 
boy would pass directly from the common 
school to the business college, the trades 
school, the technical school, or the pro- 
fessional school, and you of the academy 
and we of the university would find our 
occupation gone. If we judge by the so- 
called practical standard, this should be 
our system of education. 

But perhaps you will object to this 
narrow limitation of the studies which 
are practical. " We believe in practical 
education," you will say, " but what 
studies could be more practical than 
physics and chemistry? Surely every 
boy should understand these subjects." 

Certainly he should, but not because 



they are practical in the narrow sense; 
not because he is going to use them in 
his daily life. There is so much of care- 
less statement on this point, that we must 
pause here and inquire how much the oft 
asserted practical utility of the study of 
science really amounts to. And in order 
to get at the truth we must free our minds 
from all cant, and look the facts squarely 
in the face. 

Let us take up the cases of a few 
average men, and ask their testimony. 
And perhaps 1 may be allowed to begin 
with myself, since I am the witness par- 
ticularly before you. In college I studied 
most of the branches of science usually 
taught, but today, so far as practical use 
goes, I could well afford to exchange my 
physics for Hebrew, and my chemistry 
for Zend. These languages, unimportant 
though they are, in comparison with many 
others, come oftener into my daily work 
than any branch of natural science. 

But you will say that I am not a fair 
witness, since my profession is that of a 
student of language. Well then, let us 
ask the average business man, who has 
studied natural science, just how much 
practical use he makes of it. When did 
you, sir, of the stock exchange, last 
make a practical use of chemistry? 
When did you, sir, dealer in dry goods, 
employ in your business your knowledge 
of physics? Does your chemistry en- 
able you to compound your own doctor's 
prescriptions, or to test the purity of the 
gold in a proffered coin? Does your 
physics make it possible for you to dis- 
pense with the services of the plumber? 
Or, 1 will leave it to you, young gentle- 
men, to inquire for yourselves. Ask your 
parents, ask your teachers, ask the first 
man you meet in the street, how much 
actual, practical use he makes of his 
knowledge of natural science, and unless 
his profession directly calls for such 
knowledge he will be at loss for an answer. 

Modern science is a wonderful thing, 
and there is no more beautiful illustration 
of its power than an electric railway; but 
when it comes to practical use, the most 
ignorant man in San Francisco, if he has 
the money to pay his fare, is as well off 
as Edison himself. 

"But," you will say, "the study of 
science makes us intelligent; it helps us 
to understand the world we live in." 

Ah yes ! the knowledge of the work- 
ings of nature is indeed of priceless value 
to every intelligent man, but not because 
he is going to use his knowledge in the 
daily business of life, for such actual use 
is confined to the very few men whose 
special profession or occupation calls for 
it. And this brings us to the second 
step in our argument. 

Our discussion so far has shown, 1 
think, that the test of so-called practical 
utility cannot be applied to education at 
all, outside of the common school, and 
the professional or trade school. The 
very men who object to the study of the 
classics as unpractical, would introduce, 
instead, other subjects which are equally 
unpractical, so far as the daily needs of 
the average man are concerned. In fact 
no one would think of excluding from our 
school all studies which will not be used/ 
by the ordinary man in his daily life; for 
this, as we have already seen, would be 
to destroy our whole system of education, 
and leave no mission for either the high 
school or the university to perform. We 
have, therefore, reached the point where 
we can affirm that it is not the object of 
education, in the secondary school or in 
the university, to give the young man 
merely those poor crumbs of learning 
which will help him in the narrow round 
of duties by which he earns his bread. 
Those boys who are so unfortunate as to 
be obliged to limit their studies to the 
requirements of such a theory, never, for 
the most part, reach the academy or the 


high school at all, but pass directly from 
the common school to the workshop or 
the farm. The education which is sought 
by every boy in an academy, and by 
nine-tenths of the pupils in our public 
high schools, is something quite differ- 
ent; its objects are far broader and deeper 
than merely to learn to do the one thing 
by which a living will be earned in later 
life; for there are few, indeed, who earn 
a living by means of algebra, or history, 
or chemistry, or English literature. 

We must try then, to define those 
broader objects which we have in view 
when we decide to carry a boy's educa- 
tion beyond the mere power to read and 
write and cipher, and the elements of the 
trade or profession by which he is to live. 
And when these objects are once clearly 
stated and apprehended, the value of the 
study of the classics, and particularly of 
Greek, will become so obvious as hardly 
to need further argument. 

In attempting to make this definition, 
I shall differ somewhat from many who 
have discussed this question, instatingthe 
point on which most stress should be laid. 
Much has been truly said, in the past, 
of mental discipline, as the most precious 
result of a liberal education. But it has 
been argued in reply, that this training 
of the mind should accrue to the earnest 
student as a necessary, but secondary, 
result of the educational process, while 
we are aiming at a more immediate ob- 
ject. The chief object, we may say, of all 
education beyond the narrow limits which 
have been mentioned, is to make a man 
intelligent, to help him to understand the 
world into which he has been born ; to 
put him in a position from which he can 
clearly see and comprehend the environ- 
ment in which he is placed and the var- 
ious factors with which he will have to 
cope. But this world in which he is to 
live consists of two parts or hemispheres, 
the physical and the intellectual, and 

both of these are of equal impor- 
tance. The knowledge of the physical 
world we call natural science, while that 
which has to do with man, as an intel- 
lectual being, includes literature, history, 
sociology in its broadest sense, and phil- 

A century ago physical science was in 
its infancy, and the chief stress in edu- 
cation was laid upon literature and philo- 
sophy. Today after the splendid triumphs 
of scientific discovery and invention we 
are in no danger of neglecting this side of 
education. Our error seems likely to 
lie in the opposite direction. We are 
becoming so absorbed in physical and 
material progress that we are inclined to 
forget that, after all, a man is infinitely 
more important and more interesting 
than a rock, and that an epic poem is 
more wonderful than a volcano. I for 
my part thoroughly believe in the study 
of physical science, and if there were 
any danger of its being neglected in our 
schools, I should be ready to speak in its 
defense. We cannot fail to honor its 
magnificent achievement, and all that it 
has done to make our lives easy and 
comfortable. But the study of nature 
and her works can never supplant or 
take the place of the knowledge of man 
and his creations. He who understands 
only science, and is not versed also in. 
literature, will always be a half-educated 
man. The troublesome problem of labor 
and capital is a standing lesson that 
science alone cannot pilot our civiliza- 
tion to its destined goal; for, as a recent 
writer has said, "You may mine ever so 
skilfully, but you will always have to 
settle with the crowd at the mouth of 
the pit." There is no quarrel between 
science and literature, for both should 
have their place in every scheme of 
liberal education, but I do not hesitate 
tosay, that if it were necessary to choose, 
a man could better afford to be ignorant 



of chemistry than of history, that he who 
has never read a play of Shakspere is a 
more ignorant man than he who has 
never seen a spectroscope. 

My argument, then, for the study of 
the classics, and especially of Greek, is 
briefly this : It is absolutely necessary 
that an educated man should understand 
the intellectual side of our complex civil- 
ization, and in all that pertains to our 
intellectual life, the Greeks are su- 
preme. "We are all Greeks," said 
Shelley, "our laws, our literature, our 
religion, our art, have their roots in 
Greece." It is as futile for a man to try 
to study the civilization of the nineteenth 
century, without understanding its 
sources among the Greeks, as to at- 
tempt to practise medicine, without 
knowing anything of anatomy and phys- 

The historical method of study is the 
pride of modern scholarship ; that method 
which is not content to examine a phe- 
nomenon as it appears today, but must 
see it in its growth and origin, must 
trace it to its sources, and so discover its 
inmost nature. This kind of study, if 
applied to almost any aspect of modern 
life, leads us inevitably to the Greeks, 
who originated all that is most precious 
in our art and literature, yes, and in our 
civic life as well. 

Perhaps, some one may feel that this 
is an exaggerated statement. Let us 
consider it for a moment. As citizens of 
America at the close of the nineteenth 
century we pride ourselves upon our 
science, our literature and art, our civil 
liberty, and our sublime religion. It is 
these possessions that raise'us above the 
rude barbarians who were our ancestors, 
and separate us from the backward peo- 
ple of Asia and Africa, in our own time. 
But nothing is more certain than that we 
owe to the Greeks, either directly or 
indirectly, the foundation, and in some 

VOL. xxviii. 7. 

cases, the whole fabric, of each of 
these admired features of our civiliz- 

How is it with science which we are 
inclined to regard as a peculiarly modern 
achievement ? The Egyptians and As- 
syrians had nothing worthy of the name 
of science, but spent their force in vague 
and dreamy speculation. It was the 
genius of Aristotle which taught the 
world that true science could only be 
based upon the patient observation and 
classification of facts ; and all the splen- 
did discoveries of our own time are but 
the harvest which we have gathered 
from the seed he planted. From a purely 
intellectual standpoint the step from 
the wisest Egyptian to Aristotle was 
greater than that from Aristotle to Dar- 

Of art and literature I hardly need to 
speak, for who does not know that in 
these departments the Greeks not only 
began the work, but perfected it as well? 
No modern sculptor dreams of rivaling 
the Hermes of Praxiteles or the Venus of 
Melos. The most enthusiastic student of 
Dante and Milton can claim nothing 
higher for these great men than a place 
beside Homer. The Greek poets, phil- 
osophers, orators, and historians, are 
still the models which men of today can 
only strive to imitate. To excel them is 
out of the question. 

Civil liberty, too, is a gift to us from 
Greece. The nations which preceded her 
knew only the two extremes of anarchy 
and despotism. The Greeks first con- 
ceived the idea of a self-governing com- 
munity regulated by law and not by 
force. They were the first people in 
history of whom it could have been said, 
in the words of Demaratus the Spartan 
to Xerxes : " Though free, they are not 
wholly free, for over them there is one su- 
preme master, the law." And as for our 
religion, though its divine founder was a 


Hebrew, yet its early theology was 
molded by Greek thought, as its gos- 
pels have come down to us in the Greek 
language, so that a knowledge of that 
language is still indispensable to every 
teacher of Christianity. 

It would require^too much of your time, 
and a more eloquent voice than mine, 
adequately to rehearse what the world 
owes to Greece. I have sketched but the 
merest outlines of a subject too broad for 
an occasion like this. The details will 
suggest themselves to every thoughtful 
student of history. Enough has been 
said to show that he who would under- 
stand our own civilization, our own his- 
tory, or our own literature, in short, any 
one who desires a really liberal educa- 
tion, must be a student of the Greeks. 

But let us look at the question in a 
more practical light. Let us put our- 
selves, for a moment, in the place of a 
student who is beginning his course of 
higher education. English literature is 
perhaps the most popular study at the 
present time, in the schools and univer- 
sities of California, and we will suppose 
that our student wishes to devote him- 
self to the study of English. He cannot 
advance far before he finds that he is 
constantly hampered without the know- 
ledge of Greek. The very words of our 
mother tongue are largely derived from 
Greek, and its sister Latin. These 
words will never yield their full beauty 
and significance to the student who 
knows no Greek. Those underlying 
meanings, which come by instinct to the 
classical student, are only mastered by 
his less fortunate comrade with endless 
toil and pains. And when he takes up 
the masterpieces of English literature, he 
is confronted by the same difficulty. If 
he studies Milton and the epic, his instruc- 
tor will desire to show him how all epic 
poetry goes back to Homer. If he reads the 
wonderful dramas of Shakspere he is re- 

ferred for comparison to the no less per- 
fect tragedies of Sophocles. He cannot 
appreciate English oratory without know- 
ing something of Demosthenes, the 
prince of orators ; and as for philosophy, 
it is unintelligible to him who is ignorant 
of Plato. Our own gifted poet and critic, 
Edmund Clarence Stedman, banker and 
stockbroker though he was, won his early 
laurels by a beautiful exposition of the 
dependence of Tennyson on the Greek 
Theocritus. Quotations, allusions, and 
illustrations, from Greek history and 
mythology are sprinkled through our 
literature from beginning to end, and 
hard is his lot who is obliged to quarry out 
their meaning with the laborious aid of 
dictionary and encyclopedia. "Why!" 
said the head of the English department 
in one of our largest universities, " they 
come to me to teach them English litera- 
ture without any Greek. What can I 
do for a man who knows no Greek ?" 

It is not long since I myself met one ; 
of the brightest students of English in 
our State, a man who has already begun ; 
to make his mark, and who is destined 
to be still more widely known. He was ! 
sitting by the side of the street waiting \ 
for the car, and as he sat he was study- 
ing a Greek grammar. In response to ; 
my look of inquiry he said : " You ! 
know, I made the mistake of going j 
through college without Greek. For 
five years I have been hindered at every 
turn, and now I have determined to 
make good the deficiency." His ex- 
perience is a very common one. It is 
unfortunately true that the value and 
importance of a knowledge of Greek I 
cannot be appreciated in the early stages 
of education. Boys in school find it hard I 
to realize it. But after they have climbed 1 
a certain distance, and attained a wider 
view of the intellectual horizon, they will 
see it when, perhaps, it is too late. We I 
have at the University a number of stu- I 



dents in the upper classes, who, after 
going partly through their course without 
Greek, have come to see that it is an 
absolutely essential element of such an 
education as they wish to obtain, and so 
they have turned painfully back and 
taken up the study, out of due season, 
with added toil and much regret. In 
twelve years of University teaching, I 
have never known a single student who 
chose the classical course and afterward 
regretted it. But scarcely a year has 
passed in which I have not met students 
who regretted that they had refused to 
study Greek. 

And this is why I feel so strongly that 
it is the duty of parents and teachers and 
friends to urge the boys to start right at 
the outset. Of course there are a few 
who could not learn Greek if they would, 
and would not if they could. But if a 
boy has one spark of scholarly ambition, 
if he has in him the first glimmering of 
real intellectual life, let him be advised, 
by all means, not to neglect the most 
truly intellectual of all studies. If he 
once tastes the charm of Greek literature, 
he will never repent of the effort it cost 
him ; while experience has shown that in 
a considerable percentage of cases he will 
regret it, if he remains in ignorance of a 
subject of such vital importance. The 
boy is not to be blamed that, at the age 
of fifteen or sixteen years, he does not 
realize what he will need to know when 
he is older and takes his place in society 
among cultivated men. It is we who are 
older who are to be censured if we do 
not tell him. I have a man in mind who 
is the cashier of a bank in a city in Cen- 
tral Illinois. I once heard him exclaim, 
with an earnestness which was almost 
bitter : " Why did my father allow me to 
give up Greek ? I knew no better then, 
but he knew better. What was my 
father for, if not to save me from making 
such mistakes ? " 

I do not mean to take an extreme posi- 
tion.. Not every boy needs Greek, and 
not every man will regret its omission 
from his course of study. But I do assert 
most confidently, that among the hun- 
dreds whb graduate each year from our 
academies and high schools, without 
Greek, there are very many who would 
have profited immensely by such an ad- 
dition to their mental outfit, and not a 
few who will one day regret their mis- 
take. And here in California this will 
be true to a much greater extent in the 
future than it has been in the past. We 
are passing out of the period of founda- 
tion and physical development, and are 
entering upon an era of intellectual activ- 
ity and culture. As society settles down 
to a condition similar to that of old com- 
munities, men will turn their attention 
more and more to study, to reflection, 
and to literary effort. The education 
which was well enough a generation ago 
will not satisfy the needs of the genera- 
tion to come. Society will demand in 
the future a broader culture than it has 
required in the past. And in this broader 
culture, the study of the classics will be 
sure to have its place, and the man who 
has not enjoyed the privilege of filling his 
mind with the wisdom and beauty of 
Greece and Rome will feel his loss more 
and more keenly. 

We often hear it said that the study of 
Greek is dying out, but nothing could be 
farther from the truth than such a state- 
ment. It is true that with the wonderful 
development of physical science, and the 
great awakening of interest in English 
literature and in social questions, the rel- 
ative importance of Greek has much 
declined. A century ago, no man was 
called a scholar who had not devoted 
himself to the study of Greek and Latin. 
But during the past twenty years men 
have justly rebelled against this exclusive 
claim of a single line of study, and have 



demanded and gained recognition for the 
more modern subjects. And no true 
lover of the classics regrets this change. 
As Greek is no longer required of all, it 
is chosen only by those who are able in 
some measure to profit by it, and the 
gain is. apparent in all our class-rooms. 

But though Greek has thus relatively 
declined in popularity, it is making con- 
stant progress in tMe actual number of its 
devotees. At Yale the classical course is 
constantly increasing in numbers, keep- 
ing pace with the rapid advance in the 
scientific departments. At Harvard, the 
students entering with Greek outnumber 
those without it in the ratio of three to 
one, though the subject is entirely elec- 
tive. And farther West, at the Univer- 
sity of Michigan, the classical course, 
equiring Greek, is chosen by a far 
greater number of students than any 
Dther course. Even in the University of 
California, though we are yet far behind 
our Eastern rivals in this respect, still the 
number of students entering with Greek 
this year was more than fifty per cent in 
advance of any preceding year. New 
books in every department of Greek 
study are constantly being issued from 
the press, and their sale, instead of fall- 
ing off, is increasing. The mercantile 
instinct of publishers would be quick to 
warn them if Greek were dying out, but 
instead of showing any timidity about 
new ventures in this line, they are con- 
tinually projecting new series of books, 
and Greek scholars of reputation are be- 
sieged with unsought offers for books 
which are not yet written. 

Is it not possible that here, in Califor- 
nia, in a new civilization, and somewhat 
removed from the settled current of an 
older culture, we may be deceived in a 
matter like this? Every sensational ut- 
terance of the extreme opponents of class- 
ical study in the rest of the world is 
brought to our notice in the press, while 

we forget, or overlook, the strong and 
steady undercurrent which runs the other 
way. The fact is that the love of noble 
literature is a fundamental trait in human 
nature, and as long as modern literature 
is intelligently studied, thoughtful men 
will always desire to trace it to its 
sources in the wonderful productions of 
the Greeks. 

The question may be asked why we 
cannot study Greek literature in English 
translations, and thus avoid the drudgery 
of learning a difficult language. I cannot 
answer this question better than in the 
recently published words of Professor 
Butcher of Edinburgh. He says : " Well, 
one may no doubt learn much about an- 
tiquity by this means, but translations, 
the very best, are but shadows of the 
original. You cannot transfer the life 
blood of a poem into a translation. One 
language differs from another, not only 
in outward form, but in inward and es- 
sential character. The words of a lan- 
guage stand rooted in the soil of national 
life ; they are nourished from a people's 
history. About them cling the associa- 
tions of poetry and eloquence. Words, 
whose nearest equivalent are for us dead 
and prosaic, stirred the pulses of a Greek, 
and vibrated with memories of Troy and 
Salamis. To the student of language, one 
word may be the epitome of a vast chap- 
ter in the history of thought or represent 
a revolution in our ideas of morals and 
religion. The abstract words, in partic- 
ular, which represent intellectual moods 
and processes, moral sentiments and re- 
ligious aspirations, are essentially un- 
translatable. They have no exact, and 
often no approximate, equivalent in other 

And Professor Jebb says with equal 
truth, " Any one who reads thoroughly 
and intelligently a single play, such as 
the Oedipus Tyrannus, would have de- 
rived far more intellectual advantage 



om Greek literature, and would com- 
rehend far better what it has signified 
the intellectual history of mankind, 
an if he had committed to memory the 
ames, dates and abridged contents of a 
mndred Greek books, ranging over half 
i dozen centuries." 

A good translation can render the 
:hought and contents of a work with con- 
iderable accuracy, but it can give no 
equate impression of the beauty of 
yle, the tone and color and feeling 
ith which the thought is expressed, 
nd in which much of the writer's power 
.nd genius lie. We all remember how 
eble even the most skillful copies of 
reat paintings always appear, after 
eing the masterpieces themselves. And 
et a copy of the Dresden Madonna is 
r more like the original than the best 
anslation of the Iliad is like the splendid 
loquence of Homer himself. 

The classical course in the University 
of California is substantially the same as 
that which is required for the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts at Yale University, at 
the University of Michigan, at the Uni- 
versity of Chicago, and at most of our 
universities of the highest grade, both 
old and new and both East and West. 
It is the course which is usually accepted 
as furnishing the very best general edu- 
cation for the average young man, to fit 
him for any pursuit in life. It is the best 
course, because it is the broadest course. 
It does not demand of the young man 
that he study Latin and Greek to the 
exclusion of everything else, for that 
would be narrow and unwise. On the 
contrary, the University says to him: 
" If you take this course we will see to it 
that with your science, your history, 
your English, your mathematics, none of 
which shall be neglected, you shall also 
gain that knowlege of Latin and Greek 
which experience has shown that most 
educated men need. You can take the 

classical course and specialize in science 
if you wish, and if the official report o? 
German scientists can be trusted, the 
young man with a classical training will 
often outstrip his competitors in science 
itself. You may specialize in any line 
you prefer, only we demand of you a 
certain minimum of Greek; and we 
believe that in the end you will be the 
better English scholar, the better mathe- 
matician, the better historian, for your 
broader training." 

I emphasize this point because it 
is so often overlooked. The ques- 
tion between a classical and a non- 
classical course, is often argued as 
if it were a question of putting all one's 
time on Latin and Greek. But the truth 
is quite the reverse of this. The class- 
ical course at our university requires 
nine hours of Greek, nine hours of Latin, 
fourteen hours of French or German, ten 
hours of mathematics, ten hours of 
science, eight hours of English, and sixty 
hours of any subject or subjects which 
the student may prefer. In other words 
it allows the student the widest choice of 
studies, but insists that he shall make 
fair attainments in each of the six most 
important fields of thought. On the 
other hand, the course in social science, 
which is generally taken by those among 
our students who desire general culture 
without Greek, offers a similar choice of 
subjects in other respects, but allows the 
student to graduate in entire ignorance of 
Greek. The classical graduate may be 
an expert political economist, but the social 
science graduate knows nothing of Homer. 
The classical graduate may have had 
forty or fifty hours of natural science, 
but the scientific graduate has never 
read a page of Plato. He will have to 
go to the dictionary for the meaning of 
the very scientific terms which he uses 
every day, for most of them are pure 
Greek, and his classical friend can inter- 



pret them at a glance. The classical 
graduate, if he chooses, can get, in his 
course, more mathematics than the aver- 
age professor of mathematics will ever 
use, but the graduate in engineering will 
never understand the classical allusions 
in English literature. All the other 
courses, then, are deficient in one re- 
spect, that they omit this very important 
department of study. The classical 
course, offering essentially all that they 
do, excels them all in giving also a 
knowledge of that wonderful language 
and literature, which still wins the end- 
less admiration of those that know it 
best. It is the truly liberal course, be- 
cause it is the broadest. 

As I have already said, 1 do not mean 
to argue that every boy should take the 
classical course, or study Greek. If the 
young student has an invincible bent 
towards engineering, if he knows ex- 
actly what he wants, and wants nothing 
but that, it may be best in some cases to 
yield to his wishes, just as in some cases 
it may be well to put him directly into 
business, and not send him to college at 
all. But these cases are exceptional. 
The average intelligent boy, if his cir- 
cumstances permit, had better go to 
college. And this same average boy, 
whose future is yet undecided and whose 
tastes are immature, will certainly gain a 
broader preparation for life, and be more 
likely to take his place among the cultiv- 
ated men of his community, with the 
classical course than with any other. 
The other courses will fit him for some of 
the duties of life; the classical course 
gives him the opportunity to prepare for 
any of life's duties, and opens to him 
beside some of life's choicest privileges. 
Study science, then, those of you who 
love it, study English, study political 
economy, for none of these subjects 
should be left out, but study them in the 
classical course, which gives you ample 

room for them all, but which gives you 
also something else, which I assure you 
is too important to be omitted. 

One objection remains to be answered. 
"Greek is hard." Well, most things 
that are worth doing at all are more or 
less difficult. But Greek is no harder \ 
than many other studies which we all 
successfully accomplish. 1 am con- 
fident [that out of one hundred aver- 
age boys, quite as many would find 
trouble with algebra as with Greek. 
But since algebra must be studied, we 
accept it as inevitable. Greek can be 
avoided, and consequently all thepressure 
is directed against Greek. It is true 
that many teachers of Greek have no 
real enthusiasm for the study, and teach 
it in so dry and dead a fashion as to rob 
it of all interest, and make its difficulty 
the only thing the student remembers. 
But if properly taught, the difficulties are 
mastered with moderate effort, and the 
reward comes quick and sure. The 
first year's work in Greek is probably 
a little more taxing to the student 
than the corresponding year in Latin, 
but afterwards there is no such differ- 
ence. If the student will begin his 
Greek courageously, and persevere for a 
reasonable time, he will soon be glad 
that he undertook it. I have never 
known a student that had reached the 
first page of Homer's Iliad who afterward 
wished to give up his Greek. 

In closing, let me say that the Greek 
question is entering upon a new and 
different stage from any that has pre- 
ceded. In former years the study was 
forced upon many unwilling students, 
and the result was rebellion. For some 
years past, the more modern subjects 
have been clamoring for recognition and 
for the right to an equal place beside the 
classics. That struggle has now prac- 
tically ended in a complete victory for 
the modern party. Greek has stepped 



down from its aristocratic position as the 
subject which all must study, and now 
takes its place as one of many important 
branches of learning, asking only for its 
share of favor. But as the chief cause 
for its former unpopularity has now been 
removed, the reaction in its favor will 
not be long in making its appearance. 

Greek teachers are learning to use 
more efficient and attractive methods of 
instruction, and better results than ever 
are being realized. The consequence 
will be that in the years to come we 
shall see more Greek students and 
better ones than ever before. This is 
true in our own great State of California, 
where there is so much in climate, in 
scenery, in the productions of the soil, 
and in the restless activity of the people, 
to remind us of fair Hellas of old ; but 
where, today, the study of Greek is 
more neglected than in any other equally 
prosperous portion of the civilized world. 
The charm of Greek literature is imperish- 
able, and Californians, always reaching 
for the best, will inevitably come to see 
that they cannot do without this choicest 
means of culture. 

It is a literature which offers delight and 
instruction to every age and every profes- 
sion. The boy can revel in the splendid 
epic of Homer, and read with delight the 

knightly combats of Greeks and Trojans 
before the walls of lofty Troy; or the 
thrilling adventures of Odysseus by 
land and sea, with his miraculous escapes 
from savage monsters, and his final 
triumph over all his foes; while in the 
pages of Herodotus his imagination is 
stirred with tales of travel in far off 
lands, and with the inspiring story of 
the victorious struggle of a handful of 
Greek freemen against myriads of bar- 
barian slaves. The young man can find 
in Euripides, or Pindar, or Theocritus, 
all the romantic fire, or noble lyric, or 
sweet strain of sentiment his nature 
craves. For the man of affairs there is 
the far-seeing statesmanship and splendid 
oratory of Pericles and Demosthenes, 
the deep sagacity and scientific erudition 
of Aristotle, and the perfect dramatic 
skill of Sophocles. The maturest philo- 
sopher can never exhaust the profound 
yet poetic wisdom of Plato, the subtle 
reflection of Thucydides or the sublime 
theology of Aeschylus. So long as men 
continue to reverence genius, and to ad- 
mire the immortal thoughts of great 
minds, expressed in the most perfect of 
all languages, we need not fear that 
Greek literature will lose its interest, or 
the Greek language cease to find a place 
in our scheme of liberal education. 

Edward B. Clapp, 

Professor of the Greek language and 
literature, University of California. 




importance of the 
subject it is no sur- 
prise that a great 
deal of attention 
has been given by publicists to a study 
of municipal government ; and there is 
every reason why it should attract the 
best thought and enlist the most patriotic 
service in this country, for municipal 
government is avowedly the weakest 
spot in our system. 

It is important, on account of the vast 
populations it affects; and, being defect- 
ive and corrupt for the most part, it be- 
comes a serious danger not merely to 
isolated communities, but, considering the 
marvelous growth of urban population, to 
the whole country. Albert Shaw in his 
work on " Municipal Government in 
Great Britain," gives interesting statis- 
tical information showing how the rural 
population has been, and is being to a 
still greater extent, absorbed by the in- 
dustrial cities. The reason of this is 
plainly the development of manufactures 
and the subordination of agriculture. 

By the census of 1801 the total popula- 
tion of Scotland was 1,600,000 and only a 
small proportion were town dwellers. In 
1891 the total population was 4,000,000 
of which only 928,500 were strictly rural. 
The town population was 2,631,300 and 
the villagers, forming an intermediate 
class, numbered 465,800. The decline in 
rural population between 1881 and 1891, 
for example, was 4 per cent and the in- 
crease of the town population for the same 
period, 14 per cent. It used to be in the 
old days three to one in favor of the coun- 
try, but this proportion is completely 
revolutionized and there are today three 
citizens in the town where one lives in 
the country. 

In France the people of the country 
districts have numbered steadily for the 


last half century about 25,000,000, while 
the towns-people have increased from 
7,000,000 to 13,000,000. 

In Germany half the population are 
living in cities and towns of more than 
2000 inhabitants. (Shaw pp. 12, i^etseq.) 

But what may be said of the United 
States ? Our republican government was 
formed by and for an agricultural people 
of simple lives and Thomas Jefferson went 
so far in his desire to maintain this sim- 
plicity as to deprecate manufactures 
which he easily foresaw would woo the 
people from field and forest and lead to j 
the creation of large cities.. He feared 
the problem of municipal government as 
well he might. He felt perhaps his ina- ! 
bility to deal with the multitudinous 
questions which would necessarily arise 
as soon as men come numerously in close 
contact. He foresaw the loss of sturdy 
health and calm contentment, the growth 
of vice and crime, the restraints imposed 
upon the individual ; he foresaw the labor 
problem and could not perhaps reconcile 
all these things with his ideals of free- 
dom. But his fears could not turn back 
the tide of civilization, for it is after all 
the modern city that stands for civiliza- 
tion. There were only thirteen cities in 
the year of 1790 with a population ex- 
ceeding 5000, and none with more than 
40,000. One hundred years later there 
were at least thirty American cities with 
a population in excess of 100,000 ; and 
the cities are growing out of all propor- 
tion to the country, while the rural popu- 
lation in many States is actually declining 
or merely holding its own. 

These are the facts of our time and 
generation and they have given us new 
problems to solve which Thomas Jeffer- 
son foresaw and feared. 

But as "life, liberty and the pursuit of 
happiness " must be sought by so many 
in the great cities, municipal charters 



take their place by the constitution itself 
in their importance as instruments for 
the accomplishment of these great pur- 
poses. It is hardly flippant to say that 
without sanitation life is in greater dan- 
ger than from the dreaded tyrant : " War 
kills her thousands peace her ten thous- 
ands;" without well paved and clean 
streets, parks and libraries ; without or- 
der and security and all that flows from 
good government, that is, the govern- 
ment with which we are in close daily 
contact, liberty becomes other people's 
license, and happiness consists in a day 
out of town ! 

The corruption, the tyranny, the petty 
annoyances and the persistent exactions 
of bad municipal government in no small 
measure subverts the guarantees of the 
constitution itself. We are free to pur- 
sue these objects but the conditions make 
the pursuit intolerable. 

Large cities however are the reposito- 
ries of everything that science and art 
and invention have done for mankind and 
they are a dear possession of every coun- 
try. We must make our cities habitable. 
We must make them fit for a free and 
enlightened people. If they present new 
problems we must meet them. If they 
require government to put on new func- 
tions we must assume them. If they 
demand new administrative undertakings 
we must not shirk the task. Whatever 
is defective must be made whole. 

We might by a patient inquiry ascer- 
tain what a municipal government should 
do for a community and then determine 
the best way of doing it. Some one has 
objected to the use of " government " in 
this connection as being ill adapted "to 
embrace at once the mechanism and the 
varied tasks of modern municipal corpora- 
tions." And this suggestion opens the 
door to a contemplation of the varied 
tasks that many cities have assumed. 
There is nothing that is calculated to add 
to the health, comfort and prosperity of 
communities that municipalities have not 

A study of Manchester, Glasgow and 
other European cities will show their ad- 
vanced position. While American cities 
are struggling with corporations these 
cities have in fact become corporations. 
The Mayor has swallowed the Octopus, 
and, more than that, it seems to agree 

with him ! Shaw quotes Sir J. R. Som- 
ers Vine, a high authority, as saying that 
" Manchester, by the excellence of its 
local regime has come to be regarded, and 
not without good reason, as the foremost 
example of English modern municipal 
government." What has Manchester 
done ? Manchester is a city of 520,000 
people and within a radius of twenty 
miles dwell 3,000,000 souls. It has pub- 
lic baths, libraries, art galleries, markets, 
cemeteries ; sanitary wash houses for 
disinfecting clothing, dwellings, etc.; wa- 
ter supply, gas and electricity, street 
railroads, a ship canal, schools common 
and technical. It is interesting for those 
who fear the consequences of municipal 
ownership to know that this city has 
owned its own gas works since the intro- 
duction of that fluid in 1807 and that last 
year it supplied the city at cost and con- 
sumers at 60 cts. a thousand feet and 
made a profit of $500,000, $200,000 of 
which went to interest and sinking fund 
and $300,000 was turned over to the 
treasury as net profit. It distributes elec- 
tric and hydraulic power for the benefit 
of the industrial community and for its 
own treasury. It owns, but leases, its 
street railways, laying 40 miles of track 
for $1,000,000, receiving 10% on its in- 
vestment net andthere is a workingman's 
morning and evening service at a ^ 
penny a mile. Glasgow owns and oper- 
ates its own trams with equal success ; 
and one American City operates a steam 
rail-road running through three States. 
The conclusions that we draw from this 
are that the scope of a municipal corpora- 
tion is very extensive and that in provid- 
ing a form of government for ourselves 
the possible ownership of public utilities 
must not be overlooked. Many American 
cities own their water and light works 
and it is the general experience that such 
ownership does not expose the communi- 
ties to any danger greater than does the 
ownership in the hands of private cor- 
porations. The works are conducted 
for the benefit of the consumers at less 
cost and at the same time such ownership 
eliminates from municipal life a fruitful 
source of corruption. 

Supervisors and Aldermen notoriously, 
and, in this city it is common report, be- 
tray the interests they are supposed to 
guard and the officers of the corporations 



uphold the interests of those they are 
paid to serve. This see-saw of corruption 
will ceaselessly continue so long as pub- 
lic utilities are in the hands of private 
owners. Would it not be wise statesman- 
ship to destroy corruption, increase effi- 
ciency and lower cost at one blow ? We 
may come to that and hence we want a 
charter that will enable us to assume new 
duties and responsibilities in line with 
modern progress. Under our present law 
it is practically impossible, as we will see. 
The charter does not provide for public 
works but it sets up the machinery, by 
the creation of a Board of Public Works, 
for their operation as soon as they may 
be acquired. But, surprising as it may 
seem, some opposition has been made to 
the charter on the very ground that the 
present law is more favorable to the ac- 
quisition of such utilities. Let us exam- 
ine it. 

Under our present law, the Supervisors, 
who are not always impeccable and whose 
estimate of the value of other people's 
property may be exaggerated, must initi- 
ate the proceedings by a two-thirds vote 
and submit the proposition to the electors 
who must approve by a two-thirds vote. 
Then bonds must be issued and it is a 
grave legal question if there is power in 
the City under the statutes to create such 
a bonded debt. Under the charter a 
Board of three called the Board of Public 
Works must initiate the proceedings by a 
unanimous agreement as to the reason- 
able value of the public utilities to be 
purchased or the estimated cost of new 
construction whether they be gas, water, 
electric, telephone or street railways. 
Now what is the composition of this Board 
of Public Works ? It consists of three 
Commissioners appointed by the Mayor 
and who must engage in no other occu- 
pation. They will receive $4000 a year 
each and have under them and appointed 
by them an expert engineer at $5000 per 
year salary, an Architect at $3000 salary 
and a superintendent who must be a 
master builder, at $3000 a year salary 
and such clerks and employees as may 
be necessary, under civil service rules. 
This body, so organized, makes its report 
to the Supervisors who can approve it 
and order an election by a three-fourths 
vote. That is, under the present system 
eight Supervisors can act, under the 

charter it will take nine. The opponents 
of the charter say the difficulty is in- 
creased by that one vote. But what off- 
set have we for these obstacles so-called? 
Remember the proposition goes to the 
people as now for a two-thirds vote of 
approval. But is it at all likely that the 
people would vote for any measure look- 
ing to the acquisition of public franchises 
if such franchises were to be operated 
under our present system. Without a 
Board of Public Works the proposition 
might be the easier laid before the people, 
but without a competent Board and a 
civil service the two-thirds of the electors 
would never give their consent. Such 
opposition is factitious. 

In harmony with these suggestions 1 
will here say that the principal need in this 
city for a new charter arises from the fact 
that the present government has broken 
down. It can not do its work. The Con- 
solidation Act of Horace Hawes was made 
for this city when it possessed a population 
of only 40,000 and since then it has been 
amended by the Legislature so many 
times and with so little consistency that 
it is extremely difficult even for attor- 
neys, not to speak of laymen, who should 
be able to know what the law is, to have 
a satisfactory comprehension of its pro- 
visions. The Supreme Court has taken 
away the principal advantages which we 
formerly possessed in the Consolidation 
Act by practically eliminating the Mayor 
from the City government. His veto in 
other years was a check upon hasty and 
corrupt action of the Supervisors espec- 
ially in fixing water rates and making 
the tax levy, but in these respects the 
Supreme Court has decided that he has 
no right to interpose his veto. One of 
the great evils also of our present system, 
if it be maintained, is the greater danger of 
the Legislature passing measures for the 
City and County, which are not in con- 
formity with the desires or wants of the 
municipality. Seth Low said that it was 
a large part of his duty as the Mayor of 
Brooklyn to attend the sessions of the 
Legislature and prevent that body from 
making unwise and unnecessary laws 
for the government of that city. Today 
we are entirely at the mercy of the Leg- 
islature which can pass acts for the city 
in spite of the protests of the citizens. 
Under the charter they can pass, it is 



unfortunately true, general laws, which, 
however must be applicable to every 
other county of the same class. The 
Supreme Court is however closely di- 
vided on this question and the Chief 
Justice is of the opinion that any act to 
affect, for instance, cities of 300,000 in- 
habitants and over would, although 
couched in general terms, be clearly 
special legislation and an invasion of pur 
rights under a charter. Suffice it to say 
that the charter will largely decrease our 
danger from interference by the Legisla- 
ture and will give us a systematic, ra- 
tional, consisetnt and responsible form of 
government, and ultimately home rule. 
It will give us laws to which every citi- 
zen can refer for his information and 
which are as little obscure as law ever 
is. The spirit of the old Consolidation 
Act was to save the city from being 
robbed by its chosen servants. Every 
new Board of Supervisors was a danger. 
Like the ancient Egyptians, who wor- 
shipped the devil in order that he might 
do them no harm, so the San Franciscans 
set up a form of government not that it 
would do them positive good but that it 
would save them from outrage and op- 
pression. And yet the poor objects that 
they set before themselves to accomplish 
have not been fulfilled and between the 
Legislature and the Supreme Court they 
have fallen prostrate and helpless. The 
animating spirit of the new charter, 
drafted by twelve reputable citizens, 
whose fidelity to their trust has never 
been questioned, is to give the city a 
government by which positive good may 
be obtained. The devil is not placated 
he is circumvented and defied ! While 
there are still checks and balances it is 
not a government which consists exclu- 
sively of checks and balances without 
fixing responsibility. The Mayor is the 
head of the municipal corporation and is 
in a very large measure made responsible 
for the good administration of the city's 
affairs. He has the power to appoint 
executive boards who are to a very great 
extent responsible to him, because he 
holds over them the power of removal 
and over the elective officers the power 
of suspension. These Boards become a 
part of the executive of the city, and, as 
a city's affairs are largely administrative, 
in order to insure efficiency, responsi- 

bility must be placed somewhere, and 
not as now, under the loose system of 
our municipal government, where re- 
sponsibility is shifted from one committee 
of the Board of Supervisors to the other 
and from the Supervisors to the several 
departments and back again from the de- 
partments to the Supervisors and the 
nominal head of the city government, 
who should be the guiding mind of the 
municipal system, is without a voice 
eyen to stay the hand of plunder. He 
has not the power of a policeman. 

We shall again return to the executive 
department, but first let us consider the 
other important department of the city 
government, the legislative department, 
consisting as now of twelve Supervisors 
who shall receive $1,200 per year sal- 
ary. It requires nine votes to overcome 
the veto of the Mayor and he can veto 
any bill or ordinance ; so four Super- 
visors and the Mayor can block corrup- 
tion where it is most feared. The Super- 
visors shall appoint their own clerk, be- 
yond that they practically have no 
patronage. Their business is purely 
legislative ; they can pass local police 
and sanitary regulations, regulate the 
use and cleaning of streets and sewers, 
provide for the proper lighting of the 
Park and streets, protect the health and 
comfort of the inhabitants, fix water and 
gas rates, regulate and impose beneficial 
license taxes, exempting, by the way, 
all legitimate mercantile pursuits, regu- 
late the salaries of the municipal officers 
that are not fixed by the charter, which 
however they cannot increase after they 
have been fixed, except such as may be 
graduated under civil service rules with- 
in certain limitations. They make the 
tax levy after the heads of departments, 
through the Auditor, have-made estimates 
for the year. They can regulate street 
railroads, their tracks, their cars, and 
their fares, and they can give the priv- 
ilege to railroads, under proper restric- 
tions, and for a sufficient compensation, 
the right to pass over the tracks of any 
other railroad with a view of preventing 
a monopoly. The finance committee of 
the Board of Supervisors is invested with 
far greater power than they now possess 
and it is their duty to investigate the 
offices of the city government. They 
may administer oaths, subpoena wit- 



nesses and require the police to carry 
out their orders and processes. They 
must report to the Mayor every six 
months. While the legislative power is 
important, as you will see, its duties are 
not as now both administrative and leg- 
islative. A sharp line is drawn between 
the two great functions of our city gov- 
ernment so that each department has a 
large measure of independence. You 
will perhaps say that under the charter 
what reason have we to believe that the 
twelve Supervisors will be more reliable 
than those which have officiated under 
the present system. We must admit 
that it is difficult to get the best men to 
serve the city as Supervisors for there 
has been little honor in such service and 
much labor. But under the charter the 
labor has been to a large extent trans- 
ferred to the executive boards and the 
mere legislative part requires of the 
Supervisor sound judgment rather than 
long hours of uncongenial toil. The 
work will be less objectionable to the 
citizen who desires to be of some service 
to the town in which he lives ; and, 
whenever a good man rises to assume 
the great responsibility of Mayor there 
will always be under such a system a 
sufficient number of good citizens to as- 
sume the duties of members of the local 
legislature in order to back up his good 
intentions, plans and purposes. But 
there is a more practical reason why 
there is a likelihood of getting better 
Supervisors. Under the present law the 
Supervisors must be selected one from 
each ward. It has been the experience 
of political parties that some wards of 
this city were absolutely destitute of fit 
candidates who were willing to serve. 
Under the charter you will have the 
whole city from which to select the 
twelve men. That is a great measure 
of practical reform. We have recently 
experienced a recklessness on the part 
of the Supervisors in fixing an excessive 
tax rate. With three hundred and 
twenty-eight million dollars worth of 
property subject to their power it will 
appear at once that the taxpayers ought 
to have some guarantee, first, that their 
taxes will be not fixed at a rate that will 
make them unjust and oppressive, burden- 
ing their property with debt, confiscating 
its income and depreciating its value; and 

secondly, that there should be some guar- 
antee that the money which is raised by 
taxation shall be wisely and economically 
expended and certainly spent for the 
purpose for which it is raised. 1 claim 
the charter does that. The only check 
the citizens could impose under our pres- 
ent system was to pledge the Super- 
visors before they were elected to do 
them no harm in excees say of $i per 
$100 valuation, but these pledges as we 
know were writ in water. The servants 
treasonably betrayed their master. But 
under the charter any levy will be illegal 
in excess of $i on the $100 of valuation 
(or a maximum of $1.17 including City 
Hall construction as we will see,) which 
past experience has demonstrated is 
abundantly sufficient, with the other 
revenue of the city, to pay for its current 
wants and to maintain its municipal es- 
tablishments. In addition to the $i to 
the $100 valuation there may be a State 
tax and the tax for interest and sinking 
fund for city debts ; second, not over 
IDC. for the completion of the New City 
Hall ; not over 5c. for the construction and 
repair of other public buildings ; not over 
2c. for the public library and reading 
rooms. The School tax levy is limited 
to $32.50 per year for each pupil. Now 
here is a pledge which cannot be vio- 
lated. But there is with respect to rev- 
enue and finance another very important 
provision which saves us from the plun- 
der and reckless extravagance of past 
administrations. All the revenue must 
be kept in specific funds and -cannot be 
transferred from one fund to another. 
There are twenty-four such funds and 
when the money is proportioned to each 
fund at the beginning of each fiscal year, 
as it must be, the money can only be 
spent for the purposes for which it is 
raised. And if each fund is not ex- 
hausted it goes into the same fund for 
the ensuing year. As it is now, the 
Supervisors have the power to and have 
actually diverted funds set aside for spe- 
cific purposes, because there is no law to 
prevent it. And it is further provided 
that no more than one-twelfth of the 
money raised for the year shall be spent 
in any one month, thus insuring us a 
paid-up government for each fiscal year 
without deficits. These provisions seem 
to strike with unusual force the weak 



spots of our government and will scatter 
and destroy the parasites that infest the 
body politic, aggravating its wounds and 
sapping its vitality. 

Now we come to a consideration of the 
office of Mayor which seeems to be, 
so far as it is invested with large powers, 
the principal objection raised against the 
new charter. I will recite briefly the 
powers of the Mayor, which, compared 
to those exercised by the Mayor under 
the Consolidation Act, as interpreted by 
the Supreme Court, appear large. The 
Mayor holds office under the new charter 
for two years and shall receive an an- 
nual salary of $6,000 and he has the 
general powers which would naturally 
pertain to such an officer as presiding 
over the Supervisors and supervising all 
the departments of the city government, 
and he can appoint the following officials : 
The City Attorney, Public Administrator, 
Board of Public Works, Park Commis- 
sioners, Library Trustees, Police Com- 
missioners, Fire Commissioners, Board 
of Health, Election Commissioners, Civil 
Service Commissioners. When the Con- 
stitution is amended, and an amendment 
wil 1 be submitted this year to the vote of 
the people making the change, he will 
have also the appointment of the follow- 
ing officials, but of course the amendment 
may fail : County Clerk, Recorder, Jus- 
tices of Peace, Tax Collector, Coroner, 
Police Judges and Board of Education of 
five. Now the fear has arisen, first, that 
the people are losing some power by 
delegating these duties to the Mayor, but 
on brief consideration you will see it is 
not true to any appreciable extent. The 
City Attorney and Public Administrator 
are now elected. The Board of Public 
Works, a new creation, absorb the Su- 
perintendent of Streets and the County 
Surveyor, so these four officials are 
taken from the elective list and put 
upon the appointive list. That is the 
whole extent of the change at present so 
far as the people are concerned, because 
heretofore the Governor appointed the 
Park Commissioners, the Police Com- 
missioners, the Fire Commissioners, the 
Board of Health and the Election Com- 
missioners, while the Library Trustees 
are self-perpetuating. The Civil Service 
Commissioners compose a new body. 
So the principal change is the transfer- 

ance of the 'power of appointment of 
Commissioners from the Mayor, say, of 
Stockton, to the Mayor of San Francisco. 
So the offices really are nearer the citi- 
zens of this city than formerly. I sup- 
pose the presumption of the old law was 
that the Governor was a better man than 
any Mayor could possibly be. But under 
the charter it is assumed that the Mayor 
will be worthy of his office ; that the 
people will be careful in selecting him, 
knowing the important functions of his 
trust and that he himself, though he may 
be a weak man, will be made strong and 
conservative by the possession of power. 
It has almost passed into proverb, as the 
Germans have it, " office gives under- 
standing." It has been the experience 
of Boston, New York and Philadelphia, 
where large powers have been given to 
the Mayor under charters, that the Chief 
Executive officer was capable and honest 
and that only fit men were chosen for 
that high position. Even our poor hon- 
orary office has been filled with but one 
exception, perhaps, by worthy men, and 
that one exception was shot into office 
and shot out again into obscurity. 

But under the charter the people lose 
no control. They still elect a sufficient 
number of important officers to direct the 
public policy. They elect the Mayor, 
the Supervisors, the Auditor, the Treas- 
urer, the Assessor, the District Attorney, 
the Sheriff, the Superintendent of Schools 
and the Judges of the Superior Court. 

And unless the law be changed as 
above by constitutional amendment, they 
will continue to elect the County Glerk, 
Recorder, Justices of the Peace, Tax 
Collector, Coroner, Police Judges and 
Board of Education. 

There seems to be no manner of doubt 
that a fairly good Mayor will make, to 
put it mildly, as good appointments for the 
several appointive places as can possibly 
be had by election. " We know the methods 
of election. We know that the old political 
parties name a great number of our offi- 
cials and we know that in a large city 
the party machines and the party boss 
are dominant. The small officials are 
put upon the ticket in consideration of 
trades and patronage and other forms of 
corruption and that they have no inde- 
pendence after they are elected. We 
know that self-respecting and independ- 



ent men stand no chance in the turmoil of 
practical politics. But we also know that 
these political machines and bosses very 
often put a self-respecting and independ- 
ent man at the head of their ticket in 
order to give it standing and character. 

If we are to have a boss let us have a 
boss of our own choosing. That would 
be the answer I would make to all these 
objections to the Mayor as a repositary of 
power and patronage. But when we 
analyze the power and patronage of the 
Mayor we will see that it is not of a dan- 
gerous character ; but before 1 pass to 
that I would again refer to the matter of 
selecting all officers by election which is 
in vogue. Every two years there is pre- 
sented to the electors on the Australian 
ballot a long list of names, (equal to the 
number of places to be filled multiplied by 
the number of political parties) which is 
unquestionably confusing even to the best- 
informed voter. But what must we say 
of the average voter when he is called 
upon to select from these names the fit- 
test candidates ? When he gets in the 
booth he must in five minutes make his 
decision ; and do you mean to say the 
average voter can inform himself as well 
as a conscientious Mayor as to the merits 
of candidates ; or that he will act with 
the same high regard to his public duties 
in casting a ballot in a secret place as the 
mayor- acting with deliberation before all 
men in the light of day ? And you must 
also bear in mind that when the voters 
have elected their officers and these offi- 
cers have proved false to their trust, 
which is not uncommon, there is practic- 
ally no power in the electorate to make 
a change, or to rebuke a faithless official 
until the next election. But the Mayor 
as we have seen can remove an officer 
who fails to do his duty. But it is said 
that it is a danger to give the Mayor this 
extensive power of appointment. It is 
a groundless fear. The first Mayor 
elected under the charter appoints the 
members of the Executive Boards t the 
Board of Public Works, the Board of 
Police Commissioners, Fire Commis- 
sioners, etc. They, consist for the most 
part of three members, the Fire Com- 
missioners of four members, and they 
cannot all be of the same political faith. 
These Commissioners then, by lot, de- 
termine among themselves that one shall 

go out the first year, one the second and 
one the third year, and thereafter the 
Mayors as they may be elected will be 
called upon to fill vacancies in these 
Boards, and thus no Mayor, save the first 
incumbent, will have the appointment of 
a full Board. As to patronage in the 
matter of subordinate places the Mayor 
has no patronage. The heads of De- 
partments appoint, but from the Civil 
Service list. Here then is the crowning 
feature of this new scheme of municipal 
government. The Civil Service Com- 
mission, which is charged with classify- 
ing civil service of the City and County 
of San Francisco, providing for the per- 
manent employment of worthy subordi- 
nates without regard to political affilia- 
tions, and scaling their wages, which are 
to be fixed the same as those in commer- 
cial houses for the same class of service, 
so that long and meritorious service 
will be duly rewarded. This keeps the 
evil of patronage out of the offices of the 
Mayor and out of the several Executive 
Boards, out of the several departments 
under elective officers and out of the 
hands of the Supervisors, and destroys, 
by one stroke, the race of tax-eaters, so- 
called, who have for the last forty years 
infested our municipal building and have 
bequeathed to the City waste and ex- 
travagance and jobbery and everything 
that has made vile the mention of local 
politics. The charter will tend to make 
public life honorable. Employment by 
the City under this system instead of 
overpaying bad clerks for poor service 
would yield young men regular compen- 
sation for public work, in which they 
should take a certain civic pride, and 
open up to them a career of honor and 
usefulness. It cleanses the political at- 
mosphere as does no other single pro- 
vision of the charter. As we have before 
seen it relieves the Mayor, not only of 
the time-absorbing and vexatious duty of 
appointing subordinates and which some 
regard as a dangerous power, but it leaves 
him free to perform his own proper func- 
tions. Seth Low said that his success as 
Mayor of Brooklyn was due to the fact 
that he took no part whatever in urging 
upon the several Boards and officials the 
appointment of any individual, but that 
he made these Boards and officials of his 
own appointment responsible to him for 


the faithful performance of their duties 
and he considered that his interference 
would be destructive of those ends. 
Under Civil Service we will always 
have a working staff for the municipal 
offices tried and competent ; they will be 
protected by the law, .even against the 
Mayor himself, so long as they are not 
guilty of dishonesty, inefficiency, in- 
subordination or discourtesy. Who does 
not appreciate the candor, uprightness, 
practical experience and honorable ser- 
vice of Seth Low, ex-Mayor of Brook- 
lyn and now President of Columbia 
College, whom 1 delight to quote? 
He has given his testimony in sup- 
port of every material change which 
this charter proposes to make in the 
municipal government of San Francisco. 
He says: "Americans are sufficiently 
adept in the administration of large busi- 
ness enterprises to understand that some 
one man must be given the power of 
direction and the choice of his chief as- 
sistants. They understand that power 
and responsibility must go together." 
Speaking of Brooklyn he says the Mayor 
appoints absolutely without confirmation 
of the common council all the executive 
heads of departments. He appoints for ex- 
ample the Police Commissioner , Fire Com- 
missioner, the Health Commissioners, 
the Commissioners of City Works, the 
Corporation Counsel, the City Treas- 
urer, the Tax Collector and in general 
all officials who are charged with execu- 
tive duties. These officials in turn ap- 
point their own subordinates (as they 
will do under the charter from the Civil 
Service lists) so that the principal of de- 
fined responsibility permeates the city 
government from top to bottom." 

And I would say in closing that pro- 
vided the provisions proposed in the new 
charter appeal to your judgment as being 

worthy of trial, the only manner in which 
you can reassure yourselves as to the 
probable results of the workings of such 
a scheme of government will be derived 
from a consideration of the experience of 
other communities. We have testimony 
of Boston, Philadelphia and St. Louis 
favorable to just such charters as is pro- 
posed for your adoption, and furthermore, 
Seth Low says this in reference to the 
experience of the City of Brooklyn : 
" The charter went into effect on the first 
of January, 1882. It has been found to 
have precisely the defects and merits one 
might expect from such an instrument. 
A strong executive can accomplish satis- 
factory results ; a weak one can disap- 
point every hope. The community how- 
ever is so well satisfied with the charter 
as a vast improvement on any system 
which it has tried before that no voice is 
raised against it." 

I am disposed to believe for these rea- 
sons that the charter should be adopted. 
It should be adopted because our present 
system is defective in fact and inadequate 
to the needs of a growing city ; it 
strengthens the government by simplify- 
ing yet rendering more important the 
duties of the voter; by concentrating pow- 
er, taken from the Supervisors where it 
suffers abuse, it fixes responsibility where 
it belongs; by establishing a Board of 
Public Works it will give us a clean and 
beautiful City ; by creating a Civil Ser- 
vice Commission the evils that flow from 
patronage tumult, corruption, ineffici- 
ency and extravagance will gradually 
disappear ; it puts an organic check on 
the raising and the expenditure of pub- 
lic revenues and all to the great and 
desirable end that we may have a scien- 
tific, systematic and responsible govern- 
ment which will, at the same time, be 
both progressive and economical. 

James D. Phelati. 



NCE upon a time a man, 
by great good fortune, 
succeeded in gaining pos- 
session of all the silver 
metal in the world. There was none in 
any shape, beyond that which he had 
stored in his warehouse. One morning, 
on awakening, he was greatly elated by 
the discovery that during the night his 
silver had shrunk to one sixteenth its 
weight and had turned to gold. It had 
thereby become the universally recog- 
nized measure of -value. His joy was soon 
changed to chagrin for on going out to 
make use of his gold it transpired that so 
large an increase in the volume of the 
measure had correspondingly increased 
the value of all commodities. Thus was 
his gold of no more value than had been 
his silver. The boon conferred upon man- 
kind by the reduction of the value of the 
gold of others to that of his was his only 

When the earnest searcher for lighten 
the much discussed financial question 
now agitating the civilized world in gen- 
eral and the United States in particular, 
has faithfully studied the matter for a 
short time his head becomes filled with 
a jumble of almost meaningless expres- 
sions : " Redemption money currency 
circulating medium money of full 
debt paying power silver standard 
gold standard silver craze gold mono- 
metalism bimetalism silver basis- 
crank fool gold bug knave, etc., 
are some of the technical terms which, 


added to a maze of statistics containing 
figures an inch and a half long, usually 
cause him to throw up his hands and 
conclude that the silver question is too 
much for him. When he reaches this 
stage he may go to his financial priest, 
his banker, to be straightened out and 
come away more firmly convinced 
than ever, that the question is beyond 
him, and should the banker happen to 
hold his note or overdraft he is very apt 
to accept the weak explanation, he, the 
banker, not being entirely clear himself, 
is able to give him. 

Could the student be made to realize 
that, stripped of its side issues which are 
constantly dragged in to confuse him, 
the controversy is over one point only 
and that the main issue, he would be 
surprised to find that an understanding 
of the great complex question is possible 
by the application of no more than or- 
dinary intelligence with which he is as 
well endowed as the banker consulted. 
Every business man solves more difficult 
problems many times a year, the great 
difference being that politics do not enter 
into them as they do in the silver ques- 

The business man does not, as a rule, 
recognize any function of money other 
than as a circulating medium or medium 
of exchange. This is perfectly clear to 
him for he employs it in that capacity 
everyday. Its function as a "measure 
and storer of value" is to him a dead 
letter, for said function is performed in 
so obscure a way that unless something 



unusual occurs his attention is not at- 
tracted thereto. 

Therein lies the whole difficulty of 
acquiring a proper basis of reasoning ; 
money as a measure of value, its most 
important function, has everything to 
do with the question under discussion 
and the circulating medium nothing 
whatever. The latter is the currency 
and is improperly called money. Gold 
and silver as metals, not as coins, are 
money. While they may be both the 
measure of value and the circulating 
medium nothing else can operate in both 
capacities, while anything by common 
consent can operate as currency or cir- 
culating medium. The metals prescribed 
by law as the money metals are the 
electric power, while the currency is 
the wire over which that power is trans- 
mitted. If the power is insufficient more 
batteries are added to increase it. That 
is what the silver men want to do. The 
financial current is too weak to perform 
the work required of it. 

Money is the metal or metals which 
are designated by law to be such and 
they are just as much money in one form 
as in another. The currency is the form 
taken by the money metals or their re- 
presentatives, also prescribed by law, 
but only the metals themselves can per- 
form the function of the measure of 
value and they perform that function as 
bullion, plate, jewelry, or in any form 
whatever, so long as their identity is not 
destroyed. Coinage is not necessary to 
make money of them. When it is 
claimed by bimetalists that one half jthe 
money of the world was destroyed by 
the demonetization of silver no reference 
is intended to silver coin. Silver, as a 
metal, ceased to be money and was no 
longer the measure of value. 

When the word money is hereafter 
used in this paper it will refer to money 
metals only and the circulating medium 

VOL. xxviii. 8. 

will be designated the currency. The 
latter is not likely to figure often for, as 
already stated, it has nothing to do with 
the point at issue. 

In this country today gold and gold 
only is money ! U. S. notes or green- 
backs, treasury notes, national bank 
notes, gold and silver certificates, silver, 
copper and metal coins a're the currency. 
Silver bullion is neither money nor cur- 
rency, but a commodity pure and simple. 

All the confusing terms, except those 
of endearment, used by writers on the 
subject refer either to the. money metals 
or the currency ; eliminating them all 
but these two, boils the muddy liquid 
down to something solid and tangible. 

The Constitution of the United States 
provides that "gold and silver shall be 
money." . Nothing here is said about 
gold and silver coin. The metals are the 
money. Coin being part of the currency 
is otherwise provided for. " Gold and 
silver shall be money " is the mandate 
and it goes further and says that nothing 
else shall be. 

Commodities must be measured by 
these money metals or bartered against 
each other. 

It is here that many able writers on 
bimetalism make the mistake of claim- 
ing that the value of money is fixed by 
law. The assertion gives the gold stand- 
ard advocate an argument which is the 
very thing he is most in need of. It en- 
ables him to drag the bimetalist over 
into his yard and there thump him. The 
latter had better stay in his own yard 
which is broad and spacious enough to 
enable him to defeat an army if he but 
stand by his one gun " the contraction 
of the measure." Law commands what 
shall be money gold and silver and 
gives a fixed weight and fineness the 
nominal value of one dollar, but does not 
and cannot fix the relative value of the dol- 
lar which must be subject and obedient to 


the law of supply and demand. It is a 
much better argument to claim that, 
owing to its scarcity, it is dear which is 
the whole trouble. Its value as against 
commodities, not one money metal against 
another however, is determined as is that 
of commodities and had there never been 
any money and trade had been con- 
ducted by barter no depreciation of val- 
ues could have taken place. Fluctua- 
tions would have accrued in one com- 
modity as against another, but no general 
and uniform depreciation, such as the 
world is now suffering from, except 
through the enhancement of the measure 
of them all through its scarcity. 

That law can regulate the nominal 
value of more than one money metal, 
that is, fix the ratio between them, has 
been demonstrated by centuries of suc- 
cessful practice. The difference between 
the nominal value of money or the name 
given a fixed weight of it, and its relative 
value to commodities should not be lost 
sight of. 

How, it is asked, does money perform 
its function as a measure of value ? It 
has been the custom for ages for the price 
of a commodity to be designated by a 
portion of some metal recognized as 
money, the amount being governed by 
contract. We say that one ton of wheat 
is worth $20 and one ton of oats $10, 
not that one ton of wheat is worth two 
tons of oats. Thus the dollar is the 
nominal measure of both and the storer 
of the value of both. A man having $20 
in money has stored therein the same 
value as has either the one with the one 
ton of wheat or two tons of oats. 

Bimetalists claim that the reduction of 
the money metals by approximately one- 
half, which was the result when silver 
ceased to be money, has had the effect 
of causing the depreciation of values 
which is admitted by every one. That 
a great depreciation has taken place is 

the one point on which both sides agree. 
It is here the discussion or dispute com- 
mences, for no honest and intelligent 
gold advocate denies that silver was de- 

How then were values affected there- 
by? The volume of the measure having 
been reduced by one-half, the burden 
put upon the other half must have been 
doubled so that a given quantity of it 
must of necessity measure twice as much 
as formerly. Thus one dollar today will 
buy twice as much as it would twenty 
years ago. To make it clearer, for this 
is the all important point, let us employ 
the mechanic's two-foot rule to represent 
all the money metals in existence prior 
to 1873. With the rule open we have 
twenty-four inches, each inch being a 
given quantity of the measure. Now 
let twenty-four beans represent all com- 
modities or more properly their value. 
Place a bean against each inch of the 
rule and we find its entire length is em- 
ployed. Close the rule and it becomes 
one foot long containing twelve inches. 
The measure is reduced one-half not so 
the measured. Each inch will now, in 
order that all the beans shall be measured, 
be forced to measure two do double 
duty. When silver was demonetized the 
rule was not merely closed it was bro- 
ken and the gold half has ever since been 
doing double duty. How long would a 
provident mechanic delay getting a new 
rule exactly like the old one ? 

It is customary for mono-metalists to 
assert .that a double standard is 'impossi- 
ble "that there cannot be two yard 

Here the two foot rule can again do a 
service one foot of gold joined to one 
foot of silver would constitute a service- 
able rule and one end of it would measure 
as correctly as the other and jointly the 
two would measure two feet so long as 
they were firmly joined by a hinge. It is 


equally possible to have a single standard 
of money composed of the sum of both 
gold and silver. When the latter was 
demonetized it was as if the silver half of 
the rule was not only broken off from the 
other half, but its character changed 
from being part of the measure it became 
the measured. 

It was added to the long list of com- 
modities, thereby increasing the burden 
put upon gold. Proof of its being a com- 
modity is furnished in the fact that silver 
bullion is daily quoted in the market re- 
ports gold bullion never is. A money 
metal cannot have a quotable value being 
the measure of value itself. 

" Why, if this is all true, has it taken 
twenty odd years for prices to shrink 
one-half?" "Why was there not an 
immediate depreciation to the present 
standard ? " These questions are gen- 
erally encountered at this point. The 
answer is at least plausible. It has taken 
time for money performing its function as 
currency or circulating medium, through 
the sifting process of trade and commerce 
to reach its present pinnacle of apprecia- 
tion. Besides there has been a large 
constant increase of the measure in the 
yearly production of gold, but the increase 
of property values has been in such a 
greater ratio that gold as the only meas- 
ure has not kept pace. Prices almost at 
once felt the effect of demonetization, al- 
though slightly, but like the avalanche 
the depreciation of the value of commod- 
ities or rather the appreciation of gold has 
been accumulating speed and force until 
today it is rushing madly on to what ? 
This feature of the case will be gone into 
later. Gold advocates claim that, were 
silver admitted to coinage on equal terms 
with gold, the latter would go to a pre- 
mium and out of circulation. Is not gold 
at an enormous premium today as against 
commodities 100 per cent in some cases 
as compared with former years ? Would 

not a small apparent premium be prefer- 
able to a large actual but hidden one ? 
Let gold go out of circulation. This is 
not a question of circulation and gold could 
not shirk its duty as the measure by hid- 
ing its should be much diminished 
head. Wherever it might be it would 
continue to perform that function and bi- 
metallic prices would result. After the 
civil war and up to 1873 neither gold nor 
silver was in circulation but the country 
was on a bimetallic basis and prospered 
as never before or since. 

The foregoing is an effort in a simple 
kindergarten fashion to put the student 
of the subject on a basis from which he 
can reason out for himself by observation 
and the study of history, whether the 
cause of the present deplorable condition 
of affairs is, as claimed by bimetalists, 
the result of the relative scarcity of the 
measure of value ; or, as claimed by 
monometalists, of other causes. It 
should be borne in mind that the " other 
causes" are a vague factor, and are not 
generally specified. At least there is no 
consensus of opinion as to what they 
are. It is undoubtedly true that im- 
provements in machinery, the application 
of steam and electricity as generators of 
power and other wonderful inventions 
and discoveries of the igth century, have 
reduced the cost of production and cheap- 
ened commodities, but it is also true that 
the same factors have stimulated the 
production of the money metals. New 
processes have been discovered by which 
gold and silver can be reduced at a profit 
from ores that were formerly considered 
worthless. New deposits have been 
found and it would seem as though na- 
ture were doing her utmost to provide 
sufficient'of the " measure " to offset and 
balance the increased production of com- 
modities and to sustain prices. But man, 
in his blind folly, has thrust the blessing 
from him and declined to use one of the 



metals as money and thereby defeated 
nature's efforts in his behalf. When the 
world should be enjoying the greatest 
prosperity and happiness as a result of 
the increased supply of both commodities 
and the money metals, it is, as a matter 
of fact, suffering the greatest misery and 
privation as a result of the liquidation 
which is going on. At a time of the 
greatest plenty, the greatest woe. What 
children we all are. 

Admitting the force of the contention 
that these other influences have had the 
effect, as they undoubtedly have, of de- 
preciating the value of commodities, all 
the more reason exists why the evil 
and evil it is, for a constantly falling mar- 
ket must result in bankruptcy and wreck 
should not have been aggravated by 
decreasing the volume of the measure of 
value. It should, on the contrary, have 
been increased as an offset, and would 
have been, had not the production of 
silver been discouraged by taking from 
it, by legislation, its standing as a money 
metal. Taking this view of it, overpro- 
duction of commodities, by which mono- 
metalists account for their depreciation, 
becomes a powerful argument in favor of 
the increase of the measure of value by 
the remonetization of silver. 

Assuming that the bimetallic view is 
the correct one and the shrinkage of 
value is due to the insufficiency of the 
measure of value, how is the creditor 
affected thereby ? 

Advocates of bimetalism are con- 
stantly asserting, in order to impress 
upon the debtor that he is being op- 
pressed by the creditor, that the appre- 
ciation of gold is in the interest of the 
latter, who is guilty of committing a crime 
in using his influence to perpetuate exist- 
ing conditions. The cause would make 
greater progress if it could be demon- 
strated to the creditor that his interest 

and the debtor's are identical. Assure a 
man that a certain course, whether good 
or bad, is to his interest and he will be 
very apt to believe you and persist in it. 
Convince him to the contrary and he 
becomes an easy convert. That the in- 
terest of the debtor and creditor are iden- 
tical no business man will deny. What 
would be thought of a money lender 
who, as soon as his loan is consummated, 
should immediately set to work to de- 
preciate the security he holds ? He, at 
once, assumes a part interest in the 
property, becomes a partner in the busi- 
ness and to attempt to ruin the property 
or business is not only striving to work 
his own ruin but is a breach of faith with 
his co-owners. But is this not exactly 
what the creditor class of the commercial 
world is doing through greed ? The im- 
mense trust companies and life insur- 
ance companies of the eastern cities have 
millions of dollars invested in the west in 
the shape of mortgages on farms, loans 
on and investments in bonds and stocks 
of railroads and industrial enterprises. 
When they bring their enormous influ- 
ence to bear to maintain the present 
gold monometallic basis of this country 
are they not depreciating the value of 
their s ecurities and inviting disaster ? 
They say that the so-called " silver 
craze " of the West is an effort on the 
part of the debtor to pay his debt in a 
depreciated money. Do they really 
think so ? Does it never occur to them 
fhat the debtor may be honestly anxious 
to pay his gold debt in gold and merely 
wishes the gold cheapened to aid him in 
so doing and that denying him that aid 
may force him to repudiate all his debt 
and surrender the property he has 
pledged which cannot be made to pay 
interest in the vastly appreciated money 
in which the debt was contracted ? 

During and after the civil war when 
greenbacks were a legal tender and 



worth about forty cents on the dollar in 
gold, obligations in coin (silver was as 
good as gold then) were made on the 
Pacific Coast and [were paid invariably 
in coin, although under the law, advan- 
tage cculd have been taken of the dis- 
count by the enforced payment of those 
debts in currency. This is the way a 
Western debtor regarded the sanctity of 
an obligation. It may be different now 
for there are many Eastern men amongst 
us. What must be the moral standard 
of the East if it has so poor an opinion of 
the West as to assume that it desires to 
repudiate any part of an honest debt ? 

And after foreclosure has resulted 
what are these big corporations going to 
do with the farms which cannot be made 
to pay the expenses of sowing and har- 
vesting and the railroads that have de- 
faulted in the interest on their bonds and 
gone into the hands of receivers ? The 
railroads can be reorganized at a loss of 
millions to the bond holders and the pro- 
cess repeated. But how about the farms ? 
Nobody wants them and the new owners 
can have the satisfaction of going into 
the farming business and losing more or 
letting the land lie fallow. Is this con- 
dition of affairs in the interest of the 
creditor ? If so let us wish him God- 
speed. Where is the sagacity of the 
great army of bond holders of the Ameri- 
can railroads of the West ? Was the sale 
of two hundred and thirty millions of 
bonds of the Atchison system for sixty 
millions an unheeded lesson? Was the 
default in its interest of the Baltimore & 
Ohio, resulting from reduced earnings in 
spite of largely increased traffic, not a 
heeding to the bondholders to stop and 
think that perhaps, after all, the West 
has not the " silver craze " but the East 
the "gold craze." 

Chauncey M. Depew is said to have 
asked of a reporter during an interview, 
upon his arrival in Los Angeles recently, 

why it was that everything in the West 
was for sale. This was a Depew joke, 
the point of which the West may find 
some difficulty in locating. Does not 
the question furnish its own answer to 
such a master mind ? It should have 
proved a sermon and added to the list of 
things which Doctor Depew claimed to 
have discovered during his trip to Cali- 
fornia, that the West "is not as big a fool 
as it looks" and the East does not know 
it all. 

Send us out some more such men but 
let them be younger and of quicker con- 
ception and their own mouth pieces. 
Then the creditors of the .East may 
awake to the fact that their interests lie 
with and not against those of the debtors 
of the West and that if it be true that 
the constant appreciation of the money 
metal gold is the cause of all the trouble, 
the time has come when the proper remedy 
should be applied. Oh! ye wise men of 
the East, we of the West need something 
more than " missionaries " and while we 
may be wrong as to what that something 
is, you will and do need the same thing. 
So help us to find it. Here in California, 
"the land of sunshine, fruit and flowers" 
and mortgages, all, mortgages included, 
heavily taxed, we can stand the strain 
longer than less favored sections, but the 
spectre has gone abroad and incipient 
paralysis has set in. The gold grip of 
the East on the neck of the Western 
goose has well nigh shut off the supply 
of golden eggs. A mixed diet of gold and 
silver might have a revivifying effect and 
save the poor creature's life and the 
East from the folly of having killed 

And what is the logical outcome of ex- 
isting conditions ? If matters continue 
to go from bad to worse as they are do- 
ing what will be the result? Unlike states 
and nations, individuals cannot repudiate 
their debts and retain the securities ; 


foreclosure comes and general bankrupt- 
cy. When the large corporations of 
the East referred to, are obliged to take 
in sufficient of these securities to materi- 
ally affect their earnings and the public 
begins to realize their condition the 
country will see a panic such as has 
never been Jdreamed of. How many of 
them would dare go into liquidation today 
if the truth were known ? How many 
are allowing interest to accumulate, hav- 
ing failed to collect it, knowing the proper- 
ties could not be made to pay expenses 
and foreclosure therefore bad policy ? 

The gold creditors of New York justify 
their position from a desire to avert a 
panic. In what ? The stock market. 
And that is the entire range of their 
vision. Their gold jaundiced eyes can 
not see beyond the limits of the stock 
exchange. Better far that it should 
cease to be than that the charge of dyna- 
mitejwhich[they are ramming home should 
be exploded. 

President Cleveland has been abused 
and hounded by the New York financial 
journals for his patriotic Venezuelan mes- 
sage because stocks went off a few 
points. Such is the patriotism of the first 
city of America and the second in the 
world. First in population, where in 
patriotism it would be hard to say. 

And the manipulators of the stock 
market are seconded in their efforts by 
the banks of New York. Whose money 
are those banks the custodians and 
trustees of ? Look at their statements 
and see how many millions are due the 
banks and are owned by the people of 
the Western country which is said to 
have the " silver craze." They assume 
that all the honesty and sagacity is lo- 
cated east of the Alleghany Mountains. 
All the brains and integrity concentrated 
as near the New York stock market as 
space will allow and all the folly and 
knavery are scattered through the bound- 
less West. Oh! ye Pharisees. 

And if those same Western bankers, 
many of whom in their heart of hearts, 
know that the contraction of the measure 
resulting from the appreciation of gold, 
is ruining the Western country and con- 
sequently hatching disaster for them and 
through them for the Eastern banks and 
the country generally, would have the 
courage to state the truth, their Eastern 
correspondents would experience a great 
change of heart. But no ; they either 
circulate resolutions that mean nothing 
but " bogieman," or tacitly give their 
support by not refuting them. Let them 
say what they know to be the truth, 
that their mutual interests are being 
jeopardized by the narrow view taken 
by the East and that the business of the 
country is being paralyzed by the main- 
taining of the gold standard and the con- 
stant cry of " wolf " that is being wafted 
by on the Eastern breeze. Let the East- 
ern banker be made to understand that 
the Western bankers are alive to the 
danger menacing the creditor class of 
both East and West and while they de- 
precate any monetary reform that would 
suddenly change conditions, thereby 
causing distrust and panic, they recog- 
nize the restoration of silver as a money 
metal as the proper and only remedy 
and look to their Eastern correspondents 
for immediate aid in bringing the country 
to a true bimetallic basis. The Western 
banks owe it to their] depositors, whose 
money they are the trustees and custod- 
ians, of to bravely face the issue and 
stand by their own convictions and not 
allow themselves to be swerved by the 
influence of the New York stock ex- 
change. It would be interesting to 
watch the effect, such a stand by the 
Western banks would have on the price 
of silver bullion and the disappearance of 
the 5<x dollar argument of the gold mono- 

The following is an exact copy of a 
circular letter to the Western banks from 



their New York correspondents and is 
being by them endorsed and distributed 
amongst their customers : 

NEW YORK, April 9, 1896. 

Dear Sir: 

In view of the near approach of the National 
Conventions for the nomination of candidates 
for the Presidency of the United States, we de- 
sire to aid to the fullest extent in our power in 
the effort to remove from the field of politics all 
doubtful or equivocal expressions regarding the 
maintenance of the gold standard of value, in 
line with all the other leading and solvent nations 
of the world. 

The business of this "Hank, covering every state 
and city in the Union, is closely allied, by long con- 
tinued relations, with the most important commercial 
and banking interests in the district where the free sil- 
ver sentiment is said to prevail; and this fact only em- 
phasi^es our duty to use the full measure of our in- 
fluence to turn the current of thought towards the only 
safe and sure standard of value. History is full of 
examples of the failure of efforts to create some- 
thing out of nothing. In the interest of the pros- 
perity of the whole country we desire your as- 
sistance in an effort to force the politicians to 
"come out of the woods" and declare them- 
selves plainly upon this most important question, 
in terms which will admit of but one interpreta- 
tion in all parts of the country. 

The business of the country is languishing ; 
confidence is lacking ; values are diminishing. 
Therefore, in what we consider to be the vital 
interest of the whole people, we ask all citizens 
to unite in a vigorous effort to urge the selection 
of such delegates to the political conventions of 
both Ithe great parties as will advocate 'clear 
and distinct platform utterances in favor of main- 
taining the present gold standard. ^ ^^ __ 
The time is short, and action oughtTtherefore^ 
to be prompt and determined. 

Very respectfully yours. 


We call the attention of our correspondents 
and friends to the foregoing letter received by us 
from the National Bank of New York, which we 
heartily endorse and request their aid in further- 
ing its object. 

We believe our country should declare that its 
obligations shall be redeemed in Gold and we 
wish to emphasize the fact that California's pride 
has always been the Gold Standard. 



Thus do the New York banks assume 
to know what " the district where the 
free silver sentiment is said to prevail " 
wants better than it does itself. If the 
writer's business is so " closely allied by 
long continued relations with the most 
important commercial interests" in said 
district is it not possible that the resident 
partner is better informed as to its needs 
and the mutual interest existing than the 
one far away on an island, which he 
never leaves, where he moves in a gold 
atmosphere so dense that he cannot see 
the opposite shore ? 

Here is another which recently ap- 
peared in the San Francisco press: 

NEW YORK, May 20, 1896. Resolutions pro- 
testing against any departure from the existing 
monetary standard of the Nation were adopted 
at the annual meeting in this city today of the 
Savings Banks Association of the State of New 
York. In the preamble the association claims to 
represent 1,700,0x30 depositors, with deposits 
amounting to $700,000,000. 

1,700,000 depositors of the Savings 
Banks of New York say, through their 
representatives, the officers of the banks, 
that they propose to endorse and main- 
tain a monetary policy which may result 
in their being forced to foreclose on 
such of their securities as may be located 
in the West and throw the borrowers of 
a large part of their seven hundred mil- 
lions into bankruptcy. If they knew 
they were saying such a thing they 
would say something else. But they do 
not know. How can they when they 
are in the position of having their finan- 
cial brains carried by others and are 
those others acting as faithful stewards 
in keeping the knowledge of the truth 
from them ? 

Many other evidences of ignorance or 
at least erroneous deduction of this vital 
subject could be cited but enough has 
been said to suggest to an honest mind 
that, at all events, its bearing on the 



relative position of debtor and creditor is 
worthy of thought and investigation. 
The object of this article is to induce 
every property owner and voter to think 
for himself whether he be a debtor or a 
creditor and not to be content to have it 
done for him. 

What is true of New York and the 
East is also true in a much greater de- 
gree, of London as the financial hub of 
the universe. It is the central office from 
which the wires radiate and as the 
greatest creditor so will it have to sus- 
tain the greatest loss when liquidation 

The article is predicated upon the 
soundness of the theory that the con- 
traction of the measure of value is the 
cause of the deplorable stagnation of. 
trade and particularly the depreciation 
in prices of agricultural products. 
Whether the theory is sound or not, 
time will have to determine but if it be 
sound are not the creditors of the coun- 
try assuming a terrible responsibility in 
using their efforts to thwart the applica- 
tion of the evident remedy, to say no- 
thing of the danger to themselves in 
laying a train of powder to the mine on 
which they stand. When Phaeton lost 
control of the chariot of the sun aboltfrom 
Jupiter saved the earth but the chariot 
was wrecked. To help the student to 
come to a conclusion as to the truth or 
fallacy of this all important theory the 
prophecy of Eugene Seyd is appended 

He was a writer on [bimetalism in 
England and made this prophecy in 1871 , 
two years before the demonetization of 
silver was accomplished in the United 
States, Germany and France. When 
any part of the testimony of a witness is 
disproved a jury is justified by law in 

discrediting it all. Can any one claim 
that a single prediction of Eugene Seyd's 
prophecy has failed of fulfilment ? Can 
any one read it without being impressed 
and forced to the conclusion that he was, 
not only a monster of the monetary 
science but was endowed with almost 
supernatural powers ? 
Mr. Seyd said : 

It is a great mistake to suppose that the 
adoption of the gold valuation by other states 
besides England will be beneficial. It will only 
lead to the destruction of the monetary equilib- 
rium hitherto existing, and cause a fall in the 
value of silver from which England's trade and 
the Indian silver valuation will suffer more than 
all other interests, grievous as the general 
decline of prosperity all over the world will 

The strong doctrinarianism existing in Eng- 
land as regards the gold valuation is so blind 
that when the time of depression sets in there 
will be this special feature: The economical 
authorities of the country will refuse to listen to 
the cause here foreshadowed; every possible 
attempt will be made to prove that the decline of 
commerce is due to all sorts of causes and irre- 
concilable matters; the workman and his strikes 
will be the first convenient target ; then specu- 
lating and overtrading will have their turn. 

Many other allegations will be made totally 
irrelevant to the real issue, but satisfactory to 
the moralizing tendency of financial writers. The 
great danger of the time will then be that, among 
all this confusion and strife, England's supre- 
macy in commerce and manufactures may go j 
backward to an extent which cannot be redressed 
when the real cause becomes recognized and the 
natural remedy is applied. 

The logical conclusion here sought is 
that the contraction of the volume of 
the measure of value by depriving silver 
of its standing as a money metal has 
largely augmented the depreciation of all 
commodities and that abstract bimetallism 
is in the interest of creditor and debtor 

George A. Story. 



[HE late Walter Bage- 
hot remarked that 
the United States 
was a country for 
exemplifying by ex- 
periments on a large 
scale the old truths 
of political economy. 
The people were in- 
different to experi- 
ence gained elsewhere, while they were 
protected by their magnificent resources 
from the most serious consequences of 
mistakes in their own practices that in 
old countries would be supremely dis- 
astrous. They were thus constantly re- 
newing old experiments under favorable 
conditions and confirming, if wc?/enlarging, 
the knowledge of the principles of political 
economy. The latest experiment of 
this kind is the silver legislation, of 
which we have all heard so much. 

It is not my design or expectation to 
present anything new or original in the 
consideration of this question, but simply 
some of the laws and established facts 
that govern it, and in doing this 1 have 
frequently utilized, without giving credit, 
the exact phraseology of the best writers 
upon the subject. 

Of all things in the world, " money," 
which can least bear tampering with or 
anything but scientific treatment, is 
being made in this country the bone of 
noisy contention, instigated partly by 
the influence of mining interests which 
ardently desire to raise the price of silver, 
and the adherents of a soft money heresy 
who hope to create abundant money out 
of metal of some kind if they can not 
have inconvertible paper. 

The natural law of money is, in gen- 
eral, the law of civilization, viz: evolu- 
tion ; beginning, it may be, with the 
barter of a horse for a cow, a sheep for a 
hog, a goat for a dog ; after that, the use 
of pebbles or shells as the representatives 
of value in the exchange of different com- 
modities; next, iron; then copper, bronze, 
or brass ; then silver ; and finally, gold, 
and obligations expressed on paper, 


showing throughout a law of displace- 
ment, the inferior by the superior ; or 
the survival of the fittest gold, as 
the standard money money of ultimate 
redemption ; that metal having demon- 
strated to the world of commerce its 
superior utility, efficiency, and refine- 
ment, as the best basis and medium for 
the interchange of commodities, as well 
as for discharging the terms of time obli- 

Aristotle, on the origin and definition of 
money, says : 

It is plain that in the first society (that is in the 
household) there was no such thing as barter, 
but that it took place when the community be- 
came enlarged ; for the former had all things in 
common, while the latter, being separated, must 
exchange with each other according to their 
needs, just as many barbarous tribes now subsist 
by barter, for these merely exchange one useful 
thing for another, as, for example, giving and 
receiving wine for grain, and other things in like 
manner. From this it came about logically that 
as the machinery for bringing in what was 
wanted, and of sending out a surplus, was in- 
convenient, the use of money was devised as a 
matter of necessity. For not all the necessaries 
of life are easy of carriage ; wherefore, to effect 
their exchanges, men contrived something to 
give and take among themselves, that which being 
valuable in itself, had the advantage of being 
easily passed from hand to hand for the needs of 
life; such as iron or silver, or something else of 
that kind ; of which they first determined merely 
the size and weight, but eventually put a stamp on 
it in order to save the trouble of weighing, and this 
stamp became the sign of its vahte. Aristotle's 
Tolitics, 1-9. 

It should be borne in mind, however, 
that all trade is barter, even when the 
precious metals are employed as inter- 
mediaries the latter being articles of 
barter also, possessing intrinsically tbe 
same value as the things for which they are 
exchanged. The whole science of money 
hinges on this fact. 

One commodity employed as money 
does not go out of use until it is super- 
ceded by another of superior qualifi- 
cations for the service. This is the 
natural law that governs the change 
from one kind of money to another. 

To give to coin all the elements of ef- 
ficiency that it can possess, it is really 



only necessary to start it into circulation 
with its full weight and fineness of 
precious metal, that is, intrinsic equival- 
ency, and its mintage or assay stamp, 
and let it go where it will. For ex- 
amples, the Schlick Thaler of Bohemia ; 
the Spanish milled dollar ; Bechtler's 
gold coinage of the Carolinas ; the ingot 
of Moffatt & Company, and coins of 
Kellogg, Hewston & Company, of San 
Francisco ; the Utah and Colorado gold 
coinages, and others. It is an advantage 
of a good standard, as gold or silver, that 
it may be used as a common measure of 
value, without altering very much the 
supply and demand of the article itself, 
so that the exchange value of the article 
may be wholly left to natural conditions. 
Here we have the natural law of metallic 
money in all its simplicity. The com- 
plexities are of our own making. 

Debased money has entered into the 
experience of every civilized nation at 
some period of its histoy and it is not 
necessary to particularize, but there are 
interesting chapters in Jacobs, showing 
conditions under Henry VIII., and Ed- 
ward VI. and Macaulay, of a later date, 
also, describing the imposition of brass 
money on Ireland, etc., etc. 

What 1 have designated as the natural 
law of money is inverted by the inter- 
jection of the legal tender quality into 
money of unlimited issue ; and what is 
commonly known as the " Gresham 
Law" demonstrates itself with certainty. 
Simply stated this law is the operation of 
brokerage, assorting, culling, garbling, etc, 
thus always forcing the poorest money 
into circulation. And this all proceeds 
from the delusion on the part of men 
that in some mystic or supernatural man 
ner governments can permanently regu- 
late the value of money by conferring 
upon it a legal tender quality. If by 
legislative enactment Government could 
exert that power, similar legislation 
would enable it to regulate the value of 
all commodities. 

About 1 366, Charles V.,King of France, 
sometimes styled Charles the Wise, ob- 
serving that the coins of the realm were 
in dire confusion, empowered one of his 
ministers, Nicholas Oresme, a man of 
distinguished attainments, a member of 
the French Imperial Government, and 
subsequently President of the College of 

Navarre, to investigate and apply a 
remedy. As a result Oresme published 
a treatise, entitled "A Theory of Money," 
and in this he outlined what is now 
called the Gresham Law. In 1526, Sig- 
ismund I. of Poland, to which Prussia 
then belonged, observing that the coins 
and money of his realm were in a de- 
plorable condition of debasement, which 
was and had been the chronic condition 
of all Europe, selected Nicholas Copern- 
icus, the great astronomer, to consider 
the subject ; and Copernicus, after in- 
vestigation, wrote a treatise setting forth 
doctrines that had been formulated 160 
years before by Oresme, for the King of 
France, though there is no evidence to 
indicate that he knew the conclusions ar- 
rived at by Oresme. The doctrines of 
Oresme and Copernicus are substantially 

1. That it is impossible for the law to 
regulate the value of the coins, i. e., the 
purchasing power. 

2. That all the law can do is to main- 
tain the coinage at a fixed denomination, 
weight and purity. 

3. That it is robbery for the law*to 
change the denomination, diminish'the 
weight, or debase the purity, of ^the 

4. That it is impossible for good full- 
weighted coin and debased coin to circu- 
late together. 

5. That the coins of gold and silver 
must bear the same ratio to each other 
as the metals in bullion do in the 

In 1558, Queen Elizabeth, discovering 
in her realm the same unfortunate con- 
ditions connected with the coins that had 
existed in France two hundred years be- 
fore, and in Poland the previous gener- 
ation, especially produced in England 
by the repeated debasements that oc- 
curred under Henry VIII. and Edward 
VI, selected Sir Thomas Gresham, one 
of the most eminent men of the day, who, 
amongst other claims to distinction, pos- 
sesses that of having founded the Royal 
Exchange of London, and he, after a 
careful examination of the matter, reached 
the same conclusions that had in turn 
been reached by Oresme and Coper- 
nicus, known now as the Gresham Law, 
and which, as formulated today and ac- 
cepted by economists and financiers the 



world over, is briefly expressed in the 
following terms : 

When two coins of the same denomination, 
but differing in commercial value, are current in 
the same nation, that which has the least value 
will be kept in circulation and the other with- 
drawn from it as much as possible, and hoarded, 
melted down, or exported, in short tbat bad 
money drives out good. 

It may be fairly stated that this funda- 
mental law of money is found to hold 
universally true in all ages and countries 
and has been recognized and acknow- 
ledged by learned men in all discussions 
on the subject. It applies in the follow- 
ing cases : 

1. If the coinage consists of only a 
single metal, as in the early coinage of 
England, and clipped, degraded, and de- 
based coins be allowed to pass current 
with good coin, all the good coin will 
disappear from circulation. It is either 
hoarded, melted down, or exported. All 
laws are ineffectual to prevent this ; the 
clipped, degraded, and debased coin will 
alone remain current. 

2. If coins of two kinds of metal, such 
as gold and silver, are allowed to pass 
current together in unlimited quantities, 
and if a legal ratio is attempted to be en- 
forced between them which differs from their 
relative value in the markets of the world, 
the coin which is under-rated disappears 
from circulation, it is either hoarded, 
melted down, or exported, and that 
which is over-rated alone remains current. 
The law holds good also in relation to 
bank note circulation. 

3. This law is not confined to single 
and separate countries ; it is not limited 
in time or space : it is absolutely univer- 
sal. The Oresme, Copernicus, Gresham 
Law, was expounded to the government 
of Great Britain by Locke, Newton, and 
other eminent men of the times, but a 
knowledge of its workings did not reveal 
to them a remedy for continually existing 
and recurring evils of coinage, viz : the 
variations, the partings of the metals, 
the breakdown of parity of coin in circu- 
lation, etc., which were universal. A 
solution was found by Sir William Petty, 
who died in 1687, in a treatise of his dis- 
covered in 1691, viz : to make one metal 
the standard money, and the other sub- 
sidiary to it; that so much subsidiary 
coin as could be kept in free circulation, 
redeemable in or exchangeable with the 

standard metal coins was not only the best 
but the only method practicable for using 
both. That there could, of course, be no 
such thing as a double standard, and the 
greatest stability of money was to be at- 
tained by using one metal as standard. 
This theory was elaborated at a later 
date by Adam Smith. 

It was the unbroken experience of cen- 
turies when Locke took up the question 
in England, as it has been the experience 
ever since, that immediately side by side 
with the legal ratio there is a market 
ratio , and there is no discernable ten- 
dency for the former to govern the latter. 

The laws that finally govern finance are 
not made in conventions or congresses. 
The foundation of the international bimet- 
alic theory a purely empyrical proposi- 
tion is thus erroneusfrom the beginning. 

It is not claimed by any prominent ad- 
vocates of bimetallism, for example, 
Lavelleye of Belgium, Cernuschi of 
France, Arendt of Germany, Seyd (de- 
ceased), Balfour,and Helm, of England, or 
Andrews or Walker of the United States, 
that the unrestricted free coinage of silver 
by any one government now maintaining a 
gold standard could be otherwise than 
disastrous. On the contrary they de- 
clare in print, that it would be calam- 
itous and that they do not desire to 
debase the standard of value ; they would 
have every debt paid in gold or its equi- 
valent. And this is the attitude of bimetal- 
ists 'generally injGreat Britain and Conti- 
nental Europe. To all of which 1 remark : 
When the two metals have unlimited free 
coinage at fixed ratios and are legal tender, 
the cheaper will, under all possible circum- 
stances, drive the dearer out of circulation. 

Says Mr. Elijah Helm, one of the ablest 
bimetalists of England: 

"The scheme put forward by bimetalists for 
the resuscitation of the joint standard by an inter- 
national agreement is a new thing to the World. 
Nothing exactly like it has ever yet existed." 

Says Prof. W. A. Shaw: 

"The modern theory of bimetlaism is almost 
the only instance in history of a theory growing 
not put of practice, but of the failure of practice ; 
resting not on data verified, but on data falsified 
and censure-marked. No words can be too 
strong of condemnation for the theorizing of the 
bimetalist who, by sheer imaginings, tries to 
justify theoretically what has failed in five cen- 
turies of history, and to expound theoretically 
what has proved itself incapable of solution save 
by cutting and casting away." 

John J. Valentine. 

THE Los Angeles Times 
. has declared a boycott upon 

and the Los ~, ,. 

The Times itself nas been 
Angeles Times. ., ... , , 

the victim of a boycott. It 

openly defied the Typograph- 
ical Union and refuses today to employ any man 
who is a member of a Union designed to protect 
him against the greed and rapacity of employers 
or to elevate and ennoble his employment. The 
Times does not want self-respecting working 
men. It wants no man who is conscious of the 
kinship of craft. It is in search of abject docility. 
It wants men who are willing that the laborer 
shall forever remain a clod, and so it declared a 
boycott against the Typographical Union. In 
retaliation for this, the Typographical Union 
declared a boycott upon the Times. 

During the American Railway Union strike of 
1894, the Times, at the instance of the banking 
interests of San Francisco and Los Angeles, 
took a position against the strikers. Pullman 
had reduced the scale of wages in his factory to 
a point below which the laborer could live re- 
spectably, and the railways of the country were 
the beneficiaries in the way of cheaper rolling 
stock. The Pullman scale of wages would have 
crushed all the manhood, all the self respect, and 
all the dignity out of labor. There is a scale of 
wages which denies to skilled workmen partic- 
ipation in the embellishments of civilized life. 
There is a grade of wages which denies educa- 
tion, cultivation and refinement to common peo- 
ple; and of such was the scale established by 

Against the monstrous crime of denying to 
citizens of the United States their due participa- 
tion in the common privileges of civilized exist- 
ence, a great protest went up from thousands of 
skilled employees and unskilled operatives, who 
saw in the success of the precedent sought to be 


established by Pullman, an impending fate to all 
the working classes. 

But railroad securities were held in bank vaults 
by millions, and the Los Angeles Times, bound by 
the chains of a mortgage to subserviency, en- 
tered upon the menial service demanded of it by 
the bankers with an alacrity reinforced by its own 
hatred of all who desire to maintain a distinction 
between the wage earner and the slave. The 
Times became the hired blackguard of the banks. 
It did not point out with dignified persuasion any 
mistake or error of the strikers. It denounced 
with an ardor of hate which loudly proclaimed 
the congenial task of reducing risen slaves to 
their proper place of submission to task masters. 

The strikers and their sympathizers boycotted 
the Times, and its editor and proprietor appealed 
loudly to the railroads for sympathy and support. 
The conduct of the Times during the railway 
strike of 1894 afforded the most perfect test of 
subserviency to railroad interests and railroad 
demands that any paper has been called upon to 
undergo in the century. It is in great matters 
that the true relation of master and hireling is 

But there is one point concerning which the 
Southern Pacific Company and the Times are at 
variance. Los Angeles is not a seaport. Its 
nearest point on the ocean is at Santa Monica, 
about twenty miles to the west, and at that point 
there is no harbor. The sea is reached only to 
find an unbroken seacoast. To the south, a dis- 
tance of twenty-two miles, there is the semblance 
of a small harbor or inlet, suitable for coasting 
schooners and vessels of light draught. The task 
of producing a protected area at either of these 
places is about equal, and the task of securing 
the necessary appropriation to create an artificial 
harbor out of the untamed surf of a harborless 
seacoast was prospectively more difficult than the 
construction of a breakwater itself. 



The Los Angeles Times early espoused the 
cause of San Pedro. There is a large private 
interest connected with the construction of a deep 
water harbor at that point. The location of such 
a harbor there will earn for landed proprietors, 
and especially the owners of a certain Terminal 
Railway and of Rattlesnake Island, anywhere 
from $20,000,000 to $40,000,000, for wherever 
the deep sea harbor goes, there the city of the 
south will be built. 

Under the pretense of opposing Santa Monica 
because of the existence of a private interest, the 
Times favored San Pedro because the private in- 
terest at that point was better concealed. At no 
time has this boycotted and boycotting newspa- 
per ever had the manliness to confess that a vast 
private interest eagerly awaits the increment of 
value due to the development of a deep sea har- 
bor. At no time has it had the frankness or the 
manliness to admit that the construction of a deep 
sea harbor at either San Pedro or Santa Monica 
was the foundation of a thriving seaport city. 
That a Board of Government engineers had rec- 
ommended the construction of a breakwater at 
San Pedro was the Times' pretense, not its rea- 
son, for the advocacy of that point. That it 
cared more for the success of San Pedro than for 
the interests of Southern California was evi- 
denced by raising the cry of " San Pedro or 

But hypocrisy is not the only offense of the 
Los Angeles Times. It stands self-convicted of 
venality. We quote from the columns of the 
Los Angeles Times in its issue of January ist, 
1896, the beginning of this year, the following 
expressions of opinion. 

"The interests of commerce demand that a 
harbor should be built where the business of the 
two great interstate transcontinental railroads 
will be most facilitated as they extend into trade 
districts of vast dimensions. And if any sub- 
sidies are appropriated by Congress to aid such 
improvements they must be through such an 
incentive and not to satisfy any local demand or 
trivial interest. There is little doubt considering 
the joint interests above alluded to Santa Monica 
is far more advantageous than any other ocean 

"The Board of 1891 estimated the cost of a 
breakwater at San Pedro, constructed of rubble 
and cement, at $4, 594,494 and at Santa Monica at 
$5)715,965, the difference in cost being in the 
greater depth of water at Santa Monica and the 
greater expense in moving material to it. This 
estimate has since then been materially reduced 
by cheaper construction, etc. At best, the differ- 
ence in cost cannot be objectionable to the south- 

ern portion of the State, and especially to Los 
Angeles. No partiality in this decision favoring 
Santa Monica can be construed to either road. 
The Southern Pacific will have no advantage, for 
the Santa Fe is already there and their facilities 
are equal. The Southern Pacific Company has 
upwards of $1,000,000 invested in a wharf. The 
Santa Fe can without burdensome expense con- 
struct a line from its present terminus along the 
beach and have twice the width of way that the 
Southern Pacific has got, and have the same 
wharf area and superior approaches, with equal 
protection from the elements. Recent extensive 
improvements have been made at Santa Monica. 
A wharf extending from the beach seaward about 
4700 feet, the outer 1000 feet being 132 feet in 
width, while surrounding the wharf is a complete 
system of moorings and buoys. The depth of 
water alongside the wharf for 1000 feet from the 
end shoreward ranges from thirty-five to thirty- 
two feet, with a rise and fall of tide which in- 
creases this five to eight feet. Fire plugs, fog 
bells, red and green lights are conveniently ar- 
ranged, and coal bunkers with a capacity of 
10,000 tons are constructed for the discharge of 
this kind of cargoes. Every requirement is met 
as the business requires." 

The foregoing are not news statements. They 
are the expression of opinion and the declaration 
of policy. Here is a statement of fact, put forth 
with the moral support of the Times behind 
it, that the "Southern Pacific Company will have 
no advantage at Santa Monica, for the Santa Fe 
is already there and that the facilities of the two 
roads are equal. " Here is a statement that at 
best " the difference in cost between San Pedro 
and Santa Monica cannot be objectionable to the 
southern portion of the State and especially to 
Los Angeles." To these arguments the Los 
Angeles Times gave utterance and to their en- 
forcement it gave its full moral support. 

When challenged for inconsistency, its defense 
was not inadvertence, mistake, or imposition of 
subordinates, or any other excuse which might 
have palliated the charge. Curiosity will be on 
the tip-toe of expectancy as to what defense a 
self respecting journal could make under the cir- 
cumstances. However inconceivable, it is ir- 
refragibly true that the answer of the Times to 
the charge of inconsistency was that the ex- 
pressions to which the Times had lent its full 
support were paid for and therefore excusable. 
Inconsistency is but another name for hypocrisy, 
and we defiantly declare that the Los Angeles 
Times is the only instance that can be found in 
all the realm of modern journalism where venal- 
ity was interposed as a defense against the charge 



of hypocrisy. We challenge the Times to cite 
another instance in all the history of American 
journalism where the proprietor of a public jour- 
nal has attempted to answer the charge of hy- 
pocrisy by the confession that the expression of 
opinion concerning matters of public import 
were for sale. The defense of the Times in this 
case wears an aspect of monstrosity when it is 
remembered that if venality is an excuse for 
hypocrisy ,then all journalism is a crime. If when 
men are brought face to face with the inconsist- 
ency of their professions they are to escape the 
force of the charge of hypocrisy by declaring 
that they have made it profitable, 'then civilization 
should look upon all journalism with the ab- 
horrence it has heretofore bestowed upon mur- 

Such is the character of the journalism from 
which emanates the demand for a boycott of the 
OVERLAND by the people of Southern Califor- 
nia. What was the offense of the OVERLAND ? 
It clearly perceived that the one hope of Southern 
California obtaining a deep sea harbor was the 
assistance of the Southern Pacific Company. It 
as clearly perceived that the selfish ends of the 
proprietor of the Los Angeles Times would de- 
feat the hope of the people of Southern Califor- 
nia unless the accomplishment sought could in 
some manner be made to inure to his personal 
benefit. The OVERLAND declared then and re- 
peats now as follows : 

" Much of the opposition to the construction of 
a breakwater at Santa Monica, which would 
convert that open roadstead into a protected har- 
bor, is said to arise out of the fact that the South- 
ern Pacific Company has constructed a splendid 
wharf at that point, and thereby made Port Los 
Angeles the terminus and natural ocean outlet 
of the southern portion of its great system. The 
intellectual and moral feebleness which would 
not perceive in this single fact a great opportun- 
ity for the accomplishment of a public enterprise 
is to be pitied if not despised. Every monument 
ever reared to human enterprise and energy has 
arisen despite the efforts of ignorance, prejudice, 
and selfishness. We earnestly hope our south- 
ern friends will obtain a deep sea harbor. Until 
they do theirs will be a case of arrested develop- 
ment Ignorance, prejudice, and selfishness, 
however, will not win for them this prize. A 
greater breadth of intelligence and its natural 
concomitant, liberality, will be necessary to the 
accomplishment of that result" 

At last the people of Southern California have 
achieved their deep sea harbor. The appropri- 
ation has been made. The place of its expendi- 
ture only remains to be determined. That the 

Los Angeles Times has contributed in the slight- 
est degree to this result may safely be denied. 
That it has obstructed it may as reasonably be 
affirmed. Its war cry of "San Pedro or nothing' 1 
was a disclosure of its unpatriotic, selfish, nar- 
rowness. Its publication of argument in favor 
of Santa Monica, was brazen hypocrisy. Its 
apology for that hypocrisy was a confessed 
venality. Its demand for a boycott of its con- 
temporaries because they have the temerity to 
express adverse opinions to those it deems just 
is a manifestation of cowardly intolerance ; 
while its entire journalistic course is a daily ex- 
pression of intellectual and moral feebleness. 
Behind every public journal there is a personal- 
ity which the outflow of journalism invariably , 
expresses. Behind the Los Angeles Times there 
must be a personality, the sum of whose charac- 
teristics can be expressed in the words immeas- 
urable littleness. 

WHEN I last saw Kate 

Tha Field in San Francisco while 

Death of she was waiting the depar- 

Kate Field. ture of the steamer that was 

to take her to the Summer 

islands that were to be her grave I thought I had 

never seen her look so well. She was just fresh 

from a sojourn at the capital of the new State of 

Utah, studying Mormonism with the ballot in 

its hand, as she had studied it years before when 

Mormonism defied both law and religion. 

She had written a series of letters on this new 
Utah that had made the very Bishops and Saints 
who had once threatened her life, rise up and 
publicly thank her. She did not take all the 
credit for what was due her for her twenty 
years' work with the pen and on the lecture 
platform against the crime of Mormonism. She 
simply and tersely pointed out the facts as they 
existed on the day when Utah elected her first 
Senators to Congress. And the facts showed 
that Utah was worthy of sisterhood in our great 
family of States. 

Kate Field may some day have a monument 
erected to her memory in Salt Lake by the 
women and mothers whose honor she battled for 
and whose cause she made her own. 

Yet Kate Field did not burn the midnight oil or 
give her time, strength|and earnigns in any cause 
for selfish glory. She never considered herself. 
Had she, she would have been alive today. She 
undertook one colossal task after another, be- 
cause the task was a worthy one and there was 
no one else to do it. Her " Kate Field's Wash- 
ington " was not a failure. It was a gigantic 
success. True it died with its brilliant editor's 



failing health but the measures of great public 
import it made live, and the practical reforms 
it brought about make it rank high among the 
great journals of the past. The International 
Copyright Law, the reduction of the tariff on 
works of art, the admission of the new States of 
the Northwest, the civilization of Alaska, the 
preservation of John Brown's home, and the 
cause of true womanhood, true Americanism, 
and true temperance, all owe Kate Field much, 
more than the world will tax itself to remem- 

Kate Field had no sympathy with short haired 
women and long haired men who went through 
the country crying out against the times and 
taking up collections. She had to do with live 
subjects and vital issues and made herself felt in 
every great movement. She possessed the 
mental strength of a man and the physical 
strength of a woman. Whether on the lecture 
platform or in the editorial she commanded a 
hearing and the respect of all. She felt that 
there was a great work before her in Hawaii and 
she went about it with all th enthusiasm and 
dash of youth. She asked too much of her wan- 
ing health and her great soul broke from its 
feeble tenement and Kate Field was dead. Hers 
was a glorious life, one that will long leave its 
impress for good behind. 

THIS number of the OVER- 
The Overland LAND MONTHLY begins a 
the Official new volume and a new ad- 
Journal vance in its prosperity and 
of the usefulness. 

Schools On June i3th, the State 

of Board of Education recog- 

California. nized the magazine's long 
career and great work for the 
whole Pacific Coast and designated it the official 
journal of the schools of California. It was a 
graceful and we feel a fitting compliment. The 
OVERLAND has always been an educational, 
historical, and literary magazine devoted to this 
Coast and to the upbuilding of its education and 
its industries. It has not profitted by the ups of 
the gold days or lost its independence with the 
downs of the hard times. It has steadily been 
the advocate whatever was for the best interests 
of California and the Pacific Coast. The 3,200 
schools into which the action of the State Board 
places it adds 300,000 readers and double its in- 
fluence for good and quadruple its hold upon the 
West. We thank the State Board for this gen- 
erous endorsement and trust we will merit their 
continued esteem. 

Book Notice. 


the San Jose (Mercury as also of the San Fran- 
cisco Call, sends out for the kindly notice of his 
brethren of the quill an illustrated souvenir, 
Santa Clara County and its Resources. } It requires 
no professional courtesy, however, to speak well 
of this volume; for in no similar work yet issued 
in California, to judge by anything that has 
come to the OVERLAND'S table, has there been 
anything like the attractiveness of form, the ful- 
ness of presentation, or the lavishness of illus- 
tration, that this souvenir contains. It has over 
three hundred pages about eleven and one-half 
by ten inches in size, and about half of them 
are occupied by full page halftone cuts. No 
considerable interest, no prominent person, no 
picturesque feature, of the whole county but is 
presented in these plates. To see it is to be con- 
vinced, beyond all possibility of cavil at "Cali- 
fornia yarns," that Santa Clara County offers 
allurements to the homeseeker equaled by few 
spots on earth. 

HARRY CASTLEMON always writes a good 
stirring book with a moral, and Houseboat Boys 
is not an exception to the general rule of his 
stories. It is the story of two plucky Pennsylva- 
nia boys who finally won success in a novel way 
by their energy and perseverance. The boys 
worked their way through school and academy 
and decided to go to college. As their families 
were poor they were obliged to strike out for 
themselves and accordingly built a " houseboat " 
and determined to live as trappers until they had 
saved money sufficient for their purpose. After 
a few months' experience on river and lake 
with many adventures, success comes to them 
in an unexpected way. The book is a whole- 
some one and will doubtless prove that Mr. Cas- 
tlemon still holds the attention of his young 
readers today as he did a generation ago. Henry 
T. Coates & Company are the publishers. 

passed under the control and editorship of Rounse- 
velle Wildman, has gained a place in the front 
rank of current literature, rivaling in the quality 
of its illustrations and the excellence of its con- 
tributions some of the best work done in the 
more pretentious Eastern magazines. Mail, 
Stockton, Cal. 

HON. W. W. FOOTE, a director of the OVER- 
LAND MONTHLY Pub. Co., was elected by the 

'Santa Clara County and its Resources. The San Jose 
Mercury. San Jose, California: 1895. 



State Convention at Sacramento on June i8th a 
delegate-at-large to the Democratic National 
Convention at Chicago. 

. J. F. DOUTHITT, the famous tapestry painter, 
has published a superb CManual of Art Decoration 1 . 
The book should be in the hands of every person 
of wealth who is building or refurnishing his 
home. For the man of humble means a glance 
through its charmed pages and colored plates is 
almost foolish. The homes that Mr. Douthitt 
decorates are the homes of the millionaire. The 
designs in colors for " Grotto Rooms," " Greek," 
"Mary Stuart," "Cinderella," "Mother 
Hubbard," "Sleeping Beauty" rooms, and 
" Dens," must be seen to be believed. Still the 
work is an education to all, and if one is not a 
millionaire he can at least hope to possess one or 
more of the tapestry paintings that are illustrated. 
The contents of the book embrace discussions 
and hints on " Colonial American Homes, Wall 
Papers, Tapestries, Halls, Fire Places, Dining 
Room Decoration, Draperies, Embroideries, Ball 
Rooms, Floor Coverings, and so on. The work 
is printed on heavy plate paper, Royal Quarto 
size. Neither the letter-press or illustration can 
be too highly commended. 

geography, topography and history of the Pacific 
Slope in a most attractive manner. Harr Wag- 
ner, both as a writer and school superintendent, 
is well equipped for preparing such a work for 
our public schools. 

THE "Care and' Culture of Men," by Pres. 
Jordan, is the first book that the famous scientist 
has published on this Coast. It will be followed 
by a book entitled, "The Innumerable Com- 

"THE LITERARY WORLD" of Boston, the 
leading literary journal in the United States, 
says of the OVERLAND MONTHLY . . "it is 
well worthy the attention of all magazine read- 
ers East and West." 

'Manual of Art Decoration. By J. F. Douthitt. 86 
Hifth Avenue. New York. 

AT a meeting of the State Board of Education 
held June 13, 1896, the University of Nebraska 
was placed upon the accredited list. 

The OVERLAND MONTHLY was designated 
as the official organ of the Department of Public 
Instruction beginning July, 1896. 

THERE is something restful in Mr. Barrett's 
<A Set ofT^ogttes" that is very grateful after a 
course of the everyday spirit-rending stories of 
love or adventure of the fashionable school. Its 
story flows along like the deep, changeless waters 
of a giant river, full of mysterious pools and 
surprising curves, but never breaking into rapids 
or shallows. There is an abundance of exciting 
incident and fascinating plot, but it all comes 
naturally and is never forced or overdone. The 
Set of Rogues are a company of players who find 
themselves out of employment and funds after 
the great London fire. They go out into the 
provinces and there meet a mysterious Spaniard, 
who induces them to enter into a plot to personate 
an English gentleman who has been captured 
and is held in captivity on the Barbary Coast 
Sweet Moll Dawson, the daughter of the head of 
the players, personates Judith Godwin, the cap- 
tive daughter. The Spaniard takes them to 
Spain, where they stay a year preparing the sev- 
eral roles. Then they return in their new names 
to England and obtain possession of the coveted 
estate. It is not fair to relate the story ; for it is 
full of quaint old world adventures and sweet 
old-fashioned love and friendship. The Set of 
Rogues are not bad, they redeem themselves 
nobly before the close. The style of the writing 
is old English, the narrator being one of the 
rogues, Christopher Sutton. 

The scene changes from England to France 
and Spain, and back again to England, and 
finally the book closes in Algeria. Other than 
for its story interest the novel is really valuable 
as a study of the life of strolling players shortly 
after the death of Shakspeare. The book is well 
worth reading. 

A Set of Rogues. By Frank Barrett. New York : Mac- 
millan & Co. : 1895. 



IT is a pleasant thing for Californians to 
note the recognition the state is re- 
ceiving from the distinguished men of 
Central America. It is beginning to dawn 
upon us that we have their friendship 
and good will and that these gentlemen 
too are citizens of a great and prosperous 
nation whose confidence and trust is es- 
sential to our own prosperity. 

There is a citizen of Guatemala whose 
history is remarkable in many ways, but 
in no way more than in realizing just 
exactly what his destiny should be, and 
what his people wanted it to be. Gen- 
eral M. L. Barillas, a man celebrated for 
his valor and successes in the history of 
his nation, Guatemala, is a modest un- 
assuming man with a clear penetrating 
eye and the appearance of a military 
chieftain, a noble rugged strength about 
him ( that denotes firmness, good health 
and mental activity that inspires you 
with respect and admiration. He is of 
medium height, of solid build and looks 
every inch a soldier." Austere and at 
times forbidding until his restless eyes 
light up suddenly with a generous fire 
and then it is discovered that you are in 
the presence of a most genial liberal 
hearted and generous minded gentleman. 
Extremely sensitive and retiring in his 
disposition, courting no notice, desiring to 
travel as a private citizen, the intrusion 
of visitors only arouses his kindly feelings 
and he treats everyone in a princely and 
genial manner. 

The associate and colleague of J. Ruf- 
fino Barrios, he succeeded that eminent 
commander as President of Guatemala 
and ruled its destinies until the breaking 
out of the disastrous war with Salvador 
in which he sought to avenge the murder 
of his friend Gen. Mendez. His father 
was of old Spanish stock and his mother a 
native of Guatemala, he was born in 
Quezaltenango in 1845, he joined the 
Revolution in 1867 which Barrios had 

instituted to overthrow the regime estab- 
lished by Carrera. Barrilas was full of] 
fight and entered the army as a Captain] 
and his brilliant military ability was soon 
recognized and he was advanced to the] 
office of General which he held at the] 
close of the war. 

When Barrios was in full power and 
had utterly defeated his enemies, he 
naturally turned to Barillas, his distin- 
guished General and recognised his val- 
uable services by appointing him com- 
mander of the Occidental Division of the 
forces, and Governor, with headquarters 
at Quezaltenango. 

General Barillas was fast becoming an 
important and famous man in his coun- 
try and his alliance was naturally sought 
by the proud and aristocratic families. 

He won the heart of one of the fairest 
and richest heiresses in Guatemala, 
Dona Encarnacion Roblas whose fortune 
represented millions. In his marriage 
he became allied to the aristocratic Rob- 
las family, one of the noblest and best 
known in the country. This added much 
to his popularity and he advanced in im- 
portance and dignity. General Barillas 
entered into coffee planting on the advice 
of friends, and]with such success that the 
result was the establishment of the great 
industry which has made the wealth of 
Guatemala. General Barillas made enor- 
mous profits from the business and is to- 
day condsidered one of the richest men 
in Central America. 

President Barillas controled the des- 
tinies of Guatemala for seven years and 
made an excellent record. He built up 
the native industries, promoted enter- 
prises, and was beloved by his people as 
a wise, conscientious and benevolent 
ruler who maintained friendly relations 
with all foreign powers and endeavored 
to carry out the policy of his predecessor 
in establishing schools throughout the 


His liberal spirit manifested itself on 
many occasions for he was generous and 
unselfish in his patriotic desire to leave 
an honored and illustrious name to his 
countrymen. He has entertained on a 
royal and magnificent scale and spent vast 
sums of money for the benefit of his peo- 
ple, thrusting his hand into his own 
pocket for the expenses of the govern- 

Barillas' ambition has been for the 
progress and prosperity of his people, 
and especial good will and amity to for- 
eigners. His wise and provident course 
has stimulated business at home and 
given faith and credit abroad, and under 
these advantageous conditions capital can 
afford to enter and test the merits of the 
mining interests. From recent favorable 
tests, and taking into consideration the 
reliable mining traditions of the past and 
the known presence of the precious and 
useful metals spread over such an exten- 
sive area of territory, favorable results 
may surely be expected. 

The population of Guatemala is com- 
posed of 1,500,000 inhabitants, the pro- 
portion of the public debt is about $11.41 
per capita. Guatemala in this respect 
can be compared favorably with other 
countries of Europe and America. 

Guatemala is a healthy country, abun- 
dant in fertile and vacant lands, two- 
thirds of which are not cultivated for 
want of labor, and the country offers to 
immigrants great advantages. The soil 
needs no fertilizers and the industrious 
immigrant without capital will -simply 
have to till tne land slightly and sow the 
; grain to obtain a crop after six months, 
sufficient for the ample support of a fam- 
ily, and until the cuttings and seeds are 
' transplanted, as time is required for their 
: development. 

The above relates particularly to im- 
migrants without means. Those who 
possess a little money can make a fortune 

in a few years in establishing coffee plan- 
tations, others who have a profession or 
trade find unlimited fields to exercise 
them profitably. 

No person ever left the country on 
acount of the want of an opportunity to 
invest his capital or for lack of lucrative 
employment. The exports of Guatemala 
are about $14,000,000 and imports over 
$9,000,000 annually. 

Guatemala is about two hundred and 
thirty miles along the Pacific Coast and 
has an average width of about one hun- 
dred miles. The aspect of Guatemala is 
generally mountainous, covered with 
magnificent forests ; hence its name 
Guatemala, or to be more exact Qiiau 
hitemallau, meaning " full of trees," the 
interior of the country watered by in- 
numerable rivers presenting high table 
lands and extremely fertile plains of re- 
markable beauty. The country has a 
variety of climates ; on the coast of the 
Pacific the heat is very great, but it is 
less intense than on the Atlantic Coast. 

The principal wealth of Guatemala is 
its coffees ; the plantations improve and 
increase in number every year and will 
no doubt continue to do so, insomuch as 
its quality is acknowledged to be superioi 
and is consequently in great demand. 
Guatemala produces about 70,000,000 
pounds of coffee annually, the depart- 
ment of Quezaltenango raises from 
thirteen to fifteen million pounds or 
nearly one fourth of the entire crop. 

The independence of Guatemala was 
declared when the Central American 
Confederation dissolved in 1847. The 
regular army is composed of nearly four 
thousand officers and men and a militia 
force of sixty-seven thousand three hun- 
dred men, the government has lately ex- 
pended money to procure modern mili- 
tary arms. 

It has also erected many new public 
buildings and entered into heavy engage- 


ments to subsidize railroads. The legis- 
lative power is vested in the National 
Assembly, a single chamber elected for 
four years by universal suffrage. Cus- 
tom duties provide nearly one-half of the 
the revenue and excise duties on alcohol 
and tobacco more than a quarter, about 
a tenth of the revenue goes to provide 
for the regular army and militia force. 
Education is free and compulsory and 
the Government maintains nearly two 
thousand primary schools containing over 
seventy-five thousand children. 

A railroad from San Jose to the Capi- 
tal, seventy-two miles, and one from 
Champerico to Ritalhuleu, twenty-seven 
miles, were completed in 1883, the latter 
was afterwards extended to San Felipe, 
twenty miles from Ritalhuleu. A rail- 
road from the Capital to the Pacific Coast 
built by an American Company was 
opened on March i5th, 1805, the division 
completing the line to the Atlantic is to 
be completed by 1897. 

Since retiring from office General Bar- 
illas has devoted his time largely to his 
own interests, and has lived on his estate 
busy with the cultivation of his vast plan- 
tations. His immense residence supplied 
with every modern luxury is the far famed 
La Libertad, his home palace. There is no 

private garden as extensive or as pictures- 
que as that of General Barillas, the palace 
rising in the midst of an ocean of verdure 
and tropical flowers, and architecturally 
it is the grandest residence in the Re- 
public. It is furnished in a magnificent 
manner and it is here that the General 
lavishly entertains his friends. His pop- 
ularity and fame as a dispenser of a pa- 
triarchal hospitality is known over the 
entire country, and his place is always 
full of guests. At a recent birthday cele- 
bration he entertained over one hundred 
friends. His stables at La Libertad con- 
tain the finest thoroughbreds, and he has 
an army of men constantly at work for 
him attending to his high-bred stock. 

General Barillas is the finest sports- 
man of the Republic. From his earli- 
est infancy he devoted his leisure to 
outdoor exercise, indeed it is said that he 
spends days on horseback and never 
tires. He is proud of his plantations, is 
an ardent agriculturalist, and the most 
practical of coffee growers. 

As a citizen, statesman and soldier he 
is a most interesting historical personage. 
It is his first visit to California, and the 
first time in many years that political 
and private matters have permitted him 
to cross the boundaries of the Republic. 
Arthur Wheeler. 


Overland Monthly. 


The Crowning of the 
Tzar of all the Russias. 

The Crowning of the 
King of all the 

The first holds sway over but one coun- 
try and one people ; the second over all 
countries and all people. The reputa- 
tion of 

i.s international. The sale of SOZODONT is 
universal. Wherever refinement Is there 
is SOZODONT. And it has been so for 
Fifty Years. Do you ask why? Try 
SOZODONT and see ! A sample (in- 
cluding a sample cake of Sozoderma Soap) by 
mail, provided you send three cents for postage 
and mention this publication. Address 


Proprietors of Sozodont, Sozoderma,, 

Spaldlng'* Glue, and other 

well-known preparations. 

First Baking Powder Made 

>RESTOfl & 

Never fails to iSF"!P^ Perfectly Pure 

The Standard 
for the past 
Fifty Years 

make light and 
wholesome Bread 
Cake or Pastry 

Best In The World 

GEO. A. FISHER, Pacific Coast Agent, 109 California St., San Francisco 

When you write, please mention "The Overland Monthly." 


Overland Monthly. 

arc more easily mended than other tires, and the repairs are permanent. In the } 

j event of puncture, a plug is inserted, without letting the air out of the tube. In | 
! a double-tube tire the inner tube must first be removed from the outer casing 
t an undertaking impossible for anyone but an expert. But a child can repair f 
j a Palmer Tire. Palmer Tires are expensive, but they are the most durable. | 

i "Wheel and Tire," containing all official American bicycle records, will be mailed to any address for one 2-cent stamp. 



Baker Hamilton 

Importers of and dealers in 

\lr^\r\^ Wholesale Hardware 

venicies . . 

9 ^ o r Agricultural Irrjpkroepts 

\^TQ3. ITl 6 ry O U P P 1 1 6 S F ictor j : Bnici Agricultural Works, Bnici, Cal. 






Distilled from the natural flowers of the Riviera. No chemicals used. 
The flneftt Violet made, and the success of the day in London and Paris. 
Price, in a beautiful carton, $1.50 per bottle. 

For Sale by CA8WKLL, 1W48SKY & CO., New York; MKLVIN & It \ ix.l i:. T. METCALF & 
CO., lioatoii; GKORGE B. EVANS, Philadelphia; \\II.MOT J. HALL, & CO., Cincinnati ; 
I, I, KK, St. Louis; Til I Al nrroicil M I'llA KMACY CO., Auditorium Iliiild- 

inK, \V. C. SCL'PHAIW, Chicago: THE OWL Dill <; COMFANV. SUM I rn< Isco and Los 


Makers of the universal favorites, C'rah- A pplc KlosHoiiiH and 
PerfumeM and the Crown Ijavomlor Sails asked for all over the world. 

Overland Monthly. 



is the ideal pattern 
for the best family use. 
The design is artistic. 
The quality is assured by 


in the back of the bowl and 
handle on spoons and forks. 
Guaranteed 25 Years. 

Made only by 

Holmes & Edwards 


SALESROOMS- N. Y. City, 2 Maiden Lane. 

Chicago, 65 Washington St. 

St. Louis, 307 N. Fourth St. 
San Francisco, 1 20 Sutler St. 

" Gold LamfK FrPP " 25 lamps, finished in Montana 
ouiu kcmipa r ree. gold) wjll 1)e presented to the 25 

ladies, sending in the best reading article on " The Aladdin 
Lamp "; contest closes Sept. 1st, 1896 

Send five two-cent stamps for full information regarding con- 
test and receive pocket clothes brush for removing mud spots, &c. 


Built to burn 
It -won't go out 
The highest 

grade lamp 
at the lowest 


If dealer doesn't keep it. send $3 for Nickel. We deliver 
carriage free. THE ALADDIN LAMP CO. 

511 Broad St., Newark, N. J. 

will explain the 
Truss Frame 
and its 


is the most highly 
finished bicycle in 
the world. When 
you see a High- 
Grade Wheel with 
a truss frame you 
know it is a FOWLER 


Factory: CHICAGO 

Branches New York, Boston, Washington, Providence. 






In* Models Aluminum Silrer, Maroon and Black Enamel Fin 
h. Extremely Handsome. Large Tubing Narrow Tread 
Uehable Sprocket. Weight, 17-25 Ibs 


Wrili- for our handsome Catalogue 

Plymouth Cycle Mfg. Co., Plymouth, Ind. 

Hunter Cycles 



First class in every respect comparisons 

HUNTERS have gun barrel tubeing, double 
truss fork crown, visible bearings, easy and 
positive adjustment, extra large bearings and 
barrel hubs, adjustable cranks and handle bar. 
A practical wheel made by practical mechanics. 

HUNTER ARMS CO., Fulton, N. Y. 

When you write, please mention 



159 New Montgomery Street 

The Overland Monthly." 


Overland Monthly. 

The Three Cardinal Virtues 

which a bicycle may possess, are strength, speed 
and ease of propulsion. In most wheels one of 
the three is the dominating feature to which 
both of the others are more or less sacrificed. 
The supreme merit of the STEARNS Bicycle lies 
in the fact that in its construction all three are 
harmonized and blended into one almost per- 
fect whole. That's why so many cyclers ride 


304-306 Post St. 


Watch the sunlight glisten on those ORANGE RIMS 

The " 







Retail Price 




Needs " 
No Repairs 






The Chase -Thompson Co., Masonic Temple, Minneapolis, Minn, 

Agents wanted in Every State. Exclusive right to workers 



J. E. MARKEL & SON, Proprietors. 

First-Claw In all its Appointment*. Centrally located 


"Just hear dem hells a ringing, )> 
dey's ringing everywhere." 

The Chime* of Normandy could not 

excel in swcctne** nnd purity of tone 



Tin- Ml:ni<l:iri| ' if cxcclli II rr tlir \\ iilc 
world over. In 16 illnVrnit Hlyli-n 

mid |pri<-i-s. All deoten Mil them, 
"The New Departure Bell Co., KrUtnl. Conn., V. S. A. 

Overland Monthly. 




"The added pleasure of riding a 
Columbia is worth every dollar 
of the $ 1 00 a Columbia costs/' 

The supremacy of Columbias 
is admitted* They are Stand- 
ard of the World* If you are 
able to pay $ 100 for a bicycle* 
why buy any other ? # & & & & 

Full information about Columbias and 
the different Models for men and women 
and for children, too is contained in 
the handsomest art book of the year. 
Free from any of our Branch Houses or 
Agencies or by mail for two 2 -cent stamps* 



Branch Stores and Agencies in almost every city and 
town. If Columbias are not properly repre- 
sented in your vicinity let us know. 

When you write, please mention " The Overland Monthly. 


Overland Monthly. 



Every maker of tires 
to-day b Decking to 
make his lines have Ihe 
"life" peculiar 

JIB ^^^ ^^ ^ V 

5utnone succeed! 
The original Hartford 
4$inleTube is still the 
standard forqualijy 
jpeed and ease of 
repair & Can be 
had on any bicycle. 
You may need to insist 
They cost most 

Works (9, n<n1ford,CNii 

When you write, please mention " The Overland Monthly." 

Overland Monthly. 

,. . .:: .::;.. 5 :*: '- 

..i-' .-.'..'.:*:-&? 

Bicycle Shoes 

"Put "Ball-Bearings' on your Feet",- , 



, Td !a> - Corrueated ioles. Price - Black, $3 OO ; Tan, $3.50 
Ladies^nee Boot $4 5O t o $.OO. Pratt Fasteners secure laces without tying. 

Purchasers are' cautioned to look for the "Ball-Bearing" on the heel. 
Do 'not be^misled by designs which are made _ to . : J' o K h " K 1 f l\ 
"Ball-Bearing," but which are not the same. Insist on having the 
"Ball-Bearing" Bicycle Shoes. 

tbc XeaDing 5>ealers, or 


Stephens & Hickok. 

3For Sale 


E. T. Allen Co.; San Francisco 
Shoe House; 15. Katchinski 


F. F. Wright & Co. 

H. L. Feck & Co. 



Olney & John sen 


C. Godclard & Co. 



Overland Monthly. 



When you write, please mention " The Overland Monthly." 

Overland Monthly. 


and all softs of Summer Outings 

I made popular by the 


Campers' Excursion Tickets 


to various portions of the State. 


Shasta Region 

Fascinating, Healthful, Inexpensive. 

Sweet Brier Camp 

Near Castle Crags, established 
three years. 

Shasta Retreat 

Mountain Home of the Chau- 
tauquans, near Dunsmuir. 

Jit. Shasta Camp 

In Strawberry Valley, Attrac- 
tive and Homelike. 

These Camps are supplied with all the conveniences 
for camping, and provisions may be had in abundance 
cheaply on the grounds. ^tg Q ^ | tm 

In the 

Santa Gwz 

are a number of 

delightful camping locations. 


fllma, Wrights, Laurel, 

Glencuood, Felton, 
Ben Iiomond and 

Boulder Creek. 

The Sauta Cruz Mountains make up In charming 
picturesqueuess what they lack in the fearful grandeur 
of the Shasta country, and their proximity to the sea 
gives the climate ibe delicious flavoring of the salt 
sea breezes. The locations are quickly reached, pro- 
visions are abundant, rates are reasonable, and op- 
portunities for pleasurable diversions are limitless. 

The Mountains! of J California are- a [Paradise for Hunters^ and Anglers. 

The Southern Pacific Company has just published attractively illustrated folders, describing 
in detail the various resorts of the State, where situated, how reached, rates, etc. These folders 
contain much valuable information, and will be distributed freely. Send your name to 
T. H. GOODMAN, Gen. Pass. Agent, or apply to any S. P. Co. Agent. 

When you write, please mention " The Overland Monthly." 


Overland Monthly. 








Hot Springs 


Wild Animals 

he Grand Canon 



Has all the colors of the Rainbow 
:ind some it has not 

Take your vacation trip to the Park 

It is the cheapest and most interesting line 


General Agent Northern Pacific R. R. 

638 Market St., 8 an Francisco 


(. \'..\ T. \. N. P. R R. 

St. Paul, Minn. 

When you write, pleane meotiou " The Overlaud Monthly." 

Overland Monthly. 

Lower Geyser Basin 


Join our Excursion to the 
Yellowstone leaving: S. F. 
July 12th * * * 

" We have now reached that part of the Park 
where the most peculiar phenomena found there, 
the geysers, are seen at their best. We had a 
foretaste of them at Norris Basin. Here we find 
them bunched together. Like the deer and ante- 
lope in the Park, they are in herds and droves. 
The first of these localities for there are three, 
more or less connected is the Lower Basin. 
Here again one's powers of pedestrianism are made 
available. Near at hand, indeed, are the rare 
Paint Pots, and a group of geysers and hot pools. 
But farther away are springs and geysers so much 
finer that it were a pity to be ' so near and yet so 
far.' For the regular tourist it will be a tight 
squeeze to work these into his programme, unless 
he is routed out of bed early in the morning. 

Of the group near the hotel, the Fountain Gey- 
ser is the chief, and, whether it be in full play or 
quiescent, it is a captain. It plays at intervals of 
about five hours for from thirty to forty minutes. 
The crater is about 20 x 20 feet, and it ejects 
large volumes of water to a height varying from 
fifty to one hundred and fifty feet. The eruption 
is a beautiful one, and more like a large fountain 
than the typical geyser, if indeed there be one. 
There are several small geysers and some beauti- 
ful hot pools near the fountain. These, with the 
richly-colored clay Paint Pots, worthy of a care- 
ful examination, will serve the tourist a good 
turn if he does not visit the larger collection. In 
close proximity to the Paint Pots is the spring 
that supplies the Fountain Hotel with its hot 
bath- water. The larger and more distant group 
of springs and geysers about a mile and a half 
from the hotel extends over a considerable area. 
They constitute a wonderful collection. The more 
prominent if distinctions can honestly be made 
are Firehole Lake, the natural hot Swimming 
Pool, the Pink Dome, White Dome Geyser, 
Great Fountain Geyser, Surprise or Sand Spring, 
Firehole Pool, Mushroom Spring, Buffalo Pool, 

the Five Sisters and others. Of these I can refer 

FVom " Wonderland ", our Tourist Book for 1896. 

specificially to only two or three. Firehole Lake 
is some 300 feet long by 100 feet wide, and has a 
small geyser in the center that plays continually, 
and is called the Steady Geyser. The name of the 
the lake is derived from a peculiar feature of it. 
From deep down in the north end of the lake, 
large globes or bubbles of a bluish silver cast are 
always ascending. On a clear day or a moonlight 
night, these bubbles, apparently of gas or hot air, 
appear like a bluish flame, hence the name Fire- 
hole Lake. On cloudy days the resemblance is 
not so striking. It may be, on such days, difficult 
to discern the bubbles clearly, as the water, gives 
off such clouds of steam. 

The Great Fountain Geyser is the mammoth 
geyser of Lower Basin, and one of the largest in 
the whole Park. Special efforts are now made to 
keep a record of its eruptions, so as to advise tour- 
ists of them. It appears to play with moderate 
regularity every eight to eleven hours, throwing 
water and steam to a height of from 60 and 75 feet 
to 150 feet. Before eruption and just previous 
thereto, it gradually fills both of its basins an 
inner within an outer one to overflowing, and 
when the drainage begins to seek the various out- 
lets the display may be looked for. It comes sud- 
denly, first boiling furiously, then becoming quies- 
cent. The outburst comes violently and it lifts 
an enormous mass of water from the whole pool, 
some fifteen feet in diameter. The eruptions fol- 
low each other quickly at first, it then takes 
matters more leisurely, and alternately, boils fur- 
iously and throws out its seething contents for an 
hour and a half. The first three expulsions are 
usually the finest. Some of them are very violent, 
and the mixture of water and steam and the var- 
iety of effects produced are beautiful beyond des- 
cription. Between its convulsions, after a time, 
one can walk out on the formation and look down 
into the throat of the monster. The crater and the 
entire formation are white, and are exquisitely 
beaded and fretted." 

When you write, please mention " The Overland Monthly." 

Overland Monthly. 

A Picturesque and Delightful Trip 
Through Colorado. 

" Into a world unknown the corner-stone of a nation." 

Have you ever tasted of the delights of a 
Colorado "trip? No? Well, I will tell you all 
about it. Leaving Ogden in the evening, we made 
the thirty miles to Salt Lake City in an hour. 
Traveling nearly all the way along the borders of 
the Great Salt Lake, the mystic " Dead Sea of 
America," on through the city of temples and 
tabernacles and Mormon fame, and through the 
basin of the Great Salt Lake, to where in the 
early morning we come upon Grand Junction 
basking in the new-born sunshine, rightly named, 
being the converging point of the lines of the 
Denver and Rio Grande Railroad, and the con- 
fluence of the two largest rivers in Colorado, the 
Gunnison and the Grand. It is the commercial 
center of a great agricultural region. The scenery 
between Grand Junction and Glenwood Springs, 
is a delightful variety of mountain, valley and 
river views. Traversing the downward course of 
the Grand River, the line offers attractions of a 
charmingly varied character, to royal Glenwood 
Springs, fully five thousand two hundred feet 
above sea-level, protected on every side by lofty 
mountains. Above the springs, as they rush out 
of the rocks, are large open caves, which, some- 
where within their recesses, must have communi- 
cation with the hot sulphur water below, because 
they are fille;! with the hot sulphur vapor or 
steam, which rushes out from their mouths in 
dense clouds. The trout fishing is superb. Trout 
of two to eight pounds weight are taken in great 
numbers, and with little trouble. In the fall and 
winter the hunting is very fine; deer, elk, bear, 
grouse and ptarmigan being driven into the park 
in great numbers by the heavy snows on the sur- 
rounding monntains. 

The Springs are noted for their curative proper- 
ties, and the climate is so mild that it is customary 
to bathe the year round in the open air, and hun- 
dreds of invalids remain at the Springs the entire 

Seeing the wonders of a beautiful world among 
the mighty colonnades and minarets of nature in 
grand canons of the Rio Grande and Eagle River 
Canons, winding among the everlasting mountains, 
the trains of the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad 
break the stillness of the air with the sibilant 
sound of escaping steam, or the strident shrill cry 
of whistle echoing from one mountain giant to 
another, one grand "fan-far" announcing to the 
traveler the entry into the only " wonderland " in 
the world. Darkness falls, and should there be a 
moon, the scene in part revives in light, a thousand 
spectral forms projected from inscrutable gloom, 
dreams of mountains, as in their sleep they brood 
on things eternal. 

The town of Oilman ! Suddenly the emotion 
aroused by pur view of the wonders of nature is 
arrested by incredulous surprise at the handiwork 
of man. The shaft houses and abiding places of 
adventurous miners can be seen from the rail- 
road track two thousand feet below. Admiration 
and awe may well take possession of the mind in 
viewing the grandeur and beauty of nature in 
Tennessee Pass. Long may we loiter powerless to 
shake loose from the charm, breathlessly intent 
upon the beauty of the landscape. 

The canons sink into mysterious purple shadows, 
until the sun is sunk low in the west ; the farther 
peaks are tipped with a golden ray, and above the 
horizon is reflected a light, softly brilliant and of 
indescribable beauty, a light that surely never 
was on land and sea. 

Then historical Leadville, known to fame in 
1859 as " California Gulch." 

From 1859 to 1864, $5,000,000 in gold dust were 
washed from the grounds of this gulch! The camp 
was afterwards nearly abandoned, and it was not 
until 187S that the carbonate beds of silver were 
discovered. Immediately after this discovery a 
great rush ensued to the carbonate camp, which 
was named Leadville, aud the population rose from 
a nominal number to 30,000. It is the greatest and 
most unique carbonate mining camp in the world. 

Salida the beautiful ! Salida the picturesque ! 
On through the grand and unrivaled beauties of 
Royal Gorge to Cafion City. Florence is the junc- 
tion point to the far-famed Cripple Creek mining 
district. Pueblo is the center of the Rio Grande 
system ; it is situated in a basin surrounded on 
three sides by mountain ranges. It is a delightful 

Pike's Peak, snow-capped, towering above its 
brothers, and lifting its mist-shrouded summit far 
into the Heavens, sentinel of the centuries, keep- 
ing watch and ward for hundreds of miles over the 
plains to the east, canting its shadow far in the 
direction of Denver, "Queen City of the Plains," 
one of the portals through which all the grandest 
wonders of nature ever sung by poet or apostro- 
phized by author may be reached. 

The Denver and Rio Grande Railroad offers to 
the traveler " all the comforts of home," the most 
complete passenger equipments in the West, and 
the unequaled advantages of a trip of a thousand 
miles through the glorious grandeur of the Rocky 

The Denver and Rio Grande is, " par excellence, 1 ' 
the "Scenic Line of the World." 

When you write, please mention " The Overland Monthly." 

Overland Monthly. 


Tbe Oply 





AH ... 




By ... 

Offers choice of three distinct routes and the most magnificent scenery 

on the continent. Equipment unsurpassed 

in the West 


Pullman Palace Sleeping Cars 
Tourist or Family Sleeping Cars 

Through to Chicago and Boston without change 

Free Reclining Chair Cars 

W. H. SNKDAKER, Oeneral Agent 



Vlce-Pres. and Gen'l Manager 


Traffic Manager 

F. A. 

General Passenger Agent 

When you write, plense mention " The Overland Monthly." 

Overland Monthly. 


The Wilder's Steamship Company 

Volcano can be reached with trifling inconvenience. 




* Fine iron steamboats fitted with electric lights and bells, convey the passengers from Honolulu 
to Hilo. A greater part of the voyage is made in smooth water. The steamers pass close to the coast 
so that the shore can be readily seen. Natives engaged in their simple occupations, planters raising 
sugar-cane, and cattle, men in the midst of their herds give life to an ever varying scene. The scenery 
is the finest in the world. Leaving Honolulu the rugged coast of Oahu and Molokai is passed, thence 
the beautiful and fertile island of Maui. After crossing the Hawaiia Channel a continuous view of sixty 
miles of the coast can be had. First high cliffs, against which the ever restless waves dash. Just 
above, the black rocks and further up, the cliffs are decorated with a most magnificent tropical growth. 
Every few hundred feet cataracts and waterfalls lend an ever changing beauty to the scene. From the 
brow of these cliffs fields of sugar-cane stretch back for miles; beyond, the heavy dark green of the coffee 
plantations and the tropical forest form a sharp contrast to the lighter shade of the fields of cane. 

The sea voyage terminates at Hilo Bay, pronounced by all who have seen it, by far more 
beautiful than any of the far famed ports of the Mediterranean. 

The sailing time of the steamers has been changed and the speed increased sothat only one night 
is spent on the water. Tourists are conveyed from Hilo to the Volcano over a fine macadamised road 
wending it- way through a dense tropical forest of great trees and huge ferns, beautiful climbing and 
flowering vines. 

The Volcano House in modern in all its appointments. The table is supplied, not only with all 
that the market affords, but also with game, fruit and berries from the surrounding country. 

Steam sulphur baths have been entirely renewed and refitted. Wonderful cures from consumption, 
rheumatism, gout, paralysis, scrofula and other blood ailments have been effected. Those suffering from 
nervous prostration regain complete health in a few weeks, the pure air of the mountains and the steam 
sulphur oaths being the necessary remedies. Beautiful walks in all directions give ample employment 
for those to whom brain work is prohibited. 

Parties contemplating a long stay can arrange to visit the Puna Hot Springs. Elderly people 
find these springs particularly efficacious in building up and toning the system. The sea bathing is 
one of the great attractions. Accommodations are good and prices moderate. 

The Puna District contains the finest coffee lands in Hawaii. Coffee plantations located 'there 
are paying from forty per cent, to seventy per cent, on the capital invested. 

For further particulars inquire of Wilder's Steamship Company (Limited) Honolulu. 

Overland Monthly. 


Chicago ip 3/2 Days 


Drawing Room Sleeping Cars 1 

Buffet Library Smoking Cars Daily without change 

Upholstered Tourist Cars 

-:- ALL HE4L5 IN DIMINQ CflRS -:- 

Sleeping Car reservations and all other information at 



Under Palace Hotel, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 


General Agent. 


Pacific Coast Passenger Agent 

Take the 


when you go EAST. This popular line now 
in the lead. Operating ten thousand miles 

Of track in ten different States and Territo- 
tories, with equipment of the latest design. 
Running daily and leaving San Fran- 
cisco at 5 P. M. both Pullman Palace and 
Pullman Tourist Sleepers, newly upholstered 

and up to date in every respect. 

Weekly excursions leave every Wednesday for Boston, personally 

accompanied by polite attendant through to destination. 

Ticket Office, 644 Market Street, 

Chronicle Building, San Francisco. 

When you ?rite, please mention "The Overland Monthly." 

Overland Monthly. 


Occidental and Oriental Steamship Co. 


Connections at Yokohama for all ports in Japan, North China and Corea at 
Hongkong for East Indian, Australian and European ports. 

Four First-Class Steamers Superior Table. 

In winter the O. & O. Line steamers take the southern track, thereby avoid- 
ing the cold winds and rough weather of the northern route. 

Steamers Leave San Francisco at 3 P. M. 

Gaelic (via Honolulu' Thursday, July 8, 1896 

Doric .Tuesday, July 21, 1896 

Belgic (vlaHonoluln)...Saturday, August 8, 1896 

Coptic (via Honolulu).. W ednesday, Aug. 26, 1896 

Gaelic.. Saturday, September 12, 1896 

Doric (via Honolulu).... Wednesday, Sept. 3O, 1 8UU 

Principal Agencies in the United States : Baltimore, 207 East German Street ; 
Boston, 292 Washington and 9 State Streets ; Chicago, 191 and 238 So. Clark Street ; Cincin- 
nati, Carew (Union Pacific Co.) and Chamber of Commerce Buildings (So. Pacific Co.); New 
York City, 287 and 349 Broadway ; Philadelphia, 40 So. Third and 20 So. Broad Streets ; 
St. Louis, 213 and 220 No. Fourth Street. Also at offices of Messrs. Thos. Cook & Son, Henry 
Gaze & Sons, and Raymond & Whitcomb, Tourist Agents. 

Head Office: 421 Market Street, San Francisco. Cal. 



225 Rooms, Single or En Suite 

American Plan. Rates, $2.00 to $2.50 per day. Parlors 
and rooms with bath extra. 

Coach and Carriage at depot on arriral of all trains 


Oregon Railway and 
Navigation Co.^ ^ 





For All Points North and East. 

Should miss a ride on the beautiful 
* * Columbia River. 

Tickets at Lowest Rate* at 





General Paasenger Agent, 

F. F. CONNOR, General Agent. 



Cash Assets, .... $ 20,000,000 

Losses Paid, ..... 180,000,000 



4O1 Montgomery Street. 

: ; BANK 5AFES : : 

Diebold Safe and Lock Co. 



No. 6 California Street, 


Second-hand Safes taken in exchange, and Sates re- 

Standard Scales. Bicycles and Repairs. 


An immense stock from which 
to select your outfit 


Guns and Hunters' 

GEO. W. 

739 Market Street, 

San Franciso* 

Opposite Examiner Office. 

Overland Monthly. 


Half Rates to 
Washington, D. C. 

Via, tie Baltimore & Ohio ft, H 

On July 4, 5, 6 and 7 the Baltimore 
& Ohio Railroad will sell excursion tickets 
to Washington, D. C., at a rate of one fare 
for the round trip, account of Young Peo- 
ple's Society of Christian Endeavor Conven- 

Tickets will be good to return until July 
15, but are subject to an extension until 
July 31, provided they are deposited with 
the Joint Agent at Washington, D. C., prior 
to 6 o'clock P. M., July 14. 

For further information call on or address 
L. S. Allen, Ass't Gen'l Pass'r Agent, Chi- 
cago, 111. 

Low Excursion Rates to 
Buffalo, N. Y. 

Via the Baltimore & Ohio E, K. 

On July 5 and 6 the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad 

will sell excursion tickets to Buffalo, N. Y., 
at the rate of one fare for the round trip, 
plus $2.00 for membership fee, account of 
National Educational Association Meeting. 
Tickets will be good for return until July 12, 
inclusive, but are subject to an extension 
until September i, if deposited with the 
Joint Agent of Buffalo Terminal Lines at 
Buffalo on or before July 10, 1896. 

For further information call on or address 
L. S. Allen, Ass't Gen'l Pass'r Agent, Chi- 
cago, 111. 

Northern Pacific Steamship Co. 




Operated in connection with the $== 

ffortyeri? pagfie Railroad 

The Steamers will sail from TACOMA, WASH., for YOKO- 
intermediate ports, about as follows : 



"BEAEMEE," July 10,1896 

"TACOMA," July 28,1896 

"VICTOBIA," Aug. 15,1896 

"OLYMPIA," Sept. 2,1896 


Jnl7 26,1896 

Aug. 13, 1896 

Aug. 31,1896 

Sept. 18, 1896 


Aug. i, 1896 

Aug. 22,1896 

Sept. 9, 1896 

Sept. 27,1896 

The Steamers on the return trip arrive at Tacoma, Wash., 
about July 1, 19, August 6, 24, September 11 and 29, 1896 

For cabin plans, accommodations, later sailing dates, etc., 
apply to any of the general agents, or district passenger agents 
of the Northern Pacific E. R. 

Connections and through tickets to all local points in Japan 
and China 

Rates via this line are lower than via any other route, and the 
service, accommodations, and table are unsurpassed. 

EODWELL, CAELILL & CO., General Agents 



Gen. Agt. Pass. Dept. 
638 Market St. 



Gen. Agt. Frgt. Dept. 
638 Market St. 


vVhen you write, please mention " The Overland Monthly." 


Overland Monthly. 


Pieific Coast Agents WATSON & CO, 12* Market St., San Francisco 

Send for Book 

Eight Years Ago. 

Mr. Trevillyan, of Minneapolis, took our Treatment for 


and was cured to stay cured. Seven seasons have passed and he now writes us: 


from the Itching, 
Burning, Sneezing, 

Running of Nose, 
Inflammation of Eye, 

Wheezing and 
Struggling for Breath, 

and a final cure which 
will stay. 

Changes ol Climate unnecessary 

MINNEAPOLIS. MINN., Jan. 3, 1896. 

Dear Doctor Your letter of the 3oth at 
hand. I cheerfully give you permission to 
publish the testimonial. Also that I have not 
had one attack of Hay-Fever or Bronchitis 
since I used your medicines in 1888. I am 
positive that I am cured of both the abov e 
wretched diseases. Wishing you a Happy 
New Year, I remain. 

Yours respectfully, 


8 Tears Cured: 

. L. WED3IE, Boslindale, Bcstcn, 

7 Yean Cored: 

J. L. T2IVILLTAN, 21 6th St., . 
I., Mintoipclis, Minn. 

8 Tears Cured: 

UBS. A. ?. FOSTXB, Chelm, Mus. 

5 Tears Cued : 
;. V. 3ILLE3PIE, Black Bmr, N.T. 

5 Tears Cued: 

WM. I. WILLKB, 1C1 Cherry St., 
Burlington, Vt. 


<tar DOOM* ta UpoaJ trtvtment not only gir ellef. but eradicates the eause of the disease and cured to stay cured. 

nil; M U ItiHlK Tli.-.U I.T. IK'.Mi > MXIO n-: . r r ! r ; , . , w, y,.u , .1,, r,.nsiilt now ready. 

teahtoa with blank for fme examination. OKT IT. Read it. Think It oTer. Talk with these people or 
<M ra4y to ** UM season's attack, and do it now. Addreu 

DR. HAYES, Buffalo, X. v . 

MENNEN'S 8 """""" 


Approved by hifhttt medical 
auihorlilc* a* a Perfect Sana- 
tory Toilet Preparation for 
InfantaamladiilU. Positively 
rplleres Prickly Heat, Nettie 
Rash Chafed Skin. Sunburn. 
i ete. RetnoTm ituxchem Plmplm and Tan, in* ken the 
akin smooth and healthy. 1*11 hlful after nbarlff 
PecnnUrd Tin Box, Sprinkler Top, Sold by Drunlato 

(Name this pa- 


nr mailed for 5 cents. 

per.) Cample by mail. 

Orhar4 MMBMKB Oo.4Mwark. 

Ladies oo^, using 

The Rushforth Hair Curling Pins. 
Will Curl, Crimp or 1- riz.z the 
hair almost instantly without heat 
or moisture, whether lonjf or short. 
Small compact and easi y carried 
In the pocket, ready for use at 
any time or place. Sample set of 
6 pina and agent's terms sent pre- 
"^aWB^BHaaw^ paid for Iftc. Six s^ts for 76c 
Agent'* ,, u tnt of 1 dor. prts hv mail prepaid for $1.2& 
Address A. F. BEESE. Davenport. Iowa. 



SUvdman's Soothing Powders for fiftyiyeai 
the most popular English remedy for teethin 
babies and feverish children. 

HOITT'S SCHOOL, located at Burlingame, San 
Mateo County, stands in the front ranks among 
the home schools for boys on this Coast. Ex -State 
Superintendent Ira G. Hoitt has charge. The 
school is accredited by the State and Stanford 
Universities, and there is no school where boys 
receive more thorough training and careful super- 
vision. San Francisco Chronicle. 

WAWONA, MARIPOSA Co., Cal., Apr. 26, 1896. 


Enclosed find fifty cents for which please mail 
ire two copies of OVERLAND MONTHLY for May, 
1896. We find the article of your explorer Solo- 
mons on the "Unexplored Regions of the High 
Sierra" very good and I have promised to mail to 
some gentlemen in New York City. 

If you would like to send an extra copy or two, I 
will take pleasure in placing same in reading room 
of the Hotel. This id just the article people have 
asked for many times, and we are glad now to have 
it to show to people who visit Big Trees and Yo- 
semite from all parts of the world. 
Yours truly, 


A man committed suicide recently in a Western 
hotel by turning on the gas. Nothing was found 
in his pocket but a milliner's bill for his wife's new 
bonnet. Echoes (Elmira, N. Y.) 

The manufacture and sale of BANK AND OFFICE 
FURNITURE is made a specialty with the GEO. H. 
FULLER DESK COMPANY. Having given special 
attention to that branch of the furniture business 
for many years the house is more fully and better 
prepared to supply all the needs of any business 
office, from the fitting out of the simplest counting 
room to the most finished and ornate requirement 
of the modern banking house, and are prepared 
to do so on more reasonable terms than any other 
house in the same line of business. 

In the matter of perfumery the CROWN VIOLET 
has the lead. It is the most delicate perfume 
made is distilled from the natural flowers is 
free from chemicals and all injurious substances. 
It can be obtained from any first- class druggist. 

The April number of the OVERLAND is an ex- 
ceptionally fine one and those who fail to read it 
will miss a treat. There is but one OVERLAND 
there can be but one its flavor is so distinctly 
western that nothing else can take its place. Get 
it. Read it, and then, forward it to some eastern 
friend who has not the facilities for getting all 
the good things and see how it will be appre- 
ciated. South Pasadenan, Cal. 

Office Boy (to editor) : There's a female book- 
agent outside, sir, and a red-eyed man what wants 
to whip the editor. 

Editor: Well, show the man who wants to 
whip the editor in. 

Friend. Have you signed the contract ? 

Actress. Yes. The manager agrees to allow 
the expense of two diamond robberies and one 
divorce. Echoes, Elmira, N. Y. 

The attention of Cyclers is called to the new 
things advertised in this Magazine which are ne- 
cessary to complete a cycling outfit for instance, 
Ball-bearing Shoes, Aladdin Lamps, Safety Locks 
and Departure Bells and Hartford Single Tube 

" Who said so ? " 
" He said so !" 

"Well, if he said wot you said he said, you tell 
him that Jsaid he said wot wuzzen't said at all ! " 
Echoes (Elmira, N. Y.) 

chosen as the "Official route" of the POPULIST 
NATIONAL CONVENTION, which meets at St. Louis 
July 27th. 

are making special " ROUND TRIP " rates to all 
the principal Conventions or GATHERINGS OF 1896, 
which occur during June, July and August. The 
cars operated on this route are the finest in use, 
and all the service calculated to ensure comfort, 
speed and safety to guests. Full information can 
be obtained by applying by postal card or letter 
to any representative of the Company. 

Publisher's Column. 

Probably no one or the great railways traversing 
the several State* of the Weat and Southwest, 
oflen ao many attraction* to the tourist and pleas- 
ure seeker u the MISSOURI PACIFIC RAILWAY or 

By this line and its connections are readied the 
world-renowned HOT SPRINGS OF ARKANSAS, the 
< ARLKBAD OF AMERICA, owned by the United 
States Government and under its direct supervis- 
ion; as well as most of the Hot Springs and Pleas- 
ure Resoru of this region. 

For the express use of pleasure seekers the 
nificent line of illustrated pamphlets descriptive 
of the various resorts on and reached via its lines, 
which are supplied on application to any agent of 
the Company. 

Mrs. Jinks: My dear, I wish you would take me 
to see Ibsen's new play. 

Mr. Jinks (who hates to be bored): My love, if 
you'll let the play go I 'II I 'II accompany you 
to church next Sunday. 

Echoes (EJmira, N. Y.) 

SAN FRANCISCO, September 28, 1895. 

DEAR 8m: I do not believe it is possible to 
over-estimate the value of the Elect ropoise as a 
life invigorator. Have tested its merits for sev- 
eral yean. Where I have heavy tasks to perform 
I find it a marvelous helper. It re-enforces blood 
and brain; and thus makes all work easy of accom- 
plishment. I would not part with it, and I hope it 
will find it* way into every home where there U 
weaknews weariness and pain. 

Most sincerely yours, 

SARAH B. COOPER, President 

The most popular dentrifice known is fragrant 
flonwewr. The Manufacturers after yean of ex- 
periment, have succeeded in producing an article 
for popular use, which excels in all respects any 
other preparation for cleansing the teeth and puri- 
fying the breath. Sosodont is today the only 
denlrificp in the market of which you are certain 
of getting value received f.,r tin- price. 

All the latest designs in Millinery for the season 
may be found at the establishment of MME. ALMA 
& KEITH, 24 Kearny St. and 808 Market St. 
A large proportion of these goods are recent 
French and English Importations. 

Bound copies of the 27th volume of the OVER- 
LAUD MONTHLY are now ready. A file of these 
book* b the best cyclopedia of Pacific Coast history 
and resource sextant. 

It 's all very well to call for NAPA SODA but 
do you always get it when you ask for it. Now the 
genuine article is so well known for its many excel- 
lent qualities that people without the fear of 

Col. Jackson before their eyes, have been placing 
a fraudulent and spurious article on the market, 
closely imitating the genuine in the matter of bot- 
tles, cases and name " the same with intent to 
deceive." The genuine has the words " JACKSON'S 
NAPA SODA WATER SPRINGS" blown in the bot- 
tles. It would be safer for families to send their 
orders direct to 619 HOWARD ST., S. F. 

This is the season in which the careful man 
looks sharp after his insurance. He is well aware 
that danger from fire is many times greater in 
summer than at any other season. 

But after all the main point is to be reasonably 
sure the company in which you are insured is safe 
and able to make good the loss by fire in case it 
should occur, and to do so promptly. 

with a capital of one million dollars and assets of 
three and one half millions is certainly the most 
likely one to protect you against loss by fire: if 
you are in doubt you might speak to one of their 
agents about it. 

It is sometimes desirable to employ an expert 
who understands the technicalities of foreign 
accounts. Mr. Richard H. Grey of this city has 
made a specialty of that line of book keeping ;md 
refers to several firms, here and in Mexico, as to 
ability and integrity. 

Parties desiring to purchase Pianos or Musical 
Merchandise of any description, are most respect- 
fully referred to the several well known music 
houses represented in the advertising pages of this 

The houses named have an established reputa- 
tion for tquare and upright dealing as well as for 
the same style of Pianos. 

Speaking of posters, no other magazine has ex- 
celled the OVERLAND in the poster or cover design. 
The OVERLAND \ distinctively a Western mag- 
azine ; and is creditable to the ambition of the 
editor. It would do credit to the teachers of the 
State of California to give this magazine a more 
effective support. Woodland (Cal.) Democrat. 

Bound copies of OVERLAND MONTHLY, $2.25; 
including one copy of "The Panglima Muda," a 
novel of Malayan life, by Kounsevelle Wildman, 

Overland Monthly. 


Old Blend 




ALL thai art dwirouj to pan from 
other place on their road, let them 
repair to the -WHITE HORSE CELLAR,' 
in EDINBURGH, at which place they may b* 
received in a STAGE COACH every MONDAY 
and FRIDAY, which performs the whole journey 
in eight days (if God permits), and seu forth 
at rive in the morning. 

"Allowing each passenger 14 pounds weight, 
and all above, 6 pence per pound. 
r. nit. 






Can be relied upon as the best, oldest and purest 
exported from Scotland. 

Bottled in the old country and never shipped in bulk 

To be had of all 
\Vine Merchants 

Try It 





Cleanses and beautifies the balk 

Promotes a luxuriant growtlh. 

Never Fails to Hestore Gray 

Hair to its Youthful Color. 

Cures scalp diseases & hair falling. 

fiOc,and $1.00 at Druggists- 




From Imported Stock for $20 and up- 
wards ; from All-Wool Domestics for 
$15 and upwards; Overcoats $15 and 
upwards ; Pants $5 and upwards. 



26 Montgomery Street 

Room 6 

Formerly in 
Crocker Building 


The only sure Cure for Corns. Stops all pain. Ensures com- 
fort to the feet. Makea walking easy. IScta. at Druggists, 

" Don't Wear Dirty Shoes." 

Russet and Patent-Leather Polish 


It is the Best. 

Absolutely harmless, 
permanent, easily ap- 
plied, and saves shoes 
from cracking. Recom 
mended by users and 
sold by dealers every- 
where, or by mail for 

15 Cents per box. 

& SONS, 

346 Congress St., 
Boston, Mass. 

/ Shoe Polish. Kstablished 1852- 

Bear in Mind 

That we can always furnish the best CUT FLOWERS in the 
market. Special orders for Weddings and other occasions prompt- 
ly and carefully filled. 


Telephone, East 702. H25 Sutter Street, S. F. 

When you write, please mention "The Overland Monthly." 

3 6 

Publisher's Column. 

Probably no one of the great railways traversing 
the several States of the West and Southwest, 
offers so many attractions to the tourist and pleas- 
ure seeker as the MISSOURI PACIFIC RAILWAY or 

By this line and its connections are readied the 
world-renowned HOT SPRINGS OF ARKANSAS, the 
CARLSBAD OF AMERICA, owned by the United 
States Government and under its direct supervis- 
ion; as well as most of the Hot Springs and Pleas- 
ure Resorts of this region. 

For the express use of pleasure seekers the 
nificent line of illustrated pamphlets descriptive 
of the various resorts on and reached via its lines, 
which are supplied on application to any agent of 
the Company. 

Mrs. Jinks: My dear, I wish you would take me 
to see Ibsen's new play. 

Mr. Jinks (who hates to be bored): My love, if 
you'll let the play go I'll I'll accompany you 
to church next Sunday. 

Echoes (Elmira, N. Y.) 

SAN FRANCISCO, September 28, 1895. 

DEAR SIRS: I do not believe it is possible to 
over-estimate the value of the Electropoise as a 
life invigorator. Have tested its merits for sev- 
eral years. Where I have heavy tasks to perform 
I find it a marvelous helper. It re-enforces blood 
and brain; and thus makes all work easy of accom- 
plishment. I would not part with it, and I hope it 
will find its way into every home where there is 
weakness, weariness and pain. 

Most sincerely yours, 

SARAH B. COOPER, President. 

The most popular dentrifice known is fragrant 
SOZODONT. The Manufacturers after years of ex- 
periment, have succeeded in producing an article 
for popular use, which excels in all respects any 
other preparation for cleansing the teeth and puri- 
fying the breath. Sozodont is today the only 
dentrifice in the market of which you are certain 
of getting value received for the price. 

All the latest designs in Millinery for the season 
may be found at the establishment of MME. ALMA 
E. KEITH, 24 Kearny St. and 808 Market St. 
A large proportion of these goods are recent 
French and English Importations. 

Bound copies of the 27th volume of the OVER- 
LAND MONTHLY are now ready. A file of these 
books is the best cyclopedia of Pacific Coast history 
and resource sextant. 

It 's all very well to call for NAPA SODA but 
do you always get it when you ask for it. Now the 
genuine article is so well known for its many excel- 
lent qualities that people without the fear of 
Col. Jackson before their eyes, have been placing 
a fraudulent and spurious article on the market, 
closely imitating the genuine in the matter of bot- 
tles, cases and name " the same with intent to 
deceive." The genuine has the words " JACKSON'S 
NAPA SODA WATER SPRINGS" blown in the bot- 
tles. It would be safer for families to send their 
orders direct to 619 HOWARD ST., S. F. 

This is the season in which the careful man 
looks sharp after his insurance. He is well aware 
that danger from fire is many times greater in 
summer than at any other season. 

But after all the main point is to be reasonably 
sure the company in which you are insured is safe 
and able to make good the loss by fire in case it I 
should occur, and to do so promptly. 

with a capital of one million dollars and assets of 
three and one half millions is certainly the most 
likely one to protect you against loss by fire: if 
you are in doubt you might speak to one of their 
agents about it. 

It is sometimes desirable to employ an expert 
who understands the technicalities of foreign 
accounts. Mr. Richard H. Grey of this city has 
made a specialty of that line of book keeping and 
refers to several firms, here and in Mexico, as to 
ability and integrity. 

Parties desiring to purchase Pianos or Musical 
Merchandise of any description, are most respect- 
fully referred to the several well known music 
houses represented in the advertising pages of this 

The houses named have an established reputa- 
tion for square and upright dealing as well as for 
the same style of Pianos. 

Speaking of posters, no other magazine has ex- 
celled the OVERLAND in the poster or cover design. 
The OVERLAND is distioctively a Western mag- 
azine ; and is creditable to the ambition of the 
editor. It would do credit to the teachers of the 
State of California to give this magazine a more 
effective support. Woodland (Cal.) Democrat. 

Bound copies of OVERLAND MONTHLY, $2.25; 
including one copy of "The Panglima Muda," a 
novel of Malayan life, by Rounsevelle Wildman, 

Overland MontJtly. 


5 TKe Old Blend 

ALL thai art dfsirom to pan from 
other place on their road, let them 
repair to the -WHITE HORSE CELLAR.' 
in EDINBURGH, at which place they may bo 
received in a STAGE COACH every MOMDAV 
and FRIDAY, which performs the whole journey 
in eight days (if God permits), and sets forth 

'Allowing each passenger 14 pound] weight, 
and all above, 6 pence per pound. 







Can be relied upon as the best, oldest and purest 
exported from Scotland. 

Bottled in the old country and never shipped in bulk 

Try It 

To be had of all 
\Vine Merchants 









I Cleanses and beautifies the ha!* 
I Promotes a luxuriant growtfc. 
I Never Fails to Hestore Gray 
I Hair to its Youthful Color. 
I Cures scalp diseases & hair falling, 
SOc, and Sl.OO at Drueeists- 



From Imported Stock for $20 and up- 
wards ; from All-Wool Domestics for 
$15 and upwards; Overcoats $15 and 
upwards; Pants $5 and upwards. 



Formerly in 

Crocker Building 

26 Montgomery Street 

Room 6 


The only sure Cure for Corns. Stops all pain. Ensures com- 
ion to the feet. Makes walking easy. Ificts. at Druggists. 

" Don't Wear Dirty Shoes." 

Rnsset and Patent-Leather Polish 


It is the Best. 

Absolutely harmless, 
permanent, easily ap- 
plied, and saves shoes 
rom cracking. Recom 
ended by users and 
ld by dealers every- 
here, or by mail for 

15 Cents per box. 

& SONS, 
846 Congress St., 

Boston, Mass. 

f Shoe Polish. Established 1852 

Bear in Mind 

That we can always furnish the best CUT FLOWERS in the 
market. Special orders for Weddings and other occasions prompt- 
ly and carefully filled. 


Telephone, East 702. 


1125 Sutter Street, S. F. 

When you write, please mention "The Overland Monthly." 

Overland Monthly. 


Well dressed aud up to date to 
convince you that H. S. Bridge 
& Co: are the best Tailors in 
San Francisco. 


I You will remember that it was 
said and currently believed to 
be true that 


In matters of dress H. S. Bridge 
& Co. do not need this amount 
of assistance, but will make a 
man of you on short notice 
without outside help. 


a specialty 

622 Market Street, 


For Barbers, Bakers, Boot- 
blacks, Bath-houses, Billiard 
Tables, Brewers, Bookbind- 
ers, Canners, Candy-makers, 
Dyers, Flour Mills, Foundries, 
laundries, Paper-Hangers, 
Printers, Painters, Shoe Factories, Stablemen, Tar- 
Roofers, Tanners, Tailors, etc BUCHANAN BROTHERS 
Brush Manufacturers, 609 Sacramento Street. 

ir's Pills 

Great English Remedy for 



igU. or 224 William St.. Sew York. 


to itj natural color by I.KK'* IIAIH ,M Kill. 

C'AXT.tio dyp. harmless, pleasant odor; 75c. prepaid. 
l.l.ll'S II A I 1C TOM*' removes dandruff, stops 
hair f rotnfal ling out and promotns growth. 75o.prpaid. 
I,EK M KIIA XT CO 108 Fulton st..N.Y. 
Illustrated Treatise on Hair on application 




25c. AH dn,,r K uu or hj m.ii. C. H. STRONG & CO.. Chicago. 


Savings and Loan Society 

101 MONTGOMERY ST., Cor. Suiter. 

For the half year ending June 30, 1896, a 
dividend has been declared at the rate of four and 
thirty-two one-hundredtlis (4A 2 ) per cent per an- 
num on Term Deposits, and three aud sixty one- 
hundredths (3-f ) per cent per annum on Ordinary 
Deposits, free of taxes, payable on and after Wed- 
nesday, July 1, 1896. Dividends not called for ; 
.ire added to and bear the same rate of dividend 
as the principal, from and after July 1, 1898. 





& CO. 


ia Enter.- 


HoTato, Maria Co. 

Main Office: 

Sao Francisco. 

Uannfa&nrere of the Finest Quality ot 

Sweetened and Unsweetened 

Condensed Milk 

1$ this what ails you? 

Have you a feel- 
ing of weight in 1 
the Stomach 
Bloating after 
eating Belch- < 
ing of Wind 
Vomitingof Food 
\Vaterbrash , 
Heartburn Bad Taste in the Mouth, 
in the Morning Palpitation of the 
I Heart, due to Distension of Stomach I 
, Cankered Mouth Gas in the Bowels 
-Loss of Flesh Pickle Appetite 
1 Depressed, Irritable Condition of the 
' Mind Dizziness Headache Con- 
stipation or Diarrhoea? Then you have ' 


In one of Its many form*. Tht en* positive 
' rare for this dlstreulaf complaint I* 

Hckcr's Dyspepsia Cablets 

by mall, prepaid, receipt of 15 cents. 
, CHARLES RAM SIT, HoUl Imperial, Nw 

York, says: "I suffered horribly from dys-< 
tpepsla, but Acker's Tablet*, taken after 

meals, have cured me." ( 

> Acker Medicine Co., io-il Chemben St, If. V 

Overland Monthly. 





yield to the persuasive 
powers of 

Pabst Malt 

The "Best" Tonic 

and strength conies with the first 
bottle. You can SLEEP soundly 
after taking it, and lift the sys- 
tem into a condition to resist the 
enervating heat of summer. 

It gives mental power to those 
who use 

Pabst Malt Extract 
The "BEST" 



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40 Overland Monthly. 



3&\\ ta^es eArri\te at and Depart from ttys ^touse 




Queen Lilg Soap 

rubbing, and does not injure the clothes. The Largest Family Washing in 
the city can be done in three to four hours. A girl of twelve years of age can 
do a washing with this soap. 




Office, 3O7 Sacramento Street 

Factory, 17th and Rhode Island Streets 



i 132-134 FIRST STREET 


Bourbop WbisHies 


Home Comfort Diamond Bee 

Golden Pheasant Club 





When you write, please mention " The Overland Monthly." 

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Vichy Springs, 



S. F. & N. P. RY. 

Situation, location and scenery not surpassed. Only known 
natural electric water. Warm " champagne " baths. 

The only place in the world, of this class of waters, where the 
bath tubs are supplied by a continuous flow of warm water direct 
from the springs. 

TERMS: $12 to $14 per Week. 

Postoffice and telephone at the Springs. 

WM. DOOLAN, Proprietor. 

Louis Roederer Champagne 

Three Kinds, all of Equal Excellence 
BRUT, an Extra Dry Wine 
GRAND VIN SEC, a Dry Wine 

3TUsed by all the leading clubs, hotels and restaurants, 
and may be had of all first-class grocers and wine merchants. 


Macondray Bros. &Lockard 


Dave Samson 

Fine . German . Kitchen 


Fine Wines, Liquors & Cigars 

327 and 329 


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you will want to be reliably informed as to the movements of the parties, and in regard to general 
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every side of all questions. It is made up of editorial comment from the press of the whole country. 


At all news stands, 5 cents. $2.50 per year, $1.25 for six months, 650. for three months. 
Sample copies sent free. 

THE PUBLIC OPINION CO., 13 Astor Place, New York City. 


BBM F. TRUB, Proprietor 

Junction Market, Fell, and Polk Sts. San Francisco, Cal. 

First-Class Family 

and Commercial 



Newly Furnished with 

all Modern Im- 


Elevator, Electric Bells, 
Fire Alarms, Etc. 

Term* 11.50 per day and upwards. Special rates by tbe 
month or week. Telephone, south 677. 


Sewing Machines and Paper Patterns 




Between 6th and 7th Streets. 

I -i- J L 


Lurline Salt Water Baths 



. . . Err)pti<i Every Might . . . 
Private Tub Baths Russian Steam Bath 

Crippled Children and Chronic Diseases 


819 Bush Street, San Francisco 
Successfully treats 

Cases of Deformities and all Chronic Diseases of the Spine, Hip and Knee Joints. 
Paralysis, Club Feet, Piles, Fistula and Nasal Catarrh 

This Institute established as a Branch of National Surgical Institute of Indianapolis, 95 years ago, h-u 
been in successful operation ever since. References given on application in all parts of the country. 

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with which to resist dirt, is 



The German Savings and Loan Society Blank Books Made to 



1896, a Dividend has been declared at the rate <>f 
four and twenty-sixth-hundreths (4^ 5 ) per cent 
per annum on Term Deposits, and three and fifty - 
five-hundreths (3jV ) per cent per annum on Or- 
dinary Deposits, free of taxes, payable on and 
after Wedneaday, July 1, 1896. 

GEORGE TOURNY, Secretary. 




Condiments of Every Description. 

Salad Dressing 
Jhallenge Sauce 
Celery Salt^ 

Spice.*, Mustard, Extracts, Salad Dress- 
in;: . Sauce*, Herbs, Celery Salt, Oil* and 

Essence*. Kiuh ami every artulcof the 
t kind, full weight and of full 
strength and flavor Gold Medal* and 
Diploma* awarded at Colombian Bxpow 
tion to each article exhibited for Superi- 
ority to all Other*. Tin- si- art ii-1. -s i-ar.Hot 
be exci'lk-d, and we challenge comparison 
With any tfoods sold. 


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HOTEL DEL MONTE is a supremely 
>eautiful scene just now always the 
ise, visitors say, but more so than ever 
lis season. Improvement is the genius 
this magnificent establishment, and 
lough perfection is said to be unattain- 
)le in human affairs, it seems here right 
nthin reach. The immense tropical 
irdens, interminable mazes of flowers, 
larming promenades, groves, and re- 
reats, romantic drives among quaint and 
listoric scenes, the finest of sea beaches 
id bathing conveniences, mild, genial, 
?alth-giving climate, and a hotel where 
elegance and hospitality go hand in hand, 
lake this most famous of resorts as near 
iradise. as it is possible to be on this 
irth. No watering place in the West so 
iply repays a visit. 

June ist, and Summer outing devotees 
who find the attractions at this popular 
mountain retreat most to their liking are 
packing their telescopes accordingly. 
And by the way, that's a happy feature 
of the Tavern, it doesn't take long to get 
ready for a visit there. Its most remark- 
able peculiarity, however, is the absence 
of care. No one has ever yet entered 
the premises with an ounce of that hate- 

ful destroyer of human happiness cling- 
ing to his person. Try it. Nature and 
good cheer reign supreme, and their 
edicts are peace and pleasure. The pic- 
*'iresque is ever prominent, and health- 
giving recreation is without limit. 

Those in search of first-class comforts, 
perfect rest and relaxation, and abun- 
dance of entertaining pastime, should go 
to the Tavern, near Mt. Shasta. 


The Leading 

west of Chicago, thoroai 
24 POST ST., SAN FRANCISCO Shorthand, Typewritin 
keeping, Drawing, Telegraphing, Penmanship, ELECTRICAL ENGIT 
and the English Branches. 20 Teachers. 35 Writing Machines. Write for 


"A cold bath is a good 
tonic and nerve bracer." 
If Ivory Soap is used, it is 
a beautifier as well. 



Absolutely Pure* 

A cream of tartar baking powder. Highest 
of all in leavening strength. Latest united 
States Government Food Report. 



Established Dorchester, Mass., 1780. 

Breakfast Cocoa 

Always ask for Walter Baker & Co. 'a 

Breakfast Cocoa 

Made at 

i It bears their Trade Mark 

" \A ]5elle Chocolatlere " on every ran. 

Beware of Imitations. 




at nny Hun 

il. Ilroofe 
lyn , Kiiifland. 


THE WONDER Hat Flower^? Feather! 


ltr:ni< h stoiPH in Oakland and San Jose 

New Goods comorisine all the Novelties of the Season 






.ROunsevelle Wildman 
Theodore S. Solomons 
. . Edward T, Pierce 

Overland Monthly Publishing Company 

Dollars a Year SAN FRANCISCO. Single Copy 25 Cent* 

9 ^ 


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is an Absolute 
Specific for 

Amelia Rives, Louise Chandler Moulton, Clara Louise 
Burnbam, Edward Everett Hale, Julia Magruder, Julian 
Hawthorne, Edgar Fawcett, Mrs. Poultney Bigelow, Her- 
bert D. Ward, Cleveland Moffett, Marie Louise Pool, and 
many others contribute to the summer numbers. For sale 
by all newsdealers. 5 cents a copy, by mail from us 50 
cents a year, or June, July and August numbers sent to 
any address for 1O cents. 


535, 541 The Bourse, Philadelphia, Pa- 



for Veronica 

SAN FRANCISCO: 431 Turk St. 
PORTLAND, OREGON: 347 Yamhill St. 
ST. LOUIS, MO : N. W. cor. 11th & Chouteau Av. 
CHICAGO, ILL: 115 Dearborn St. 
BOSTON, MASS.: 222 Tremont St. 
INDIANAPOLIS, IND.: cor. Meridian & Ohio Sts. 
MEMPHIS, TENN.: 58 Fourth St. 
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PHILADELPHIA, PENN.: 269 South 11th St. 

Overland Monthly 


No. 164. 


FRONTISPIECE. A Distant View of Yosemite Falls 129 

FRONTISPIECE. Mirror Lake, Yosemite 130 

As TALKED IN THE SANCTUM. By the Editor 131 


Illustrated from photographs by the Author. 

THE ELEVENTH JUROR. Edith Wagner 146 

Illustrated by C. E. Tebbs and Hay don Jones. 

THE ORIGIN OF FAN TAN. Professor Stewart Culin 153 


Illustrated by C. E. Tebbs. 

THE QUICKSANDS OF PACTOLUS. Book II. Horace Annesley Vachett 162 

INDIAN MEDICINE MEN. Professor Lorenzo Gordin Yates 171 

Illustrated by Harold MacDonald, Boeringer and by the author. 

OBELISK DICK. Major Ben C. Truman 182 

Illustrated by C. E. Tebbs and Hay don Jones. 

THE LOST ARROW. K.Evelyn Robinson 187 

Illustrated by C. D. Robinson, Hay don Jones and Boeringer. 

THE GRAVE OF HELEN HUNT JACKSON (H. H.) Stephen Henry Thaver 198 

( Continued on next page. ) 

Overland Monthly. 


WELL WORN TRAILS. IX. Yosemite and the Big Trees. Rounsevelle Wildman. 199 I 
Illustrated from photos by Taber, Fiske, and from paintings by C. D. Robinson. 


Illustrated by Claude Tales. 
THE TEACHING FORCE. Professor Edward T. Pietce 219 

WITH A PICTURE OF HIS SWEETHEART. Elaine Goodale Eastman 2271 

Illustrated by Pierre N. Boeringer-. 

ETC 228 


CHIT CHAT , 23$! 

Overland Monthly Publishing Company 

San Francisco: Pacific Mutual Life Building 

The Pacific Coast : San Francisco News Co. 
New York and Chicago : The American News Co. 

Eastern Advertising Agent, Frank E. Morrison, 

[ Entered at San Francisco Post-office as Second-class Matter.] 


Sewing Machines and Paper Patterns 




Between 6th and 7th Streets. 

\Vhen You Leave Town 





Corner Bush and Sansome Streets 

OFFICE HOIKS. 8 A. M. to 6 P. M. 


Home Office, 8. E. cor. Sansome and California St*. 

Subscribed Capital, over . . S2,OOO,OOO.OO 
Monthly Income, over .... 25,OOO.OO 

Does a general Savings and Loan Business. 

A diverter of monthly payments of rents to the monthly pay- 
ments on homes. 

7 per cent. Paid up Coupon Certificates, protected by first mort- 
gage securities a specialty ; coupons payable semi-annually at the 
office of the California Title Ins. and Trust Company. 

DR. ED. E. HILL President 


\VM. CORHIN secretary and General Malinger 


When you write, please mention "The Overland Monthly." 

Overland Monthly. 


and all soPts of Summer Outings 
made popular by the 


Excursion Tickets 


to Various portions of the State. 


Shasta Region 

Fascinating, Healthful, Inexpensive. 

jSuieet Brier Camp 

Near Castle Crags, established 
three years. 

Shasta Retreat 

Mountain Home of the Chau- 
tauquans, near Dunsmuir. 

PL Shasta Camp 

In Strawberry Valley, Attrac- 
tive and Homelike. 

These Camps are supplied with all the conveniences 
or camping, and provisions may "be had in abundance 
Cheaply on the grounds. 

In the 

Santa Cruz 

are a number of 

delightful camping locations. 


fllma, Wrights, Itaarel, 

Glenmood, Felton, 
Ben Itomond and 

Boulder Creek. 

The Santa Cruz Mountains make up In charming 
picturesqueness what they, lack In the fearful srrandeur 
of the Shasta country, and their proximity to the sea 
gives the climate ihe delicious flavoring of the salt 
sea breezes. The locations are quickly reached, pro- 
visions are abundant, rates are reasonable, and op- 
portunities for pleasurable diversions are limitless. 

!fhe Mountains of California are a Paradise for Hunters and Anglers. 

The Southern Pacific Company has just published attractively illustrated folders, describing 
jn detail the various resorts of the State, where situated, how reached, rates, etc. These folders 
r.ontain much valuable information, and will be distributed freely. Send your name to 
f . H. GOODMAN, Gen. Pass. Agent, or apply to any S. P. Co. Agent.' 

When you write, please mention "The Overland Monthly." 

Overland Monthly. 



Practical Rhetoric. 

By JOHN D. QUACKENBOS, Emeritus Professor 
of Rhetoric, Columbia College, New York 1.00 
Just publish*!. Clear, simple and logical in treatment, 
original in it* departure from technical rules and tradi- 
tions, and copionxly illustrated with examples, it Is cal- 
culated in every w'ay to awaken an interest in and en- 
thusiasm for the study. 

An Introduction to the Study of American 

By BRANDER MATTHEWS, Professor of Liter- 
ature, Columbia College, New York. Fully 

illustrated 1.00 

" Any student of the snbject who wishes to do good 

work hereafter must not only read Mr Matthews' hook but 

must largely adopt Mr. Matthews' way of looking at 

things." The Bookman. 

English Grammar. 

English, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, 
Tenn., and J. W. Sewell, Fogg High School, 

Nashville, Tenn 90 

" It seems to me a mpdel of good workmansh ip. Pupils 
that have learned from it the facts and laws of their lan- 
guage will not have false statements and false doctrines 
to unlearn as a condition of acquiring higher know- 
ledge." That. R. Price, Professor of English Literature, 
Columbia College, New York. 

Spencerlan Vertical Penmanship. 

Shorter Course, Nos. 1 to 7, per dozen . . .72 
Common School Course, Nos. 1 to 6, per dozen .96 

Latest copy books in the vertical style. Letters modeled 
on the graceful forms of the well known Spencerian 
slanting script. Teachesa combined finger and muscular 
arm movement, resulting in speed and legibility, thereby 
rendering Vertical Penmanship practicable for business 

Natural Course in Mnsic. 

By FBEDERIC H. RIPLEY, Principal of Bige- 
low School, Boston, and Thomas Tapper, 
Instructor in Musical Theory and Compo- 
sition ; Examiner in Theory in the Amer- 
ican College of Musicians. 

Primer and Pint Reader, each 30 

Second, Third and Fourth Readers, each . .35 

Fifth Reader 60 

Natural Music Charts, Series A, H, C, I), R, 

F and G, each 4.00 

Phenomenally guornwful. Mrs. Emma A. Thomas. 
Supervisor of Mimic, Detroit, Mich., says : "The Natural 
Course in Music ban more point* or superiority than any 
other. I bellere to a certain extent it is going to revolu- 
tionise music teaching in thU country. 1 regard it as the 
best yet published the natural outgrowth of all which 
have preceded it." 

White'* Element! of Geometry. 

By JOHN M A- si K. Edited by Emerson E. 
White 1.26 

Plane Geometry (separate) 76 

"I have not seen anything In the line of text-books on 
Geometry which I regard as quite so complete and quite 
so well adapted to stimulate and satisfy an interest In 
tote study as White's Geometry." Wte. M. TftraMer, Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics. Butler University, Ind. 



Hornbrook's Concrete Geometry 

" An excellent book for the purpose for which It is in 
tended." Lucien Agustus Watte, Professor of Mathematics, 
Cornell University. 

Eclectic English Classics. 

Carefully edited ; helpful notes ; good printing 
and paper ; uniform binding in boards ; 31 vol- 
umes now ready. Latest additions : 
Coleridge's Kirae of the Ancient Mariner . .20 
De Quincey's Revolt of the Tartars . . .20 
Goldsmith's yicar of Wakefield ... .36 

Macaulay's Life of Johnson .. . . . . .20 

Milton's Paradise Lost. Books I and II . .20 

Shakespeare's Macbeth . . 20 

Shakespeare's Hamlet ....... .25 

Southey's Life of Nelson 40 

Eclectic School Readings. 

A new series of supplementary reading books in 
collateral branches in primary and grammar 
grades. Charming literary style ; perfect mechan- 
ical detail; beautifully illustrated; careful grad- 
ing ; attractive for either school or home. Now 

Stories for Children. By MRS. C. A. LANE .25 
Fairy Stories and Fables. By JAMES BALDWIN .35 
Stones of Great Americans foe Little Amer- 
icans. By EDWARD EGGLESTON . . . .40 
Old Greek Stories. By JAMES BALDWIN . .45 
Old Stories of the East. By JAMES BALDWIN .46 
Stories of American Life and Adventure. By 
EDWARD EOOLESTOIT ....... .50 1 

Egbert's Introduction to the Study of 
Latin Inscriptions 3.50 

A full course embodying the latest investigations in 
Latin epigraphy. The only Iwok in the English language 
on this subject. One hundred photo-engraved produc- 
tions showing forms of the letters and general arrange- 
ment of the Inscriptions. 

Lindsay's Cornelius Nepos 
Profusely illustrated 1.10 

" An excellent edition, admirably suited for its purpose. 
All teachers of preparatory schools ought to welcome so 
scholarly a text-book as this." E. P. Crowetl, Professor of 
Latin and Literature, Amherst College-. 

Modern German Texts* 

The new Schwabacher type ; useful vocabulary 
and notes; uniform binding in flexible boards. 
Now ready : 

Seidel's Die Monate. (ARROWSMITH) . .25 
Seidel's Der Lindenbaum and Other Stories 


Seidel's Herr Onmia. (MATTHEWMAN) . .25 
Stifter's Das Heidedorf. (MAx LINTZ) . .25 
Volkmann-Leander's Traumereien. (A. 


Hill. -rn's Hoher als die Kirch*. (F. A. 

DAUER) 25 

Ebner-Eschenbach's Krambambuli (SPAN- 

HOOFD) 25 

Riehl's Die Vienehn Nothalfer (SiiiLER) .30 

Book* sent prepaid on receipt of prlcrn. Besides the above, the American Hook Company 
publlnhm thr I. ><! I "K Tf x t Hook* of A merlin, hook* that are adapted to every grade and 
km, I of school, public and private, clljr MIX! con 11 try. It oft>n the lwrget variety of the 
bet book* at the lowet prices. If a book U desired | n any new subject, or If the books now 
In us* are unsatisfactory, correspond with us. We can help jrow. 


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Overland Monthly. 



go ^wxx VV x Supplies 
S School Books 
3 School Furniture 

With pride we offer to the readers and schools of California 
and elsewhere the following ' 

Great Books of the Year 







Price, $1.50 






Special Library Edition 



For Schools 

Handsomely bound in cloth. Illustrated. Price, $1.25 

Pacific History Stories by Harr Wagner . . net, 50c. 
Pacific Nature Stories by Harr Wagner . . . net, 50c. 
Patriotic Quotations by Harr Wagner . paper, 25c., books, 40c. 

Write for New Catalogue of School Library Books and Teachers' Boohs and Aids 
FlirnitUrC Latest and Improved 







School Apparatus of Every Description if not officially adopted, we stm publish 

Maps, Charts, Globes, Flags, Bells, Organs IT WESTERN JOURNAL OF EDUCATION 

Write for our new, complete Supply Catalogue and Des- rtll* Edited by Harr Wagner 

criptive Circulars and prices on 

{The Latest Improved Blackoards - Slate and Composition 

Which we will make the The Best School Journal 
In the West 

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Overland Monthly. 


510 -512 -514- MONTGOMERY ST.| 


When you "rite, please mention " The Overland Monthly. 

Overland Monthly. 

(oolden Eagle Hotel 



Commercial and Political GRAY & 

Headquarters PROPRIETORS 

Vichy Springs, 



S. F. & N. P. RY. 

Situation, location and scenery not surpassed. Only known 
natural electric water. Warm " champagne " baths. 

The only place in the world, of this class of waters, where the 
bath tubs are supplied by a continuous flow of warm water direct 
from the springs. 

TERMS: $12 to $14 per Week. 

Postoffice and telephone at the Springs. 

WM. DOOLAN, Proprietor. 

Take the 


when you go EAST- This popular line now 
in the lead. Operating ten thousand miles 

of track in ten different States and Territo- 
tories, with equipment of the latest design. 
Running daily and leaving San Fran- 
cisco at 5 P. M. both Pullman Palace and 
Pullman Tourist Sleepers, newly upholstered 

and up to date in every respect. 

Weekly excursions leave every Wednesday for Boston, personally 

accompanied by polite attendant through to destination. 

Ticket Office, 644 Market Street, 

Chronicle Building, San Francisco. 

Overland Monthly. 


Relieves Paralysis after a Failure of Hot Springs 

ThA latA Hr P ^ InnpQ of Virginia: "Awaking from sleep in a current of cold air, I found that I 
9 had suffered partial paralysis of my right log, which proved to be of a 

permanent nature, and affected my locomotion so far that I walked with difficulty with the aid of a cane. 
Afterwards I was attacked with hsematuria. My appetite and digestion were impaired, and I was nervous and 
sleepless and greatly depressed in spirits. In this condition I made, without deriving benefit, two protracted 
visits to the Hot Springs of Arkansas. On returning from my last visit I determined upon an experiment with 
DirrTAl f\ I ITU I A lA/ATTO Spring No. 2, which proved most happy in results. After its 
DvJrrr\HJ JLIlfllA YVAICK use for some weeks. 1 am so improved as to be able 
to walk readily without iny cane. The haematuria is entirely relieved. I can eat heartily ; my digestion 
is good; nervous symptoms gone. I sleep soundly; am attending to my business pursuits, and hopeful of a 
complete recovery, from the continued use of the water. I do not undertake to account for the action of this 
water in paralysis, but simply slate a fact." 

This water is forsale by druggists and grocers generally, or in cases of one dozen half-gallon bottles, So.OO, f . o. b. 
at the Springs. Descriptive pamphlets sent free to any address. Springs open tor guests from Jnne 15 to Oct. 1. 

Proprietor, Buffalo Lithia Springs, Va. On the Atlantic & Danville Railroad. 


toi:s natural color by LEK'Ci HAIR MKIII- 

C*S"T,no dye. harmless, pleasant odor, f 1 00 a bottle 
I.F.F.'S HAIR TONIC removes dandruff, stops 

' lottle 

hair from fallinjsout andpromotes growth*! OOa b 
I-EE MEDICANT CO 108 Fulton st.,N.Y. 
Illustrated Treatise on Hair on application 


W I I W III OiT\JTT<!'"r fc pr^WiMrWTT.V "TTrT'Tl 

DR. S. B. COL-UirslS- 



Discovered in 1868. " THERIAK! " Book Free. 

Office 312. 78 Monroe Street, ruiPAPn III 

P. O. DRAWtR 653. LHIbAbil, ILL! 


St/^dman's Soothing Powders claim to be 
preventative as well as curative. The claim 
has been recognized for over fifty years. 

Blair's Pills 

J Great English Remedy for 


DrnggisU. or 224 William St.. New York 



I>.-llrl(,us-4- le.n.lnir-llarinl** 


25C. All dra Kg I.U or I,, mall. C. H. STRONG & CO., Chicago. 


Cleanses and beautifies thn hala 
Promotes laxunmnt growth- 
Never Pails to Bestoro Gray 
Hair to its Youthful Color. 
Cure* uralp diwates ft hair tailing. 
jOc.and 1 1.0 at Druitglits 


The only sure Cure lor Conn. Stopi all pln. Enworn com- 
fort to the int. Make* walking easy. IScts. at Druggists. 

For Barbers, Bakers, Boot- 
blacks, Bath-houses, Billiard 
Tables, Brewers, Bookbind- 
ers, Canners, Candy-makers, 
Dyers. Flour Mills, Foundries, 
Laundries, Paper-Hangers, 
Printers, Painters, Shoe Factories, Stablemen. Tar- 
Roofers, Tanners, Tailors, etc BUCHANAN BROTHERS 
Brush Manufacturers, 609 Sacramento Street. 

Is this what ails you? 

Have you a feel- 
ing of weight in ' 
the Stomach ' 
Bloating after 
eating Belch- 
ing of Wind 
Vomitingof Food 

__ Waterbrash ( 

Heartburn Bad Taste in the Month, 
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1849 Jackson Street, San Francisco 

TWO schools having been united, will 
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Miss Lake's School, corner Sutler and Octavia Streets, 
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teacher in Miss Hamlin's School and Van Ness Seminary, 
1849 Jackson Street, San Francisco. 

^ established in 1850. removed in 1883 from Chestnut 
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1-r.jin Well Worn Trails 

A Distant View of Yosemite Falls. 


From "Well Worn Trail,." 

Mirror Lake, Yosemite. 

Overland Monthly 

VOL. XXVIII. (Second Series.) August, 1896. No. 164. 


*> ~' a -^ ~^---''- j-.-^-f-v*, ---. ^. - ^. 

^-^.-^7-. rr^K.; 

"THE " Whitesville News" came in the exchanges the other day. The Office Boy 

brought it into the Sanctum. There was a smile on his face because of an item 

that he had maliciously marked. " Hopewell Hazelton has reshingled his house on 

Avenue." I smiled back not as he supposed because of the glory of having 

one of the rambling, dusty, heavily shaded old streets in the picturesque little New 
York hamlet named after one of my very worthy ancestors, by no means. The 
paper itself surprised me. Whitesville with a veritable, live newspaper. Whites- 
ville, which for a hundred years more or less, at least since the memory of the oldest 
inhabitant, had wished for nothing better than the village gossip and possibly the 
N. Y. " Tribune." I could not believe the startling news, that " Hopewell Hazelton 
was reshingling his house," would remain a profound secret until the day of publi- 
cation of the " News " made it known to the world. If so, where were Aunt Matilda 
and Kindly Light Simpkins? Certainly they had not given up their daily mission in 
the face of any such weekly and weakly opposition as a " patent-outside " journal. 
1 read on. One familiar name after another brought back memories that seem as 
distant as Mars. Yet they are memories that cannot fade. Childhood's memories 
never do. Commencement week of the "Whitesville Union School" was one. 
How modern it all seemed. How out of place amid these memories. 

A generation has passed since the old district school house was torn down. Not 
so very long a time, counting by years, but a period coeval with the landing of Com- 
modore Perry in Japan and the present day when statesmen and thinkers are seri- 
ously considering the danger of Japanese commercial competition a long, long time 
in the history of a village or a nation after it has been struck by the boom, progress 

(Copyright, 1896, by OVERLAND MONTHLY PUBLISHING CO.) All rights reserved. 

Commercial Publishing Company, S. F. 


by the turmoil of this decade. 'I he dismantlement of the district school was the 
initial step in the innovation of the great, throbbing outside world. Since then the 
stage coach, the pump-logs, the red gabled roofed farm-houses, the sewing-circle, the 
" bee," the " raisin'," the beds of " everlastin', holly-hocks," and " pinys " have 
gone as utterly as though they never existed and over the warm, fat little foothills of 
the Alleghanies has come the fashion plate and its attendant evils. Such are the 
facts and yet I do not try to realize them. My memories still cling tenderly to the 
Whitesville of my boyhood ; to the old district school house nestling lovingly under 
the rocky ledge on the outskirts of the village. No vestige of it remains. Its very 
site is unknown to the generations that take part in the commencement exercises at 
the " Union School." 

ONE bright May morning 1 made my advent into the district school. 1 was too 

young and too timid to contend with my betters for choice of benches. 1 
dropped noiselessly down on the front row among the "one syllable class." The 
plain pine bench was illustrated with rude drawings and the deep cut initials of my 

Promptly at nine o'clock the new Master took his place on the platform between 
the " boy's" and "girl's door," nervously sustaining a battery of bright eyes and 
eager faces. Our names, homely Christian names, not a Gladys or Algernon among 
us, were taken, little disputes as to the coveted back seats settled, a short, kindly 
speech and the simple machinery of the district school was in motion. Soon the 
classes were droning out the lessons that their fathers and mothers had learned at 
the same benches. 

The " big boys " on the back seats were "fearsome big," the big girls made me 
speechless, the boys in my row became the closest of chums and the little girls will 
never be " big girls " as long as my memory lasts. There was one pink face under 
a pink sunbonnet that commanded my devout admiration. 

With unerring feminine instincts Elsie knew 1 loved her and would welcome me 
with a shy little smile when 1 chose her in : 

"The needle's eye that doth supply, 
The thread that runs so tru-ly, 
Many a lass here I past 
Because I wanted you-ly." 

And when all the rest would romp and sing, 

" For you look so neat, and you kiss so sweet, 
We do intend before we end 
To see this couple meet." 

My youthful cup was full to overflowing. Across a lawnlike pasture 1 would 
tramp every morning, through an orchard, whose gnarled trunks held in their hearts 
a grey squirrel's family and a horde of acorns, on whose dead tops a woodpecker kept 
up his laborious clip-clap and among whose mossy roots a woodchuck found a home. 
Their bark was rubbed clean and blotches of red and grey hair told how the cows 
had spent the long summer days. 

The path led along a rambling fence whose many corners were filled with briars, 
sweet clover, bull thistles, and a colony of milk weed that sent up on every warm 
breeze cumulus clouds of silken feathers. At a watering-trough half hidden by 
elders and sweet flag 1 would wait for Elsie. 

Shortly before they tore down the old school house I went back to look at it. 
On the farther side high up on a clapboard 1 found Elsie's initials, with mine directly 


Bedimmed by time and weather 
Still unmutilated and together. 


Elsie's initials have changed since then and she never knew that they had been 
joined to mine, even by a deep cut circle. 

Inside the old school house how familiar everything was: the cavernous chunck 
stove, in the summer the depository for forbidden gum, paper-wads and birch bark, 
in the winter a roaring crater that roasted our young faces while shivers were creep- 
ing up our backs ; boy and girl in gingham jumpers or Kentuck-round-a-bout busy 
with lessons or devices, passing notes, throwing peas or paper wads ; then every- 
thing quiet as the master turns from the greasy blackboards where he has been 
elucidating some problem in longitude and time. 

Up goes the hand Bennie ; he and Jack want to go after water. 

They take the old patent pail and go out casting looks of triumph right and left. 
It is but a step to Beebe's watering trough, but they manage to miss a class 
and the master raps repeatedly on the window-casing with his ferrule. 

" Teacher, please can I pass the water," comes in a dozen eager trebbles. 
The rusty tin dipper goes from mouth to mouth while smothered screams and mut- 
tered warnings announce that more of the cold spring water has gone on the floor 
than down the thirsty throats. With the water that is left Eddie sprinkles the 

old master is dead. He and the district school passed away together. 

Never will this generation know of the delights of standing on tip-toes for five 
minutes, of stooping over and holding a nail down with one finger, of curling up under 
his desk or of being made to "sit with the girls." The old punishments are gone 
and the master is dead. He worked out life's problems, and " went to the head." 

" I love, thou lovest, he loves," he knew in all its sweet hopelessness. He 
died a bachelor, but that love softened his life and cast about him the tender tints 
of an evening sky. The children felt it all without understanding and for a little 
space brought flowers for his grave. 

THE recess a chain of sunny memories with their almost forgotten games and 

manly sport. We did not know that we were building up constitutions that 
would last us through life as we went swaying and circling around a stick, screaching 
"pisin." Neither did we care. To have said ' poison " would have taken all the 
snap out of the game. Each strove with all his young might and main to shun the 
" pisin " stick. An Indian war-dance was tame in comparison such yelling and 
screaming, our blood all aglow, our pulses beating like hammers, our brains quick- 
ened. Then there was " Bull-in-the-ring," " Sheep Fold," "Snap-the-Whip," and 
" Pom-pom-pull-away," games that made the muscles stand out like whip-cords, 
games that the mothers of today would condemn as dangerous to their petted 

The great black holes are just the same in the creek that twists and frets be- 
neath the cliffs. The beach and the willow hung over them so that only a fugitive 
dash of light flecks the water. Snarled, broken roots ran down into the darksome 
holes and battled with our hooks for the shiner and the roach. 

How mysterious were the holes once how small they seem now. 

There were sunny swimming places a little farther up with soft clayey banks 
and pebbled bottoms and there was a dam Deak's dam. A ditch ran away from 
it to a woolen mill, such a mill as you see in old English prints. It all came in an 
instant. There was a crash and the air was full of timbers. The beach and the 
willow were torn from their sheltering cove and the water one great pulsating, 
living, seething mass rushed down the little canon. It came from the mills 
above and Elsie was playing beneath the old dam, dipping her pink toes in the 
limpid pools. In an instant it came and in an instant it was gone, racing, crashing, 
down toward the Cryder. In that instant Jack had sprung into the flood and had 
Elsie in his arms. There was a look on his fresh young face that never left it. As 
we gathered around his coffin we knew it it was the mark of the hero. Elsie he 
threw out of the reach of the flood. 


The new" Union School" may have its comedies and its tragedies, the new 
water-works, the new railroad, the new flowers, may all be a sign of the times, but 
Whitesville can never change in the hearts and memories of those of the forgotten 
district school. 

THE Contributor. " All very pretty, but 1 am inclined to maintain that we of 

the District School obtained as much practical book learning as the so called 
more fortunate generation. 

The new Public School 'with its grades, examinations, new fangled maps and 
patent apparatus may be able to force into the young at shorter notice a larger 
smattering of a little of everything but 1 refuse to believe that any system can more 
effectually hammer " the three r's " into the young idea than the much laughed at 
" deestric schule." 

The Reader. " The Contributor's conception of a liberal education seems to 
be a mastery of the rule of three." 

The Contributor. " The Editor has pictured what he and I were doing when 
we were twelve years old. The Professor has just brought in two examination 
papers prayerfully prepared for the twelve year old of this state, city and generation. 
Listen while I read and if anyone, save of course the Professor, cares to answer the 
questions off hand, feel free to interrupt. 


1. Give the chief facts of Shakespeare's life. In what period of English Literature did he 
live? Name two other great writers of that period, one of them being the greatest poet (not drama- 
tist) of his time. Give his famous work. 

2. What thoughts are expressed in the following : 

(a) "The evil that men do lives after them 
The good is often interred in their bones." 

(b) " He doth bestride the narrow world 
I ike a Colossus, and we petty men, 
Walk under his huge legs and peep about, 
To find ourselves dishonorable graves." 

3. Compare " Evangeline " with " Lady of the Lake," noting the following: the plot, the 
development of character, and scenery. 

4. Name three American poets, two English poets, three famous English novelists, and two 
noted American Historians of the i6th century. 

5. Who wrote "Alhambra," ''Deserted Village," "Sir Roger de Coverly," " Newcomes," 
"Twice Told Tales." 

6. Give a quotation of not less than five lines, naming author and work. Name three figures 
of speech contained in this quotation. 

7. Paraphrase the quotation No. 6. (Above) 

8. When did Gray live ? What is his famous writing. 

9. Give the substance briefly of the quarrel scene between Cassius and Brutus. Compare 
Brutus' and Cassius' attitude toward the plot against Caesar. 

10. Write a character sketch of two hundred words, of one of the following, naming work from 
which taken: Portia, Priscilla, Rip Van Winkle, Little Nell. 


1. (a) Tell the movements, consecutively, of Washington's Army, naming its battles, its 
reverses and its victories. 

(b) Name five military references in the Constitution of the United States and of California. 

2. Trace slavery, briefly, from its inception to its termination in the United States along the 
lines, its origin, reason for its decline in the North and survival in the South, effect upon it by the 
cotton gin, the four great congressional acts, a supreme court decision, a proclamation, and th ee 
constitutional amendments. 

3. (a) Trace the territorial growth of the U. S., mentioning in whose administration the terri- 
tory was acquired, its extent, how and from whom acquired. 

(b) State how a state and a territory are organized, and how a state can lapse from the Union. 

4. Trace the history of the Whig and the Free Soil parties, telling in what administration and 
by whom founded, their various presidential nominees and issues, their dissolution. 

5. State the current historical and civic facts on Cuba, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Hawaii, Trans- 
vaal, showing the relations of United States to them in congressional and presidential ction. 

Reading came to a triumphant close. There were no interruptions save the - 
Office Boy. "Proof." 




N THE two preceding articles 
on the sources of the 
San Joaquin and King's 
'Rivers, I have sketched 
the general topography 
of the unexplored Si- 
erra, with special refer- 
ence to its higher parts, 
theCalifornian Alps. In 
future chapters I shall 
offer some description of the more strik- 
ing peaks and gorges of this alpine region, 
and in others on the canon belt several 
new Yosemites will be presented. In the 
present article, we shall take a glimpse of 
the High Sierra scenery in its less severe 
and more beautiful aspects, or those 
which appeal more directly to the artistic 
sense of the traveler and seduce him to 
an indolent repose. From the highest 
crests of rock and snow to the lower 


margin of the forest belt, a zone 50 miles 
wide, there are profusely scattered over 
the surface cf the Sierra, meadows, lakes 
and waterfalls. 

These are the gems that sparkle on the 
breast of the mountain; the meadows 
emeralds, the lakes sapphires, the water- 
falls diamonds. Every wrinkle of its 
ancient bosom is adorned by one or all of 
these jewels. The cataracts gleam in 
the precipitous gorges, in hollows in the 
groves the lakes are nestled, and lakes 
and meadows occupy the glacial basins 
at the sources of all the streams. 

With the exception of Lake Tahoe, 
and possibly of Lake Eleanor, in Tuol- 
umne county, we have no lakes filling the 
bottoms of extensive valleys, such as are 
found in the Swiss Alps. But in number 
and in grandeur of setting the lakes of 
the Sierra are not excelled by those of 

I 3 6 


Switzerland. From twenty to thirty 
alpine lakelets can be counted from every 
prominent peak, and many are always 
hidden from view. Their origin, their 
form and the landscapes they serve to 
embellish are sufficiently diverse to in- 
vest them with a never-ending charm. 
And so it is with the meadows. All the 
level lawns are of origin similar to the 
lakes. In fact they are the lakes, filled 
in by the slow process of sedimentation. 
Before the blight of the sheep, the 
meadows of the Sierra were ideally 
beautiful. Those extensive grassy slopes, 
the " Alpen " of Switzerland cannot 
compare with these meadow-gardens of 
California. In the Sierra there is no 
true alpen, though the flanks of many of 
the higher peaks are covered with a 

grass sod called "short-hair," which 
gives them much the same appearance. 
The meadows of the High Sierra, hedged 
about by soldierly ranks of silver fir and 
tamarack, level, or gently inclined in the 
direction of their drainage; then deep 
beds of green plush, gilded with yellow 
iresias, clouded with blue gentians, and 
gaudy with many-colored orthocarpus, 
are possessed of a beauty so delicate, so 
ethereal, that it seems a desecration to 
tread upon them. One would not be 
surprised to see them fade away like a 
mirage or as the fabric of enchantment, 
as they are approached from the groves 
that embrace them. 

Except, however, for a few smaller 
ones which have escaped the thrifty eye 
of the sheepherders, they can be seen at 




their best only in the Yosemite National 
Park where, thanks to Uncle Sam, a four 
year's immunity from pasturage has 
served to restore them very nearly to 
their pristine loveliness. Mr. Muir has 
described these meadows as no one else 
has done as no one else could do, it 
would almost seem in an article pub- 
lished about fourteen years ago in Scrib- 

For the sake of saying a word about 
Lake Tenaya and the Tuolumne mead- 
ows, I shall begin a little to the north 
of the jurisdiction, so to say, of these 
articles, for that most beautiful of all 
Sierra lakes to respect the judgment 
of most travelers and that spacious 
pleasure park are not strictly within the 
limits of the unexplored Sierra. Indeed, 
as early as the fifties the Mono trail over 
the pass of that name and down Bloody 
Canon to the desert was in general use. 
It had been a valuable trail to the Indian 
horse-thieves of Yosemite, who made 
use of it in fleeing from the whites. 
Subsequently, when the excitement over 
the Aurora mining district came, pack 
trains moved almost daily along the 
shores of Tenaya and on through the Big 
Tuolumne Meadows, as they were then 
called. The abundance of feed more 
than compensated for the roughness of 

the final descent through Bloody Canon. 
Later the Tioga road was built to the 
Tioga mines over substantially the same 
route; and though the road has been in 
disuse for some years and is badly 
washed away, the government might 
reopen it at trifling cost, when Tenaya 
Lake, the Tuolumne Meadows and the 
splendid scenery to which they give 
access would be once again within reach 
of travelers in vehicles. 

Few who gaze enchanted at the in- 
verted cliffs reflected from the still depths 
of Mirror Lake have ever heard of Ten- 
aya. Yet by comparison with the larger 
body that forms its source, Mirror Lake 
is a vulgar mud-hole. Just over the 
Merced-Tuolumne watershed the road 
from the meadows skirts the base of 
Fairview Dome and that of several other 
stupendous granite knobs, when of a sud- 
den, the depression widens and a great 



expanse of blue water is seen, embos- 
omed on three sides by walls of ice- 
smoothed granite. On the fourth, the 
alpine forest rises in gentle billows toward 
the Tuolumne divide. On this side a 
bit of dazzling beach flanks the shore, at 
the margin of which stand several de- 
serted huts of picturesque fashioning, 
the headquarters and toll-house of the 
road builders. Grass and flowers and 
hardy tamarack grow all about, and the 
jays scream and scream. If you would 
bathe as never before in your life you 
have bathed, plunge into Tenaya Lake 
after the snow in the mountains is mostly 
melted and the sun is able to warm the 
water faster than the icy inlet streams 
can cool it. You will be intoxicated with 
di-li^ht with the pure water, pure gran- 
ite sand, walls of almost alabaster white- 
ness, a pure air, and a sky of deepest 

The Tuolumne Meadows, eight miles 
northeast of Lake Tenaya, have a total 
area of about ten square miles. A great 
rolling depression, with several branches 
at its upper end, is carpeted along its 
bottom by a strip of level lawn which 
averages a quarter of a mile in width, 
and finely wooded about its side-slopes 
with tamarack, juniper and fir. One of 
the branches reaches ten miles south to 
Mt. Lyell, another turns northward past 
the base of Dana, and a shorter third 
sweeps up toward Mono Pass; while be- 
low, the main valley gradually terminates 
in what is in some respects the most re- 
markable gorge in the Sierra the Grand 
Cafton of the Tuolumne. 

Of the myriad lakes of the San 
Joaquin, the largest and certainly one of 
the most picturesque is Thousand Island 
Lake, which lies at the northern base of 
Mt. Hitter and forms the source of the 



main San Joaquin River. In the photo- 
graph, the camera was so low that the 
little islands, of which there are at least 
a score, are projected against the shore 
and thus rendered indistinguishable. 
The lake is shallow but of an area of 
some six square miles. In the canon 
into which its outlet stream empties, 
there are a number of pretty lakes and 
bits of meadow, a view of one of the 
former of which the largest is here 
reproduced. Oddly enough, the outlet 
and inlet of this lake are at nearly the 
same point. The stream flows on the 
western side of a low dyke or wall of 
rock running lengthwise in the gorge, at 
the lower end of which it doubles around 
and forms the lake which thus lies be- 
tween the dyke and the eastern side of 
the gorge. Pond lilies float on the bosom 
of this beautiful sheet of water, rich 
carices border its pretty shore, and a 
little meadow enameled with wild flowers 
in the greatest profusion separates it 
from a cluster of trees in the shade of 





which 1 came upon an old hermitage. 
Some misanthrope, evidently of a mechan- 
ical bent, had sought here a secure 
retreat and undoubtedly found it, if 
indeed that had been his object. There 
was a flimsy structure in ruins; another 
had been commenced, for the rich soil 
was leveled and some trees were 
cut; a rude forge and anvil still stood; 
some broken sleds of clever construction 
lay about imagine what his winters 
must have been at ten thousand feet 
and I also found some ore, a number of 
tools and several dozen queerly shaped 
iron rods, the use of which I could not 
make out. This was some years ago. I 
wonder if he has ever returned, or if he 
is dead. 1 found no human bones in the 

In descending the San Joaquin, the 
falls of Minaret Creek will next attract 
the attention of the traveler. Toward 


the lower end of a long, rolling, pumice- 
covered flat through which the river 
makes many a bend and sharp turn, the 
valley side gradually takes on the char- 
acter of a steep rough wall, down which 
pours the creek, divided into half a dozen 



streams which spring and leap from side 
to side, dodging about the little conifers 
that grow on terraces of the wall, and 
finally uniting in a deep pool. 

Ten miles farther south, Fish Creek 
flows through a Yosemite-like valley on 
the south of the main river. Occupying 
an analogous position to the lllilouette in 
Yosemite, except that it enters at the 
lower and not at the upper end, the ex- 
tensive sub-alpine basin of Silver Creek 
pours its waters over a wall of 3,000 
feet, in one long cascade which in places 
is so sheer as to constitute a true fall. I 
regret I have no photograph of this piece 
of scenery which I believe to be one of 
the finest of its kind in California. 

Up on the divide between Silver Creek 
and the South Fork of the San Joaquin, 
I camped one evening in early Septem- 
ber on the grassy shore of a little bench 
lake, a calm, symmetrical bit of water 
fringed by stately silver fir. At its 
lower end the long declivity was hidden 
by the level lake, so that all one could 
see was water and sky. As the twilight 
deepened, the lake became another sky, 
and the detail dying out of the trees that 




formed the shore, they were left a mere 
perspective of silhouette stretching out 
into a halo of rosy light that shaded off 
insensibly into darkness above and be- 
low. I set up the camera, focused on 
the spires of the trees, removed the cap 
and left it until bed-time. That negative 
has puzzled many a camera fiend. 

Perhaps the most numerous and ex- 
tensive group of meadows in the South- 
ern Sierra, (there are no meadows of 
any size in the lower range, either in the 
forest belt or the foot-hills,) is the Chi- 
quita and Jackass Meadows, which 
cluster about the head-streams of those 
creeks. For years they have been used 
to pasture sheep, cattle and horses. The 
Mammoth trail across the summit mean- 
ders alternately over these meadows and 
the wooded Tamarack forest by which 
they are separated. The flats vary in 
size from an acre to possibly two square 
miles. It was on the margin of the 
Basaw Meadow, the westernmost of the 
Chiquita group, some years ago, that I 
came upon a camp of sheepherders when 
my fast was about a day old and my 
pack-mule in sore need of rest. Neither 
of us having seen a human being for 
a month, the bronzed faces of those fine 
young Scots were good to see ; and 1 
shall never forget the gratitude of my 

famished senses at the sight and smell 
of the supper that was steaming on the 
coals. 1 took their pictures next day, a 
proceeding that delighted them to the 
verge of hysteria. 

The country lying between the Main 
and the South Forks of the San Joaquin, 
above their confluence, is known to 
herders as the Miller & Lux range. It 
consists of two tree-covered slopes, tilted 
one on the north toward the Main Fork, 
the other on the west toward the South 
Fork. To the distant inexperienced eye, 
these slopes appear barren of grass, but 
in traveling over them meadow succeeds 
meadow, well hidden by the timber. 
Here in the great depression of the San 
Joaquin, at an altitude of only five thou- 
sand feet, the big conifers flourish as in 
the true forest belt, twenty miles away. 
The Sugar Pine, however is noticeably 

Continuing down the South Fork, the 
divide of Mono Creek a large eastern 
tributary, marks the southern limit of 
the Miller & Lux range and the beginning 
of the Quails. In the middle part of the 
canon of Mono Creek is a fine open val- 
ley, referred to by sheepmen as the 
Park, but which, for lack of a more dis- 
tinctive name I have called on the map 

A, Union Peak; B, Cathedral Peak ; C, Cloud's Rest; D, Fairview Do 
E, Mount Hoffman 


Vermilion Valley, from the bright red 
color of the soil. It is about four miles 
long and half a mile wide, perfectly flat 
and level and covered by an open, park- 
like grove of trees. Altogether, its gen- 
eral appearance from a little distance is 
that of a highly cultivated orchard farm 
and one finds himself looking about for 
glimpses of white houses and barns, 
though he knows full well there are not 
such things within seventy miles. In 
this lovely glade the creek fairly revels, 
turning, twisting, spreading out in broad 
bands of riffles, and curving first toward 
the south wall and then toward the 


north, seemingly to make the most of 
its respite from the turmoil of the upper 
canon and to gather strength for its 
battle with the rocks below. At the 
head of Mono Creek and also of Bear 
Creek just to the south may be 
found many beautiful alpine lakes and 
meadows. A picture of one of the for- 
mer, which is the source of a stream 
draining into Mono Creek, is here re- 

Thirty-five miles up the South Fork, 
just where the river takes a right-angled 
turn, its close, gorge-like canon opens 
in twin valleys, those of Jackass Flats 
and the Blaney Meadows, or Lost Valley. 
As viewed from the heights on the west, 
Jackass Flats appears as a deep, oval- 
shaped excavation walled in on all sides 
by granite bulwarks partially wooded 
and divided by steep gorges down which 
pour many cascades. On the south, on 
the east, especially, and on the north- 
east, long threads of silver gleam in all 
the niches of the wall. The flat itself is 
one beautiful epitaph of the great defunct 
glacier of the San Joaquin, the longest, I 
believe, of all the ancient ice rivers of 
the Sierra. On the west, two thousand 



s \ 



feet above, its lateral moraine is a sore 
trial to the pack-mule, a sinuous em- 
bankment of rock-debris, rich in geolog- 
ical specimens brought down from the 
higher mountains and collected here in 
the granite. Lower, on the long terraces, 
lie glacial boulders of all colors and sizes, 
which were lowered to the ground on the 
melting of the ice. The flat below, 
which must be four or five square miles 
in size, has literally been scooped out of 
the earth. Such was the inconceivable 
weight and force of the glacier that the 
little outcropping hills of rough granite 
that were, are now mere low mounds as 
smooth and even as if a thousand stone- 
cutters had been at work upon them for 
years and had only recently left. 

As the upper South Fork Canon is 
ascended, the entering streams are pre- 
cipitated over the wall in falls and cas- 
cades carrying a larger and larger vol- 
ume of water, thus telling of the prox- 
imity of the crest snows. I photographed 
only a few of them. Between the Upper 
and Lower series of falls of the Middle 
Fork which are shown here, lies the 
beautiful valley which was briefly spoken 
of in the first article. Meadow flats and 
lake-like expansions of the river alternate 
and interlock with the groves ; cascades 
dance over the slanting wall on either 
side ; to the east the wonderful Evolution 
Peaks loom, hard and white ; and far in 
advance of them, the Hermit thrusts up 
its fractured front two thousand feet clear 
of the meadow at its feet, and guards 
one of the fairest spots in all our 

Of the alpine lakes, or those which lie 
among the summit peaks, the Evolution 
chain are the most romantic, if I may 
use the expression, of any in the South- 
ern Sierra. An imperfect picture of 
them was given in the article on the 
Sources of the San Joaquin. They form 
a continuous chain three miles long and 
VOL. xxviii. 10. 

are surrounded by the Evolution peaks, 
most of which are over 14,000 feet high. 
The altitude of the lakes is about 12,000. 
Such is the purity and placidity of their 
waters that from any point of view the 
most magnificent landscapes are reflected 
from their surface and the foregrounds 
especially of these ideal alpine pictures 
are unusually effective from the wildly 
picturesque bluffs and promontories which 
jut from their shores. 

Of different character are the "cirque" 
lakes or those which fill the walled-in 
ampitheatres between the peaks. These 
are deep round bodies whose banks are 
the crumbling walls of the cirques. God- 
dard lake, which was shown in the in- 
itial article, is one of the largest of these 
(covering half a square mile), and among 
the Evolution peaks alone 1 counted four 
or five fairly large lakes all of this type. 
These are the highest lakes of the Sierra, 
their altitude often being as great as 13,- 
$00 feet. The larger part of the year 
they are frozen, when they support on 
their immobile surfaces a coating of dull, 
greenish ice often covered or partially 
covered with snow in which are great 
rifts that catch the sun on their edges and 
throw it back in dazzling lance-thrusts 
of bluish light. In late autumn the lakes 
are liquid water and much of their charm 
is gone. 

Once I nearly fell into one of these 
cirque lakes at the base of Mt. Darwin. 
The declining sun had already thrown 
the shadow of the peak over a steep 
neve-field that reached down to the lake 
at its base when, baffled in our attempt 
to reach the summit, my companion and 
myself hurried down the avalanche chute 
by which we had attacked the peak and 
sprang out upon the snow. Below, fully 
a quarter of a mile we could see the lake, 
its cobalt surface bellying into the snow- 
bank which, sweeping by it on the right, 
ended in a nearly level field. Night was 



upon us and the nearest juniper clump 
was way down the ravine. Should we 
try to gain time by sliding? Leveling 
my camera-tripod, I glanced over it at 
the slope beneath ; and judging the sur- 
face to cant somewhat to the right, we 
decided to risk it. Springing sidewise as 
far as 1 could I landed in a sitting posture 
on the snow and in a second was tobog- 
ganing down the slope, sometimes veering 
a little to the left, when I had glimpses of 
the lake that made my heart beat faster, 
and then off to the right once more. For 
a few seconds I feared I had miscalcu- 
lated, but no, 1 shot down and out upon 
the level some fifty feet from the shore, 
and a moment later my companion's heels 
touched my back. Then we scurried 
down to firewood and camped, and the 
next noon found us in the Middle Fork 
meadow, sprawled out in the shade of 
the pines and listening to the music of 
the Upper Falls in which were hurled 
the self-same waters that had threatened 
the evening before to strangle us in their 
icy clutch. 

Those who visit the King's River 
Canon and wish to go no further, can get 

some idea of the alpine lakes and mead- 
ows by climbing the trail up Copper 
Creek to Granite Basin, where a num- 
ber of fairly typical lakes may be found 
and also some short-hair meadow. Leav- 
ing the Canon in the morning, where at 
an altitude of 4, 500 feet the forest growth 
and general vegetation are almost sug- 
gestive of the tropics, the trail ascends 
as it were, through the temperate zone 
and finally reaches the lower limits of 
the frigid. Stunted trees cling here and 
there to the rocky sides of the basin, the 
lower levels are filled by the lakes, and 
between are many acres of short-hair, 
except where the snow still lies. This is 
the strangely different scene the traveler 
comes upon at evening. 

These are a few of the hundreds upon 
hundreds of lakes, falls and meadows in 
the Unexplored Sierra. Those who have 
visited the region and tasted its life need 
not be told of the subtle charm they exert 
upon the sojourner in the mountains. 
Without the leavening influence of their 
beauty the High Sierra would oppress us 
by the sternness of its visage, its solem- 
nity and awful desolation. 

Theodore S. Solomons. 



OHN RHULE, commonly 
called " Dutch John, " 
lived on a sheep ranch some 
ten miles from the town of 
Chualar, in the Santa Lucia 

The summer had begun 
when a letter came to Chua- 
lar, for John Rhule. The 
postmaster, who was also store keeper, 

noticed with surprise Dutch John's first 
letter ; he remembered, too, that the 
eccentric German had not come, at the 
usual time, to get his three months' pro- 

He thought it a little strange and prom- 
ised himself he would see about it " to- 

It was late in the fall when there came 
another letter for John Rhule. This 


was a serious matter. Fifteen years had 
he lived in the Santa Lucia Mountains 
without receiving a letter. 

It was time he knew it. So that very 
day, two messengers bearing the letters 
were dispatched. That night they came 
back Felipe Espinoza and Antonio Es- 
trada, with them the letters. John 
Rhule's cabin was empty, the door hang- 
ing open, the frying-pan rusting on the 
stove, the table set with the coarse ware 
as though he had just stepped out. The 
leaves had drifted deep over the floor of 
the one room, in the bunk were his 
blankets and greasy pillow. 

Felipe and Antonio said they had 
ridden many miles looking for traces of 
him or his sheep. 

" You won't find no sheep," here an- 
nounced a quiet individual, "fur I met 
Ramon and Jesus drivin' the sheep down 
to Salinas a month ago. 1 stopped them 
to git a cigareet and I asked them as how 
it wuz Dutch John wuzsendin' the sheep 
so fur down the valley and they said as 
how they 'd bought 'em." 

Bought them ! It was true of Ramon 
and Jesus, brothers and sheep herders, 
that they never had means to keep them 
in their daily cigarito paper ; as for buy- 
ing eight thousand sheep the idea was 
not for one moment to be entertained. 

The postmaster, good old George 
Smith met the Sheriff's first question 
with a dismayed face. The letters! He 
had sent them to the Dead Letter office 
which was according to law. Here he 
waited a bit to listen in respectful silence 
to the Sheriff's mighty and rounded 
oaths. He had done what he conceived 
to be his duty and now was "cussed at." 
The Sheriff had taken his time about 
answering the summons from Chualar. 
It was now November and heavy rains 
had fallen. 

The Sheriff and his deputies, leaving 
the postmaster abject on his store porch, 

rode on to the hills. Shut in by the 
mountains they found, after a steep and 
toilsome ride, the lonely cabin of old 
Dutch John, a giant sycamore hovering 
over it with naked white limbs. It was 
all as Antonio had said, save the rain had 
worked yet more desolation. 

The sun was out of sight behind a tall 
peak. Everything was very quiet and 
a gray light covered all. The men tied 
their horses to some manzanita bushes 
and tip-toed round the poor little cabin, 
looking for some trace of Dutch John, 
some clue to the murder if it was one. 
Suddenly the air was filled with a long 
wail, for a moment there was a little 
curdle of blood at the heart of the 
bravest there. 

Toward them came running a gaunt 
brown shepherd dog, some of the men 
from Chualar knew it for Dutch John's. 
The poor creature ran howling to the men 
then to the sycamore, to and fro, always 
making its piteous outcry. Finally one of 
the men noticed that it was to a pile of 
ashes the dog had been trying to attract 
their attention. 

The ashes had been sodden with rain 
and here and there through the heap 
protruded long white bones. They put 
this grewsome find ashes, bones and 
a few buttons in a barley sack and 
rode homeward very gravely and 

Faithful to his master's ashes the 
brown dog trotted close to the stir- 
rups of the man who carried them. 

That week saw the Sheriff and his 
men riding in all parts of the county, hunt, 
ing, hunting for Ramon and Jesus. Here 
it was found they had sold a few sheep. 
There had they gambled until the morning 
star came. out. Here given a pretty girl 
a handful of money, for of gold were 
they flush. Now it was in Jolon they 
had swallowed much wine and now in 
Natividad they had sold more sheep. 


Ah! the trail was getting hot! Into 
Santa Rita at the end of the week clat- 
tered the Sheriff and four deputies. 

The Sheriff asked the usual questions 
at Castro's saloon. Castro himself an- 
swered courteously, sending an Indian boy 
over to Josifa'sto ask if any strangers had 
tarried there for he remembered seeing 
that night two men resembling the des- 
cription. The Indian boy came back. 
Josifa had boxed his ears and had sent 
word, she was of the respectable, why 


should any one come looking for strang- 
ers in her house. Well, that was over. 

The Sheriff would ride on to Salinas 
but a few miles distant. So they sat 
for a moment drinking each of the rough, 
red, native wine, when there came 
from out the black night, a sweet voice, 
" Senors," it said, "a word with the 
grand gentlemen." 

Castro went out and returned with the 
bashful Manuela. Big, dark and shining 
were her eyes, which she kept modestly 



lowered. She had listened to the boy 
who came looking for the strangers at 
Josifa's. Yes they were there. "One," 
here the heavy lashes drooped on the 
oval cheeks, "is asleep, that is Ramon," 
for the other she could not speak. Ramon 
had given her a little gold. Would 
she get more ? Thus prattling away in 
her pretty rippling tongue the little 
Judas walked with them to the hospit- 
aple adobe of Josifa. Here she pointed 
from the outside to the rooms where the 
officers could find Jesus and Ramon. 
She waited alone in the dark with her 
rebo^o drawn over her ears. But there 
was no outcry. They came quietly 

After months of waiting the trial came 

Jesus and Ramon, shifty -eyed and pale 
with the prison'pallor, were brought from 
their dark cells to the court room where 
they sat listening uncomprehendingly day 
after day to the verbiage of the lawyers. 
Choosing the jurors was made a tedious 
affair, nearly everyone in the county 
being fully cognizant of the facts in the 
case and fiercely prejudiced against the 

Ten of the twelve men good and true, 
had been chosen, but they came to a 
standstill at the eleventh, and a weary 
while they were. Fifty men or more 
had been found unsatisfactory. At last 
to the delight of all there was found in 
"Uncle Billy" Martin, the eleventh 
juror, a man so unprejudiced and impar- 
tial that neither side could object to 

The sight of Uncle Billy, had a peculiar 
effect on Ramon, no one noticed it, how- 
ever, least of all "Uncle" Billy, who 
never glanced the prisoners' way. Jesus 
was lying back with closed eyes, nor did 
the crowd observe Ramon's start, see his 
face flush, nor note the muscle twitch in 
his cheek, so absorbed was it in the selec- 

tion of the eleventh juror. More anxious 
and haggard grew Ramon as the trial 
dragged through the summer days. 

Very hard to be tried for your life and 
not understand the lawyers who talked, 
talked, talked, until the shadows were 
long in the afternoon, but not so long as 
their tongues. Ay de mi! No ! 

The people who jostled their way into 
the court room, peering at the prisoners 
and craning their necks to see them, 
said of Ramon: " 'T is plain he is guilty, 
he is like a trapped beast, furtive, rest- 
less. See his hands twist!" As for 
Jesus, these same wise ones said : " He 
is a calloused brute indeed, sits smiling 
and easy as at a Fiesta. Without doubt 
he shared in the crime." 

This was their story: They had driven 
the sheep far up the Pinon Canon where 
grazing was good. They had a roll of 
blankets, a frying-pan and a flour sack 
full of provisions, enough to last a week. 
They were a half day's journey on foot 
from Dutch John's. One day while 
driving the sheep along a trail they met 
Pierre Latour, the old charcoal burner. 

Pierre asked them where Dutch John 
was, for he that day had come by the 
cabin and found the old German gone. 
Of'this they thought nothing. In a few 
days Ramon who had gone for provisions, 
saw it was true. Dutch John had gone 
out of his house leaving it open, taking 

The brothers claimed to have looked 
for him over the mountains, riding their 
little mustangs day after day. 

They said also that they made in- 
quiries in Chualar, but no one remem- 
bered or could substantiate their claims. 
While on the other hand it was proved 
that, in the late summer, they had bought 
provisions in Soledad which was far out 
of their way. 

They waited many weeks and often 
they saw the charcoal burner, one day 


he said to them, " Dutch John will never 
come back." Then, they said, they 
grew afraid people would think they had 
killed him, so they took the sheep (for 
they had to have a herder), no other 
thing did they touch, and left forever the 
Santa Lucia Mountains. 

Pierre Latour came down as a wit- 
ness, a simple-hearted, ignorant old fel- 
low any one could see. He was part of 
the mountains, in the wildest gulches 
and cations were his smouldering pits. 
He carried his charcoal out of the moun- 
tains on his back, for he owned not even 
a burro. His tiny cabin, with its earth 
floor, and chromos of the Saints and Vir- 
gin was high on the side of Mount Toro. 

Pierre looked dazed and anxious as he 
faced the crowd, plucking with black- 
ened fingers at a long gray lock of 
hair falling over his forehead. He could 
not speak English and the Interpreter 
could not speak French, in consequence 
the testimony was much garbled. When 
asked why he said Dutch John would 
never come back, he answered that 
Dutch John had told him of going to 
Germany sometime soon he could not 
tell very well for Dutch John spoke poor 
Spanish and he also. 

Antonio Estrada was a witness, he had 
found near the old sycamore the head of 
an ax. It was partly buried and the 
handle nearly burned away. It was 
covered with rust and thick hard lumps 
which when analyzed were found to be 
human blood. There died the hope that 
John Rhule had slipped away to Ger- 

From many witnesses was gathered a 
mass of testimony remarkable only for 
its slight bearing on the murder. 

While everyone held to a moral cer- 
tainty that the " Alviso boys" killed 
their employer it was reluctantly ad- 
mitted that the evidence was not 
"clinchin' ". But a greaser is only a 

greaser and it was a foregone conclusion 
the prisoners would hang. 

The District Attorney made a thrilling 
and eloquent plea. Two days this law- 
yer argued, thundered, wept, plead, and 
once went on his knees (carefully be it 
recorded, for though the Hall of Justice 
was sown thickly with spittoons, an ac- 
curate aim is not given to all men.) 

It was a masterly speech, plainly the 
proper thing was to convict the prisoners 
if only to show just appreciation of so 
great talent and eloquence. 

After many days and many words the 
case was turned over to the jury. 

When it was explained to Jesus, by 
the Interpreter, that the twelve men, 
who were filing out in the care of the 
Sheriff, were to say whether he was to 
live or die, he looked closely at them 
with something like terror in his shallow 
black eyes. Suddenly he whispered to 

" See, little brother, the man hairless 
of head and with big hands hast thou 
seen him before ?" 

" Si," said Ramon, "many years ago. 
Rememberestthou?"turning to his brother 
he stealthily held out his right hand, on 
which was the scarred stump of a missing 

" Valgame Dios! Art sure ?" 

" Sure," answered Ramon, looking 
thoughtfully at his mutilated hand. 

Ramon's eyes were glazed like those of 
a hunted and desperate animal. Going 
back to his cell he said to the deputy, 
who asked him why he pressed his hand 
to his head, "I wish to be free, I am 
troubled of heart and tired of thinking 
with my brain." 

" If them blamed greasers ain't jest 
wakin' up to it that they 're in a pretty 
serious snap," said the deputy that night 
to the Sheriff. " They 've lost their ap- 
petites for the first time. It 's to be 
hoped no poor man will find 'em, unless 



he 's feedin' at the county's expense. I 
joked Ramon some in Spanish, which I 
talk pretty nigh as good as I do English, 
but 1 might as well joked a post." 

Time moved with weighted feet. Five 
days wearily passed. In some mysteri- 
ous way it became known that this ex- 
traordinary delay was caused by one 
man. He had foolishly persisted in this 
unequal battle five days ; it was time he 

The sixth day the jury brought in a 
verdict. Murder in the second degree ! 
It was the eleven who capitulated, grumb- 
lingly, sulkily, angrily. 

The community was incensed, so in- 
censed that it was deemed wise to 
smuggle the jurymen out of the town. 
The prisoners were carefully guarded. 
The most violent threats were made that 
the greasers would never reach San 
Quentin alive. But they did, and lived 
there twelve years, always silent, always 
melancholy. They had nothing to look 
forward to but a prison life. Jesus was 
blind ; he had lost his eyes while blast- 
ing some rock for the prison roads. 

Ramon mourned for his brother's loss 
as a mother would. It had been five 
years since it happened. Yet many 
nights still Ramon lay with a great chok- 
ing lump in his throat. Each time the 
guard opened the little wicket in the 
ponderous cell door, and flashed in his 
lantern, Ramon murmured, if awake, 
and he usually was, " little brother sees 
that not. Dios mio!" 

Twelve years ! Then one fine spring 
day they were told it was all a little mis- 
take. They were free. Joyless and 
bewildered and with ever the sense of 
bitter injustice haunting them. Free! 
So much for being a Catholic, Pierre 
Latour could not die without confess- 

The old charcoal burner had many 
hours to think upon his sins, as he lay 

caught under a big redwood he was fell- 
ing. Many hours to lie looking up to 
the stars and to think God hung them 
there there they will wink and twinkle 
when the coyotes and buzzards have 
eaten us. 

Four days. O ! cruel, relentless day ! 
Four nights. O ! hideous night ! Night, 
when strange shapes came clustering 
close with shining eyes that the day 
would drive away ; but the day brought 
the flies and the gnats. Thoughts of 
Ramon and Jesus came and they stung 
like gnats and crawled through his head 
as the flies crawled over his face. 

The fifth day was Pierre Latour's last 
on earth. He was dying when a party 
of quail hunters found him. It was near 
night before the priest could get to him 
lying with both legs crushed to pulp be- 
neath the great tree. 

Scant time had he before dying to tell 
Father Rinaldo his guilty secret, direct 
him to the gold buried in his cabin floor, 
for which he had killed and burned Dutch 
John, and ask the father to secure the 
release of Jesus and Ramon. 

One morning the Alviso brothers 
trailed into San Luis Obispo footsore 
and tired. Tenderly, patiently, Ramon 
guided Jesus' faltering steps. They 
could speak English now, at least had 
the slight acquaintance twelve years 
would give one, so they asked of all they 
met to tell them of " Seftor Martin's 
kindly direct them to where he lived. 
' Oncle ' Billie Martin, did any one know 

It was noon the same day when Uncle 
Billy saw two pitiful looking scarecrows 
making a painful way up his lime tree 
avenue. He walked down to meet them 
with kindly inquisitiveness. 

He came tearing back. "Ma!" he 
shouted, " get a spankin' good dinner, 
it 's them Alviso boys." Mrs. Martin, 



though not a demonstrative woman, ran 
crying to the door when she saw them. 

"Ye '11 never leave us," said the old 
man as they sat talking after dinner. 
" Although it happened when you was 
just boys I had n't forgotten it, and 1 
knew ye the minute I clapped eyes on 
ye in the court room. I never believed 
ye killed Dutch John no way, and I jest 
said to myself, they saved my little Nell, 
my only baby, from a frightful death, 
and I '11 save them. Was n't 1 right ? 
After what you done put your hand 
between the rattler and Nell and took 
the bite you was too late to ward off her. 

When I see your finger had to come 
off, you so cool and brave and Jesus so 
patient and good cheering you up in your 
outlandish jargon, I said, right then, 
' them 's my boys till death us do part.' 

May be it was n't just the proper prin- 
ciple to git on a jury on a purpose, but 
I 've always been proud of that job. I 
used to tell ' Ma ' I thought I 'd bust 
havin' to listen to all that talk with my 
mind all made up, and by George ! made 
up for the other eleven too !" 

" Uncle " Billy thumped his fist on his 
chair arms and leaned back looking with 
twinkling eyes at Ramon. " It was pretty 
hard to set there and not dare tip ye a 
friendly wink. I could see when ye 
was n't lookin' that it was tellin' on ye, 
my bein' so unfriendly. The day the 
judge was to give us the case, Ma filled 
all my pockets with gingersnaps and 
cards and tobacco and a Bible and says 
she, ' Don't you never come back to 
this house if you hang them Alviso 
boys !' " 

Edith Wagner. 


Fan T'an, like the lot- 
tery, is invariably car- 
ried on by regularly 
organized companies. 
H Tiiv Like the lottery compa- 

nies they take an auspi- 
cious name. A cellar is 
usually hired, a table of 
unpainted wood erected, 
and with the addition of 
a few chairs, the estab- 
lishment is ready for 

.. The game itself is 

'**"- extremely simple. A 
handful of Chinese " cash " or other 
small objects are counted off by fours, 
and the players guess what remainder 
will be left. The name means " repeat- 
edly spreading out," and refers to the 

manner in which the " cash " are counted 
off. The table upon which the game is 
played is about four feet high, and cov- 
ered with a mat. In the center of this is 
a square called the Punching, or " spread- 
ing out square," consisting of a piece of 
tin with its four sides marked from right 
to left with the numerals from one to four, 
or, as is more common here, of an un- 
numbered diagram, outlined in ink upon 
the mat. This is usually about eighteen 
inches square. 

Two men are required to run the game. 
One of them, called the T'dn hun, or 
" Ruler of the spreading out," stands by 
the side of the table corresponding with 
the "one" side of the diagram, while 
the other, called the Ho kun, whose office 
is that of clerk and cashier, sits on his 



The T'dn kun takes a handful of bright 
brass "cash" from a pile before him, 
and covers them with a shallow brass 
cup about three and one-half inches in 
diameter, called the fan koi, or " spread- 
ing out cover." The players lay their 
wagers on or beside the numbers they 
choose on the plate, and the T'dn kun 
raises the cover and counts off the 
" cash" in fours, not touching them with 
his hands, but using a tapering rod of 
black wood about eighteen inches in 
length, called the fan pong , or " spread- 
ing out rod," for the purpose. If there 
is a remainder of one, after as many 
fours as possible have been counted off, 
" one " wins, or if two or three remain, 
' ' two " or " three ' ' wins, while if there 
is no remainder, "four" wins. The 
operation is conducted in silence, and 
when the result is apparent the T'dn kun 
mechanically replaces the separated 
"cash" into the large pile and takes 
another handful which he covers as 

I have already described the details of 
the play in a paper to which the reader 
is referred, 1 but before proceeding to dis- 
cuss the origin of the game, it may be 
interesting to review some of its striking 
peculiarities. In the small games, open 
to the poorer player, the stakes, usually 
in American silver, are placed directly 
upon the diagram. Where the player is 
known and the amount wagered is large, 
counters or chips are used. These con- 
sist of Chinese " cash," representing ten; 
small buttons of white glass, called 
"white pearls," one hundred; "black 
pearls," five hundred; chessmen, one 
thousand, and dominoes, five thousand. 
When counters or chips are played in- 
stead of money, the player frequently 
deposits a bank note, or purse, with the 
cashier. The latter selects a Chinese 

I Tht Gambling Games o/ the Chinese in America: Pub- 
lications of the University of Pennsylvania. I'hiladcl- 
hia, 1891. 

playing card from a pack kept for the 
purpose, to mark the deposit, and with 
each bet the gambler puts a correspond- 
ing card on the board to mark his play. 

Customs, more rigid than those of our 
banks and clearing-houses, regulate the 
affairs of the gambling houses. The 
partners take turns in keeping game, and 
are paid a small sum each time from the 
common fund, or, one may be appointed 
keeper, and then receives a monthly 

After the play has continued for about 
half an hour, a settlement is made with 
the players and any of them are usually 
permitted to take the table and run it for 
their own profit upon paying a small 
rental to the company and a fee to the 
cashier for his services. The latter or- 
dinarily receives a salary of about twenty- 
five dollars per month and often has a 
small interest in the concern. 

Strict as are the rules which may be 
regarded as having an economic basis, 
and so uniform are they that one descrip- 
tion serves for every Cantonese settle- 
ment, whether in New York City, San 
Francisco, or the ports along the coast of 
China itself, they are transcended by 
those which are the outcome of supersti- 
tion, and have descended with the game 
itself from remote antiquity. All colors 
are carefully avoided by the owners on 
the walls and decorations of the gambling 
rooms. White, the color of mourning, 
the color of the robes thought to be worn 
by the spirits of the dead, always consid- 
ered inauspicious, is associated with the 
idea of losing money, and is believed to 
bring bad fortune to the patrons of the 
gambling houses and corresponding gains 
to the owners. Even the inscriptions to 
the tutelary spirit are always written on 
white paper, and white instead of red 
candles burned before his shrine. Gam- 
blers on their way to play, turn back if 
any one jostles them, or if they are hin- 



dered by an obstruction in the road. If 
a player's hand encounters another's as 
he lays his stakes on the board, he will 
not put his money on the number towards 
which he was reaching. Gamblers re- 
frain from reading books before playing, 
and books are not regarded with favor in 
gambling houses, from the word shii, 
"book," sounding like shu "to lose." 
All inauspicious words are avoided. Thus 
the almanac, t'ung shu, is called kat sing, 
" lucky stars," through an unwillingness 
to utter the ominous shu. 

In San Francisco it is the custom for 
gambling houses to provide a supper 
every night after the games, keeping a 
good cook for the purpose. Any one may 
go in and eat what he wants, but it is not 
considered lucky for one person to ad- 
dress another, and all talk of gambling is 
especially avoided. When seated at the 
table, it is considered unlucky for another 
to join the company. 

And now as to the origin of the game. 
I have shown that games originated in 
primitive conditions, such as existed in 
Asia in remote antiquity. Their history is 
to be recovered, not from written records, 
but by the study and comparison of the 
customs of primitive people. Furthermore 
they were once almost, if not invariably, 
magical and divinatory. We may expect 
then to trace this now notorious game of 
Fan fan back to a time when it was 
regarded as sacred, and practised, not as 
a vulgar game, but as a means of discov- 
ering the past and forecasting the future. 
Strange as it may seem, its antetype 
exists at the present day in China, and 
conforming to the theory I have advanced, 
is a divinatory process which was known, 
not as a new invention or discovery, but 
as coming down from an early period, 
even in the days of Confucius. 


ruary, 1895, 1 described a method of for- 
tune-telling practised in Japan with fifty 
splints of bamboo called %eichaku. The 
same method is also current in China and 
Korea, as a survival or possibly revival 
of a classical mode of divination described 
in one of the Appendices to the Chinese 
Book of Divination. The rationale of the 
process is the discovery of a number by 
the chance partition of the magical splints, 
place being found by counting around a 
magical diagram symbolic of the four di- 
rections and the intermediary points. It 
is to this, or a system akin to it, that I 
attribute the origin of fan tan. Observe 
that in the game, the handful of ' ' Cash ' ' 
taken at random from the pile, is substi- 
tuted for the bundle of splints divided in 
the same manner, and that the counts are 
made around a square diagram instead 
of one referring to the eight directions. 

By analogies drawn from other games, 
we may justly regard the square tablet of 
the Fan fan board as cosmical, originally 
signifying the world and its four quarters. 
Nor is the substitution of the coins, or 
ts'in, for the fifty splints merely the result 
of accident or convenience. The bundle of 
splints, as is clearly shown by many strik- 
ing and curious parallels among the Indi- 
ans of America, was once a bundle of 
arrows or arrow shaftments. From the 
arrow, tsin, used as an emblem of author- 
ity, I regard the coins, ts'in, as being 
directly derived. In many other of the 
later forms of arrow divination we find 
coins substituted for the arrow-derived 
splints or staves. 

From what has been adduced, I think 
that the original divinatory significance 
of Fan Pan may be looked upon as as- 
sumed, and that it may be justly regarded 
as another of the many outgrowths of the 
ceremonial use of the arrow, the progeny 
of which are numerous as the stars. 

Stewart Culm, 

Director of the Museum of Archceology and 
Paleontology, University of Pennsylvania. 


Tis always morning somewhere, and above 
The awakening continents, from shore to shore, 
Somewhere the brids are singing evermore. 

ed on a fence post bade 
me welcome to Southern 
California as the train 
thundered down over 
the mountains, leav- 
ing behind the dreary 
desolate plains of Arizona and New Mexico, 
and bringing me into a fairyland of green 
fields, verdure clad hills, beautiful wild 
flowers, and singing birds. High above 
the din and rumble of the swiftly moving 
express train I heard the clear whistling 
refrain of the lark, and catching a glimpse 
of his bright yellow breast as he stood 
eire_ct_onjthe_post, I ^wondered at his fear- 
lessness in staying on his perch as the 
cars rattled by. This was not the only 
time that I noticed such boldness, for on 
various trips throughout the West, larks 
were numerous in the fields and on the 
fences close by the railroad tracks. 

Once as I was (walking along a grass- 
grown avenue in a plot of " town lots " 
in the country, a meadow-lark flew up 
at my feet, and a search disclosed her 
nest containing five white eggs spotted 
all over with brown. The nest was 

simply a grass lined cavity about the 
size of a base-ball, but over it as a roof 
and by way of concealment was a small 
dead branch of a fir tree. The branch 
must have been there when the birds 
selected the spot for a nest, as from its 
size it could not have been placed there 
by them. 

Only a few yards away from this care- 
fully hidden bird-home, I accidentally 
discovered an old friend hard at work 



house building. A mocking bird flew up 
in a great hurry and alighted on the top 
of a cypress tree near me. She had a 
beakful of dry grass, and knew that I 
saw her, so made haste to let fall her 
tell-tale burden. Her evident embarrass- 
ment convinced me that her home was 
in the neighborhood, and looking up into 
the tree under which I stood I saw it 
almost within my reach. 1 quietly with- 
drew, and some days after made a sec- 
ond call and found four eggs, blue, 
thickly splashed with brown. I saw 
another mocking bird home in the-course 
of construction, in a low orange tree. 
The foundations of stout twigs were be- 
ing laid by the happy couple who had 




selected an ideal spot amidst the frag- 
rant orange blossoms in which to start 
housekeeping. Mocking birds were num- 
erous about the grounds of the hotel in 
the San Gabriel Valley, where I spent 
several weeks. One would frequently 
fly up on the porch roof, chase away a 
little red-headed linnet, and then sit and 
sing most entrancingly for fully five min- 

These same little red-headed Jinnets 
afforded me no end of amusement and 
pleasure as I watched their funny antics 
and listened to their pleasing song. They 
are about the size of the English sparrow 
so plentiful in the East, and are an 
agreeable substitute here in the West 
for those " rats of the air " as they are 
well named. The male linnet has a 
patch of crimson on the front of his 
head and throat, but the lady of the 
house wears no bright colors what- 
ever. Their cosy little nests are built 
in all sorts of odd places about the 
habitations of man ; in vines on houses, 
under the eaves of barns, in trees and 
bushes, in old swallow's nests, and I 
found one beautiful little nest in which 
were five eggs, in a low chaparral bush 
quite a distance from any houses. The 
eggs were of a pale blue, almost white, 
circled about the larger end with fine dots 
of umber. 

It is a rare thing nowadays to see a 
great number of birds on the wing, mov- 
ing from north to south, or vice-versa; 
if we except the large flocks of purple 
grackles that are seen during their spring 
and fall migrations, and the occasional 
sight of a flock of several hundred robins. 
The smaller birds necessarily make 
their journey from the warm southland 
to their more northern breeding places, 
in short and easy stages. Many birds 
migrate at night, halting during the day 
for food and rest. While in the San 
Gabriel Valley I had the pleasure of see- 

ing two flocks of migrating birds which 
though not numerically large were un- 
usually interesting by reason of the size 
of the birds themselves, and the intricate 
and wonderful aerial evolutions which 
they performed. The first was a flock 
of about three hundred great white peli- 
cans, flying north to their nesting places 
in Utah and Nevada. They flew in two 
long single files, the birds equal dis- 
tances apart ; the green slopes of the 
Sierra Madre Mountains made a beauti- 
ful background against which the waver- 
ing lines of ghostly slow flying pilgrims 
seemed whiter by contrast. Through a 
field glass I easily identified the birds by 
the black tips on their long wings, and 
watched the flock as it gradually rose 
higher and flew over the far away moun- 
tain tops, lengthening out into a long 
horizontal line and then disappearing al- 
together in the blue ether. 

In very a few minutes there appeared 
high over the valley, a flock of sand hill 
cranes, likewise on their way to the 
North. These birds flew quite rapidly 
in three long lines. At intervals of a 
few seconds, two of the lines would come 
together, drop earthwards for a hundred 
yards in a spiral twist, then quickly 
straightening out, proceed as before. The 
cranes and pelicans always make their 
migrations together. 

Leaving the delightful valley country 
of Southern California, to spend some 
time at the seashore, 1 feared that 1 
would have no further opportunity for 
bird-study, other than watching from 
the beach the graceful flight of the sea- 
gulls, or the pranks of the scoters in the 
surf. But one is perpetually being sur- 
prised in this land 

" Where winter hath fair summer wed." 

At the end of March I found myself on 
the Coronado peninsula, where the mur- 
muring ocean waves almost touch the 
feet of the wild flowers that marshal 

I. Woodpecker ; IA, Woodpecker (head; ; , Linnet ; i. Lone Crested Jay ; 4. Magpie ; 5, Yellow Bill Magpie (head) ; 6. Meadow Lark ; 
7. Robin ; 7A. Robin (head) ; I, Crackle (head) ; 8*. Crackle. 



their vari-colored hosts in countless thou- 
sands along the low bluffs. And not a 
hundred yards from the waves over 
which flew gulls, brown pelicans, and 
curlews, I found the homes of the mock- 
ing bird, linnet, song sparrow, shrike, 
and curved-billed thrush. 

1 was particularly interested in the 
last named songster as I had never be- 
fore seen one. The bird is about the 
size of our Eastern wood thrush, but is 
without the beautiful speckled breast of 
that delightful minstrel, and has a long 
curved bill, hence its name. It is called 
" mountain mocking bird " by some peo- 
ple, on account of its pleasing song. I 
visited eight or ten thrush homes, all 
built in the low chaparral bushes, about 
four feet from the ground. All but one 
nest contained baby thrushes of various 
ages, mostly three little fellows, though 
in one home there was an only child. 
What had become of his brothers or 
sisters his parents declined to state. 

At one nest there was another visitor 
beside myself; a large gopher snake was 
twined around in the dense branches of 
the chaparral, and my efforts to dislodge 
him were in vain. In but one nest did I 
find eggs; there were three, of a beauti- 
ful blue color marked with brown spots. 
The mother bird sat so close that I almost 
touched her before she flew off so that I 
could look at her treasures. 

An old farmer showed me a nest of the 
shrike or butcher-bird one day and told 
me that he wished I would take it, as he 
did not " want any sjch birds around 
the place, for this morning the villain 
killed a blue-bird that was flying past 
the bush where the nest was ! " The 
shrike does, I admit, kill a small bird now 
and then, but he has a place to fill in the 
economy of nature and destroys many 
noxious insects, and ought not to be 

The old man's hatred of the shrike and 

his remark set ine to thinking of the vast 
number of our most useful birds that 
have for years been subjected to unjust 
persecution on the part of farmers and 
others, all because of ignorance. Hun- 
dreds, yes, thousands of bird lives have 
been sacrificed. Hawks and owls are 
beneficial rather than injurious; the poor 
old crow has not as black a character as 
his coat, though people used to think so; 
blackbirds do more good than harm, and 
kingbirds do not, as was once believed, 
eat honey-bees, but feed on robber-flies 
that steel honey from the workers and 
kill more bees in a day than a kingbird 
would in a year. But a better day is 
dawning, and laws protecting bird life 
have been enacted in nearly every State. 
Pity 't is they are not more rigidly en- 

The shrike's nest awaits our examina- 
tion. Built in a chaparral bush, five 
feet from the ground, it was certainly a 
unique collection of materials. I copy 
from my note book : 

Foundation, large and small twigs; walls com- 
posed of bits of coarse bagging, rags, wads of 
cotton, rope ravelings and twine; the lining of 
twine, cotton and long black horse hairs, the 
whole forming a large, bulky structure. Within, 
were five eggs, the ground color a dull white, 
marked all over, but thickest around the larger 
end with blotches and dots of drab and brown. 

Another shrike's nest, found in a 
cypress tree, was in a sadly demoralized 
condition. It was very much mussed up, 
and on the ground beneath lay the shells 
of two eggs and a third egg that had 
been perforated by a bird's sharp beak. 
Circumstantial evidence pointed to that 
scamp, the blue jay, whose fondness for 
fresh bird's eggs is well known. One 
could hardly scold the jay if jay it was 
in this instance, which was a clear 
case of " the biter bitten ", for the 
shrike, as heretofore recorded, is guilty 
of just as heinous crimes himself. 


i, Thrasher ; a, Water-ousel ; aA. Water-ousel (head) ; 3, Road Runner; 4, Bluebird ; 4A, Bluebird (head) ; 5. Shrike; $A. Shrike (head). 

The long-crested jay, or mountain jay, 
as he is often called, is a larger and 
handsomer fellow than his Eastern rela- 
tive, though not a whit better morally. 
I was witness to a kind action on the 
part of a jay towards a couple of the 
smaller fry of bird-dom one day, that 
goes a long way toward retrieving the 
character of the boy-in-blue. 

1 60 

Strolling one morning through the 
beautiful Del Monte Grounds, a paradise 
for birds, where comes not the nest- 
robbing boy, or the little imp with sling- 
shot, 1 heard a great chirping and chat- 
tering overhead in a tall pine tree. A 
pair of nut-hatches that had a nest in a 
small hole in a dead limb were flying 
about in a state of excitement, because a 



red-headed wood-pecker was calmly 
moving up and down near their nest in 
search of his dinner. The little birds 
protested in loud tones against this in- 
vasion of their territory; the wood-pecker 
was invited again and again in language 
more emphatic than elegant, to betake* 
himself to some other dead limb, and at 
length finding that moral suasion was in 
vain, the nuthatches attempted intimida- 
tion. First one and then the other flew 
right at the red-head as though they 
would strke him. But the wood-pecker 
only laughed as at each attack he squatted 
close to the limb, turned his head, and 
made a feint with his powerful bill at the 
nearest nuthatch, and then went on with 
his " rap- tap- tap !" on the bark. And 
as if to add insult to injury, the audacious 
chap went right up to the nuthatches' 
door and peered in. Then the poor 
little birds set up a loud chorus of shrieks 
and made a combined rush at the bold 
invader of their home, but in vain, he 
was not to be driven away. 

As I watched, there came upon the 
scene a self-appointed guardian of the 
peace, a crested jay, in his blue coat and 
black helmet, only lacking the brass 
buttons to complete his official uniform. 
From a limb of an adjoining oak, the jay 
watched the fracas for a time, and then 
with a low chuckle he disappeared into 
the underbrush. Whether he had de- 
termined to let the trio fight it out, or 
whether he went to call a brother officer 
to assist him 1 did not know. Louder 
and louder shrieked the nuthatches, and 
back hurried the bluecoat. This time 
he tarried but a moment in the oak to 
get his breath, and then made a dash at 
the wood-pecker. With a laugh as much 
as to say, " Why 1 was only in fun," 
the red-cap flew off, and the nuthatches 
smoothed down their ruffled tempers and 
feathers and chirped their thanks to the 

VOL. xxviii. ii. 

brave jay who had driven away their 

A little later I saw this same policeman 
jay scrambling about on the gnarled 
limbs of an old live-oak. From some 
nook or cranny in the bark he had drawn 
forth a long fat grub, and his grubship 
evidently had a tough hide, for the jay 
pounded and hammered and shook him a 
long time before swallowing him. 

The jays build a somewhat clumsy 
nest in a bush or low tree, in which are 
deposited three eggs, blue, marked with 
brown spots and splashes. 

Not far from the haunt of the blue 
jays there was a long narrow lagoon, 
and in the tules, or reeds, that grew 
along its borders a colony of tule-wrens 
had set up housekeeping. Mudhens in 
large numbers also nested there. That 
gay fellow, the red-winged blackbird, 
whistled his familiar quonk re ee ! as clad 
in uniform of lustrous black with bright 
red epaulettes, he swayed to and fro on 
a slender tule-stem, while his modestly 
clad wife sat quietly on the four strangely 
marked eggs in the nest near by. 

1 crossed the lagoon one day in an old 
flat-bottomed boat and wandered over 
a broad stretch of pasture land on which 
were a number of old live-oak trees. 
Here 1 first made the acquaintance of 
some near relatives of my friends the 
red-wings, namely, the Brewers black- 
birds. In almost every tree there were 
one or two nests of these birds. The 
nests were all built far out on the hori- 
zontal limbs of the oaks, and every one 
of the eight that I examined was fashioned 
of the beautiful Spanish moss that hung 
in festoons from the tree branches. 
There were five and six eggs in a nest, 
showing as great a variation as do the 
eggs of the purple grackle. 

I like the blackbird family one and all; 
they are such a friendly, cheerful, so- 



ciable crew, and their musical chatter as 
they come to us early in the season from 
their winter homes, is one of the most 
pleasing of all the spring melodies. 

Emerson was a close observer of birds 
and their ways, else he never could have 

The blackbirds make the maples ring 
With social cheer and jubilee. 

In his essay on " Nature " he says: 
" It seems as though the day was not 
wholly profane in which we have given 
heed to some natural object." And it is 
a matter of rejoicing that in these latter 
days of the century, people are giving 
more heed to the " sermons in stones, 
and books in running brooks." 

Our children are being taught in their 
kindergartens the habit of observation, 
this being essential to the proper interest 

in and study of the trees and flowers and 
birds and all natural objects. Surely 
the children will grow up to be purer and 
better men and women from the fact that 
in childhood they have been by study 
and observation brought close to Nature's 
heart. The young people should early 
learn to know and love the birds, whose 
cheerful songs and bright plumage give 
an added charm to hill and dale, wood- 
land and meadow. Let us hope that ere 
long there will be a more widespread 
knowledge of, and a greater love for, 

"The thrush that carols at the dawn of day 

From the green steeples of the piney wood; 
The oriole in the elm; the noisy jay 

Jargoning like a foreigner at his food, 
The blue bird balancing on some topmost spray, 

Flooding with melody the neighborhood; 
Linnet and meadow-lark and all the throng 

That dwell in nests and have the gift of song. " 
Harry L. Graham. 





*t I SUPPOSE I must stay here," said 

Fred ; " at any rate till one of the 

brothers turns up. That fellow Henry 

says his business needs his attention." 

"It does," said Chetwynd, "and the 
attention of the Bank Commissioners." 

" This mammon worship makes me 
sick. Don't go, John. What ? You 
must, eh? Well send Henry here, 
like a good fellow. 1 can 't stand sentry 
all day. Goodby." 

But Henry refused to ascend Nob Hill. 
He took pains to tell Chetwynd something 

i Begun in August number. 

approximating the truth. A crash seem- 
ingly was imminent, and only the prompt- 
est action could avert ruin. His credit 
in San Francisco was gone. All his col- 
lateral was "up," and the lenders were 
"shy." Chetwynd listened to this shib- 
boleth and went his way. The misfor- 
tunes of Henry concerned him but little. 
The ill-starred banker spent the whole 
of Tuesday rushing from office to office, 
from bank to bank. His friends were 
profoundly sympathetic and all of them 
borrowers themselves. " If his father 
won't help him," was the unspoken com- 



ment, " why should we?" Brown Mavis, 
the friend of the family, coolly told him to 
put up the shutters. 

" You 'II save money," he said, with a 

Henry fled, cursing. On Wednesday 
morning the bank opened its doors as 
usual, but the knowing ones smiled de- 
risively and whispered, some the word 
"mismanagement," others, "malversa- 
tion." A rumor swept through the busi- 
ness part of town to the effect that Henry 
Harrington and his Board of Directors 
were in serious straits. By noon it was 
positively known that Charles Paradise 
had refused his master's son the neces- 
sary assistance, and by two P. M. a run 
on the bank had begun. Messages all 
day were flashing across the continent 
and in London, Paris, New York, and 
Berlin, the name of Barrington was in 
the mouths of men. The evening papers 
announced curtly that Hector Desmond 
had not recovered consciousness ; and 
that the private car " Menominee," with 
the great banker aboard, had made a 
phenomenal run from New York to Chi- 
cago, beating all previous records ! These 
sops whetted the appetite of the hungry 
pack of reporters and fired their fancy. 
It leaked out that Henry had wired his 
father the day before, urging an imme- 
diate return, but the wise heads of the 
Chamber of Commerce nodded solemnly 
and the fiat went forth, "Too late!" 
The one question now before the public 
was this, Will the bank open the doors 
tomorrow ? 

And where was Dick Barrington when 
the fortunes and peace of his house were 
at stake ? Trapesing through Southern 
California, writing articles, at a time 
when brains and the will to dare and do 
were at a premium ? Not he ! The ill 
tidings sent by the friendly hand of Cas- 
sius Quirk reached him at a small coun- 

try town some two hundred miles from 
the city. The daily express had come 
and gone, but fortunately Dick was per- 
sonally known to the division superin- 
tendent, who furnished him with an en- 
gine, driver, and stoker. At seven, as 
the clocks were striking, he descended, 
covered with dust and dirt, at Fourth and 
Townsend streets, and an hour later was 
closeted with Charles Paradise and his 

The men sat around the table in Rufus 
Barrington's private room at the bank. 
Dick, in ignorance of what had befallen 
Desmond, had gone to the Palace Hotel, 
changed his clothes and snatched a mouth- 
ful of food. 

" Can we stand a run, Mr. Paradise?" 
he asked nervously. 

" 1 think so," replied the cashier cau- 
tiously. " We have been loading up for 
some months. Our vaults are full of 
gold. Yes, we are safe." 

An accent of pride in his voice pro- 
voked odious comparisons. He addressed 
himself to Dick, ignoring the hapless 
Henry, whom he had always mistrusted 
and disliked. 

" You have wired my father, Henry?" 

" A dozen times," was the gloomy re- 
ply. " Here is his final answer received 
an hour ago." 

He spread upon the table with trem- 
bling fingers the yellow paper, translating 
the cipher. 

1 cannot imperil the fortunes of your sister and 
brother to save you. 

" I must see Helen at once," cried 
Dick, starting to his feet. 

His companions looked at each other 

" Helen is in trouble herself," mut- 
tered Henry. " Hector is down with 
delirium tremens, dying, so they say." 

" Dying ?" ejaculated Dick. 

Henry stammered out a meager con- 
fession of ignorance. Super-selfish he 



had ignored the blow which had pros- 
trated his only sister, thinking of himself 
and the claims of his many creditors, the 
latter weighty enough to absorb the at- 
tention of a dozen bankers. 

" But I must see her immediately. Can 
you wait here ?" 

He seized his hat and hurried from the 
building. Desmond dying ! He tried to 
analyze his emotions ; admitting frankly 
that his brother-in-law could be spared. 
But Helen ? To press money matters at 
such a season seemed brutal. The Al- 
mighty Dollar ! Well-named. Potent to 
rend asunder the ties of blood, and per- 
haps, to join them together. During the 
past weeks, Dick had thought less of 
money and more of the stewardship of 
money. He had regretted the impulse 
which had moved him to leave the bank 
in a huff, and he had determined, upon 
his father's return, to resume his duties. 
With this determination he was conscious 
of a sacrifice, a sacrifice of those literary 
aspirations which were so dear to him, 
but his path seemed plain. The claim 
of the dollar to paramount consideration 
at the hands of Americans he still regarded 
as a monstrous imposition upon nine- 
teenth century civilization, but he had 
recognized at last the futility of expec- 
ting his father, the architect of a gigan- 
tic fortune, to share this view. As well 
summon Christopher Wren to rise from 
his honored grave to pelt with mud the 
walls of Saint Paul's cathedral! Feeling 
that he could not accept the conclusions 
of Mr. Harrington upon many subjects, 
he none the less admitted to himself the 
claim which the dollar had upon him, 
not as an individual, but as the son of a 

Thinking of these things, he found him- 
self at the door of Helen's house. The 
butler raised a ghost of a smile at the 
sight of his face as he replied gravely to 
Dick's anxious enquiries. Desmond was 

still unconscious. Phyllis received him 
in the library, and shook her head when 
he mentioned his sister's name. 

"She is dazed, Dick. I can't under- 
stand it." 

"But I must see her," he insisted, 
" and at once. It is imperative. She has 
heard of er Henry?" 

" Yes. She paid no attention. 1 fear 
she will refuse to see you." 

But the unexpected happened. At the 
sound of her brother's name Helen burst 
into tears ; the first she had shed for 
many hours. ' Dick wiped them away, 
holding her in his arms and whispering 
a thousand loving words. Aunt Mary and 
Phyllis stole from the room, leaving the 
two together, and thanking Heaven 
that the unnatural tension was at an 

"You will not leave me," she urged, 
clinging to him. 

Then he recalled his errand and stated 
it. He wished his sister to sign with 
him a telegram to their father imploring 
him to reconsider his decision unmindful 
of their interests. 

"Why should I do this for Henry ?" 
she answered dully, as if unable to re- 
alize the troubles of others when con- 
fronted with her own. 

"Because," he replied gently, "he is 
your brother. O, my dear, let us try 
and be more to each other ! In the last 
few weeks it has come upon me that 
love is the main thing, the greatest thing 
in the world as Drummond says. What 
a platitude, old as the hills, but new to 
us Barringtons ! We have each of us 
gone our own way, and now the house 
is tottering. How could it stand; divided 
against itself ?" 

But she looked doubtfully at him, with- 
holding her consent. The memory of a 
thousand slights rankled still. 

"Do you know, Dick, that Henry did 
his best to poison father's mind against 



you ? That he was intensely jealous of 
you ? That he left no stone unturned to 
oust you from the bank ? Do you know 
these things ?" 

" Yes, I know them well. Poor Henry, 
we often rubbed him up the wrong way, 
you and I." 

"Write out the telegram," she said 
suddenly, " and I will sign it." 

" You understand, fully, that this may 
mean an immense sacrifice. In support- 
ing Henry we weaken ourselves and the 
panic may become general. It is im- 
possible to say where it will end." 

"Write it out." 

After he had gone, she returned to her 
chair, but the burden of her anguish 
pressed less heavily. Soon Stella came 
to the door and told her 'that Fortescue 
wished to see her alone ; that Hector 
was conscious and would live ; that the 
awful suspense was over ! When this 
gospel was made manifest she fell upon 
her knees and humbly and devoutly 
thanked God. Her attitude toward Him 
had been throughout the day one of un- 
conscious prayer. She had asked that a 
sign should be vouchsafed her ; and the 
sign was given ; to be interpreted accord- 
ing to the wisdom or folly of the ex- 
pounder ! 

She wondered vaguely that Stella 
should display so little joy, and the face 
of Fortescue, as he entered the room, 
warned her that something unexpected 
had occurred. 

"Mrs. Desmond," he began, noting 
in her countenance the ravages of the 
past forty-eight hours, " your husband is 
asking for you." 

"I will go to him," she answered 

" Stay," he murmured hoarsely. " I 
have something to say to you which will 
tax your strength." 

" He will live," she cried, "Stella told 
me that." 

" Yes, he will live. He has a natur- 
ally vigorous constitution. He will cer- 
tainly live, but I tremble for his reason." 

"His reason?" she stammered. "Is 
he insane?" 

" Not insane, exactly, but there is 
dementia, a weaknes, a delusion. He is 
temporarily blind, but he is reasonable 
enough about that and accepted my ex- 
planations. It is a case of monomania. 
And it takes the form Mrs. Desmond, 
I wish I could spare you this it takes 
the form of an extravagant love for you. 
He has forgotten the unhappy relations 
which of late existed between you and 
raves of his bride. Unless you can go 
to him, and and satisfy, as best you 
can, this unhappy delusion, I will not 
answer for the consequences. In the 
congested state of the brain, fever of the 
most dangerous kind, would undoubtedly 
ensue. Can you sit beside him, take his 
hand, kiss him, murmur loving words, 
play the part, in short, of a devoted wife? 
If you can do this he will certainly 

He did not dare to let his eyes rest upon 
her face as he spoke. 

Aery echoed along the corridor. "Nell! 

" He is calling to you," said Fortes- 

" This delusion," murmured Helen in 
a whisper, "will it last long ?" 

" It is my duty to tell you that it may 
be permanent. Humor him and the de- 
mentia will retain its mild form. If brain 
fever supervenes he may become a dan- 
gerous maniac." 

He expected some outburst, some vis- 
ible and audible sign of the tempest rag- 
ing within, but she answered calmly. 

" I will do the best 1 can." 

Then he knew that she had accepted 
her punishment humbly, as an expiation 
of crime, and once more his sympathy 
for her flowed freely in its old channel. 




DICK dispatched his telegram from the 
central office on the corner of Pine and 
Montgomery Streets and instructed the 
chief operator to put it through as quickly 
as possible. (Rufus Harrington was any 
where between Chicago and Council 
Bluffs, speeding West at the average 
rate of fifty miles an hour, the regular 
trains being side-tracked on his account.) 
The operator promised to do his best, 
and Dick returned to the bank. There 
was nothing to do but wait, and the min- 
utes lagged terribly. Henry, realizing 
what his brother had done for his sake, 
thanked him profusely, and to pass 
the time gave him a synopsis of the 
causes which had lead up to the final 
fiasco. He repeated in substance what 
he had told his father, with additions, 
embellishments, and excuses, for the 
benefit of Dick and Charles Paradise. 
The cashier listened glumly : his long 
face was longer than ever ; and he jotted 
down on a writing pad Henry's figures, 
adding an^ subtracting with the zest of 
an expert. Dick listened attentively and 
sympathetically, but it was patent to 
him that his brother's ambition had lured 
him in imitation of his father, to Icarian 
flights. Now he lay bruised and help- 
less with his machine in splinters. 

" If I had time," he said in conclusion, 
"those Southern Californian investments 
would bring me out." 

Charles Paradise snorted. 

" Southern California is in a bad way," 
said Dick. " The boom inflated all values, 
and now that the gas is out of 'em they- 
've shriveled in inverse ratio. I know 
what I 'm saying, because for the last 
few weeks I 've put in my time looking 
up these very matters. The whole State 
is for sale and the farmers with mortgages 
can 't even pay up the interest. We 
have all had too easy a time of it here in 

California, and now that the season of 
lean kine is upon us we are going to learn 
a valuable lesson." 

" We loaned our money," said Henry, 
"on the old conservative lines, a one-third 
valuation by reliable parties." 

" And your money will return to you 
in the shape of land," said the cashier 
grimly. " You Ml be in the land business 
the first thing you '11 know, and I hope 
you '11 like it. Half the banks in San 
Francisco are loaded to the gunwale with 
real estate, country properties, I mean, 
and a big percentage of 'em will founder 
if the storm comes." 

He chuckled audibly. Apparently the 
prospect of dirty weather was neither 
alarming nor unpleasing. 

"Mr. Paradise," said Dick, hoping to 
steer the talk into a smoother channel, 
" how much cold coin could we spare ?" 

"Not a cent, Mr. Chester." He 
snapped together his lantern jaws with 
the click of a steel trap. 

" Let me see our last balance sheet, 
and the monthly reports." 

" The reports are in the safe, Mr. 
Chester, but I think I have a copy in my 

His gaunt figure moved slowly a\vay, 
and Henry followed it with malevolent 
eyes. He hated Charles Paradise, know- 
ing that the man despised him and held 
him cheap. The fellow's sneer was in- 
sufferable ; his confidence in himself and 
in the policy of the great financier he 
worked for was so offensively obtrusi\v ; 
his familiarity so presumptuous ; his very 
actions, even in handling a pencil, so sig- 
nificantly insolent ; that the young man 
could scarcely contain himself. 

"That cold-blooded machine," he whis- 
pered to Dick, "isgrindingme to powder." 

Dick pressed his hand. 

" Don't take it so hard," he said gen- 
ially. " After all, what 's the loss of a 
little money." 



" There is more than that at stake, 
Dick. If my father refuses to help me 
there must be an inquiry, a public inves- 
tigation, and I ." He flushed crimson, 
and hesitated, moistening his dry lips with 
feverish tongue. 

" Give me the facts, old boy ; 1 '11 try 
and stand by you." 

" 1 might be arrested," concluded 
Henry, writhing in his chair. 

"This is awful," said his brother. 
'" What have, you done ?" 

" I don't know. Honestly Dick, I don't 
know how I stand. Tosave appearances, 
to keep up our credit, I 've been obliged 
to cross the danger line. Everybody 
does it, but you mustn't be found out." 

Dick groaned in spirit. Thathis brother 
should have been engaged in questionable 
transactions was bad enough ; that he 
might be found out and disgraced was 
worse ; but the superlative aspect of the 
case, in his eyes, was Henry's indiffer- 
ence to the moral side of the question. 

The cashier, armed with his reports, 
returned to his chair and spread out the 
rustling papers on the table. Then, pince- 
nez on nose, he began to read in a high, 
monotonous tone, which grated unmerci- 
fully upon the nerves of his companions. 

'Our reserve is larger than ever," 
said Dick in some surprise. 

"Not a bit too large," retorted the 
cashier, carefully folding up the reports. 
" If we drew upon it to any great extent, 
and the fact became known, our credit 
would be impaired. Hah ! Your father 
has answered promptly." 

As he spoke the janitor of the bank en- 
tered with the expected telegram in his 
hand. Dick tore it open, read it, and 
passed it to Henry. Charles Paradise 
tried to look unconcerned, but his nether 
lip twitched and his eyes sparkled un- 
easily. He was puzzled. Henry's face 
expressed neither pleasure nor annoy- 
ance. Dick's ugly features were set- 

tling impassively and the likeness be- 
tween himself and Rufus Harrington 
came out strongly, the massive jaw and 
brow, the brooding eyes; never -was a 
man's paternity more plainly stamped 
upon him. 

" Well/' said Henry at length, return- 
ing the paper to Dick, and ignoring the 
cashier. " What are you going to do ?" 

Dick flung the message across the 
table and Paradise grasped it with lean 
fingers. It was curtly to the point. 

You can use your own judgment. Let me see 
what stuff you are made of. Tell Paradise. 

" Mr. Chester," said the cashier earn- 
estly. " Pray, sir, do nothing rashly. 
Think of this business ! Think of the 
years it has taken to build up!" His 
voice trembled. Dick saw that the man's 
concern in the welfare of the bank in 
which all said and done he was only 
a paid employee affected him intensely. 
The fidelity of a good servant touched 

"I hope," he said in his ringing voice, 
"that I shall justify, Mr. Paradise, my 
father's confidence in me." 

In truth this moment was his jubilee. 

The telegram, literally construed, com- 
prehended an amazing reliance in his 
capacity ; but its signification, to Dick, 
was deeper, more far-reaching, than the 
mere words implied. Behind the faith 
and the magnanimity which imposed no 
conditions was love, and it was love, not 
pride, which now set his eyes a dancing 
and made the blood tingle in his veins. 
His father had forgiven him. But the 
magnitude of the charge soon sobered 
him. It was the habit of Rufus Barring- 
ton to trust men largely or not at all. He 
never hampered a good servant in the 
discharge of his duties, and his intuition 
in such matters was seldom at fault. 

" 1 pick my fellow," he would say, 
"very carefully, and nine times out of 
ten my choice is justified." 



He never gave a blunderer a second 
trial, and Dick knowing this, was on his 
mettle. He felt at last that the years 
spent upon a stool had not been wasted. 
The technology of the business was at 
his fingers' ends. In the great game to 
be played he had confidence in himself 
and his brains. 

Henry repeated impatiently his ques- 
tion. Before his brother could answer, 
Charles Paradise spoke again. 

" Mr. Henry," he said significantly, 
" has had already a big sheaf of our Bills 
Receivable, and we only hold his receipt 
for the same. I understood from Mr. 
Barrington that a promise had been " 

"Yes," retorted Henry savagely. "I 
gave my promise, but at that time 1 was 
depending upon the promises of others. 
My debtors have failed to meet their 
solemn obligations. I am in the same 
boat with them." 

" How much did father advance you, 

He named the sum total of the securi- 


" A flea bite to him," muttered Henry. 

" And how much will keep the doors of 
your institution open ?" 

" No bank can stand a continuous run. 
You know that, Dick." 

"That is so," said Charles Paradise. 
" No bank, not even this bank, can stand 
a continuous run." 

" It is folly mentioning a specific sum. 
An assurance from you that this bank 
was behind us would satisfy the deposi- 

" I should think it would," murmured 
the cashier. 

" That assurance can be made by you 
to the papers tonight." 

"In that case," said the cashier, "I 
must tender my resignation. I have 
worked for your father, Mr. Chester, for 
half a lifetime, but this is too much. I 

cannot sit tamely by and submit to this, 
this imposition." 

He brought out the word with a jerk. 
Dick had never seen him so disturbed. 
The man's icy calmness had deserted 
him. He glared at Henry, who smiled 

"You have nothing to lose, sir," said 
Dick frowning. He had not expected 
this move. 

"I have my reputation at stake," re- 
plied Paradise doggedly. " As a con- 
servative man of business, I must make 
my protest. That is my conception of 
the word duty." 

He was under a thousand obligations 
to Rufus Barrington, but Dick perceived 
that he was thinking of himself and the 
sweetness of his name. Against this 
granite selfishness remonstrance would 
be wasted. 

" I accept your resignation," he said 

This ready acquiescence startled the 
cashier. He flushed deeply red and 
stammered. He had buttressed himself 
with the delusion that his services could 
not be dispensed with. 

" Enough, sir," said Dick, listening 
impatiently to his protestations. " Keep 
your apologies for my father ; he may 
be able to appreciate them ; I cannot." 

A few minutes later the three men 
parted. Paradise, with a sour smile upon 
his thin lips, bade the brothers good- 
night. Henry hastened with buoyant 
steps to his club, where he had promised 
to meet his Vice-President and a couple 
of anxious Directors. Dick returned to 
his sister's house and learned from the 
butler that Desmond was conscious and 
the crisis past. 

" A room has been prepared for you, 
sir," said the butler. " Mr. Langham 
occupied it last night, but he has returned 
to the Palace." 



" Where is Mrs. Desmond?" 

"With Mr. Desmond, sir." 

Dick entered the library and found 
Phyllis there, reading. Aunt Mary, worn 
out, had gone early and thankfully to bed. 
The girl unttered an exclamation of pleas- 
ure as he passed the portieres, and held 
out her hands in warm greeting. They 
looked at each other in silence, he dwell- 
ing fondly upon her beauty and enchant- 
ing sweetness, she noting with surprise 
his assured bearing, the poise of his 
head, the sp'endid virility of his face 
and figure. 

"Why, Dick," she cried, with a vi- 
brant note of curiosity. "You have 
positively grown bigger. What has hap- 
pened, sir ?" 

He laughed, releasing her hands, and 
told her his good news. 

" My dear old daddy," he said, " has 
taken me back to his Heart. That is all 
and enough too." 

Sitting down, he went into details. 
Her eyes sparkled as he talked, and she 
caught his enthusiasm, comprehending, 
with the amazing tact of her sex, his 
aims, the drift of his ambition, the scope 
of his endeavors. 

" We have all been on the wrong 
track, Henry, Helen, and myself. The 
family, Phyllis, not the individual, is the 
unit of the national life. I have salted 
that down, as the pater says. We must 
pull together or get swamped. The trend 
of society is the other way, I know. I 
pointed that out in my article, the one 
I sent you, drawing a parallel between 
our American civilization and that of the 
Athens of Alcibiades. Do you remember 
the theme, Phyllis?" 

" Yes, yes. I liked that article." 

" The apotheosis of the individual 
played the dickens with Greece : and 
history is repeating herself today in our 
country ! In England it is different ; you 
must have noticed that. The family im- 

poses restrictions which few dare to ig- 
nore. Here, particularly in the West, 
these restrictions hardly exist." 

"Don't quote England to me," said 
Phyllis. " I get enough of the mother 
country from Mr. Langham. He sees no 
good in California." 

" Of course he does n't, but I do, 
Phyllis. I see the energies, the wasted 
energies, which need baling, the possi- 
bilities, the infinite resources of this 
State. I 'm a regular son of the Golden 
West. Pray don't misunderstand me. 
I take my stand as an American, first 
and last, and as an American wishing to 
reform the State, I see plainly 1 that we 
must begin by reforming the family. 
We '11 whitewash ourselves first. Good 
Heavens ! when I consider how fond we 
all were of each other as children and 
how we 've gradually drifted apart, I feel 
myself hot all over." 

" But, Dick," cried Phyllis, "you will 
not give up your literary work ?" 

"Yes," he answered doggedly. "I 
must. For the present at any rate. I 
have learned my lesson. I have not 
walked half over the State for nothing. 
I tell you, Phyllis, California is in deep 
water. Bad times are upon us. The 
suffering has already begun. Every 
man worth his salt, must do what he 
can, and from those who have received 
much from the State much will be re- 

"Dick," she said after a pause, 
" every word of this goes straight to my 
heart, but your father, what will he do? 
He likes to have his own way. Will he 
approve of these schemes of reform ? He 
ah! it is hard to say it, but you know 
his ideas of of right and wrong are " 

She stopped helplessly, unwilling to go 

" I understand you, Phyllis, but con- 
ceding that my poor father, acting ac- 
cording to his lights, has made mistakes, 



am 1 to judge him ? Am I to leave him, 
if he needs me? He has just given me 
entire control of the bank. 1 can wreck 
it, wreck it in twenty-four hours, that 
monument of his genius. And he knows 
this and trusts me. And cannot I trust 
him a little, and make allowances ?" 

" Yes, yes, yes," she said rising. 
" God bless and prosper you, dear Dick, 
you are indeed on the right track at 

He sat on, smoking and thinking for at 
least an hour. But his thoughts, curi- 
ously enough, were not of the fight star- 
ing him in the face, nor of his plans and 
resolutions for the future'. They strayed 
down town, coming to a full stop in the 
rooms of Langham. Why, he asked 
himself had that gentleman left Phyllis 
to spend her evening alone ? He really 
respected and admired Fred. He was 
the type of so much that was super-ex-, 
cellent in the English character. But as 
a lover ! As the lover of Phyllis ! Truly, 
in that role, he was supremely ridiculous. 

It was nearly midnight when a foot- 
man came to him with a card. Cassius 
Quirk wished to see him on a matter of 

"I'm glad," began Cassius, "that 
your brother-in-law is out of danger, but 
it is not on his account, but on yours 
that I am disturbing you. You have 
decided, I hear, to back your brother." 

"Sit down," said Dick, "and take a 

" Thanks. Ten minutes will do me. 
Tell me all you can." 

Dick complied and the minutes flew. 

" That is enough," said Cassius, clos- 
ing his note book with a snap. "I Ml 
give the readers of the Enquirer a stem- 
winder. I can make 'em wiggle, I Ml 
_ i 

He paused. A tap at the door cut 
short the phrase. 

" Come in," cried Dick. 

Stella opened the heavy door, pushed 
aside the hangings, and advanced a few 
steps into the room. 

"Why, it's Miss Ramage," said Cas- 

At the familiar sound of his voice she 
halted, trembling. The girl was only 
human after all. She had shouldered 
bravely the responsibilities of the pre- 
ceding forty-eight hours. Helen had de- 
manded her almost constant attention. 
She had come from her bed room now 
with a simple message from sister to 
brother. For nearly half an hour she 
had rubbed her friend with alcohol, and 
the physical effort had been too much 
for her strength. Nature can be imposed 
upon up to a certain limit and this limit 
Stella had passed. A flood of bitter 
memories swamped the words she tried 
to utter. 

" She 's fainting," cried Cassius, 
springing to her side. 

They laid her gently on the divan and 
looked at each other. 

" You know her?" said Dick. 

" Yes, the best girl in California. 
Here, soda water ! That will do. Great 
Scott! Ain't she a beauty? There, 
there, she 's coming to. My ugly face 
must have scared her. It 's all right, 
Miss Ramage, all right. Make a brace. 
That 's it." 

"What does he mean with his Miss 
Ramage ?" thought Dick. " The girl's 
name is Johnson." 

Like his father he hated a mystery. 

" I hope you feel better," he said po- 
litely but stiffly. 

She murmured her message and tried 
to rise. 

" No, you don't," said Cassius. "Take 
it easy. Have some soda ? No, no, 
whisky will be better." 

He forced some whisky down her 
throat, overwhelming her with small at- 



tentions. His kindly face was wrinkled 
with concern. Then he turned to Dick 
with a shrug of his narrow shoulders. 

"Time, tide, and a big daily, wait for 
no man," hesaid. "So goodnight. Good- 
night, Miss Ramage. Goodnight." 

Dick was alone with the nurse. 

" Can 1 offer you my arm," he said, 
" as far as your room ?" 

She accepted it silently, and they as- 


cended the staircase together. At the 
end of the corridor she thanked him and 
said in a low voice, " I will explain 
this, Mr. Harrington, at some future 

Dick bowed and retired. 

" Gad," he muttered, as he turned in 
for the night, " the fortunes of the Bar- 
ringtons are deserving of some atten- 

Horace Annesley Vachell. 



HE Caucasian population of 
the United States has been 
in intimate' contact with the 
aborigines for two hundred 
and fifty years or more, but 
has been indifferent to, and 
careless of, the character 
and feelings of their prede- 
cessors whose country and 
homes they have appropriated for them- 
selves, and the red man has carefully 
withheld much knowledge which, if im- 
parted, would have done much toward 
the assimilation with their white breth- 
ren and the preservation of their own 

The influence to which, on the part of 
the Indian, this result may be traced, is 
that of the "Medicine-man" who was 
regarded by the whites as an aboriginal 
fakir pretending to be possessed of super- 
natural powers, which he was supposed 
to claim without reference to education, 
special training, or proper qualifications, 
and but little attention was shown them 
except in the work done by the Smiths- 
onian Institution under Professor Spencer 
F. Baird, until the United States Bureau 

of Ethnology at its inception in 1879, un- 
der the direction of Major J. W. Powell 
commenced a systematic study of the 
manners, customs, traditions, supersti- 
tions, language, and other peculiarities 
and characteristics of the aborigines of 
our country, the results of which have 
been published in the Annual Reports 
and other publications of the Bureau. 

These researches have enabled us to 
obtain a much better knowledge, and a 
higher appreciation of, the intellectual 
and social qualifications of the much 
abused and fast disappearing red man. 

Private individuals have been induced 
to interest themselves in the research, 
some of whom have spent large sums of 
money in equipping and sending out ex- 
ploring parties to collect relics, describe 
their discoveries, and the knowledge ac- 
quired of the past history of extinct and 
forgotten tribes and races of peoples, 
who formerly lived and flourished in the 
almost inaccessible cliffs, deep canons, 
and desert like mesas, which have long 
been in undisturbed possession of ven- 
omous reptiles of the region. 

Many of these once thickly populated 


I'. S. Ethnological Reports 

localities were, until recently, unknown 
to any human being except the treach- 
erous Apache, and nomadic bands of 
other untamed tribes who knew nothing, 
even by tradition, of the semi-civilized 
races who had mysteriously disappeared, 
leaving no history save their ruined 
pueblos, broken aqueducts, and irriga- 
tion canals on the mesas, and the curi- 
ous cliff-dwellings in the walls of deep 
caftons, with their buried household uten- 
sils and other evidences of their superi- 
ority over the nomadic tribes which sub- 
sequently overran the region. 

Remnants of some of these ancient 
peoples have survived, and still occupy 
capacious community dwellings called 
Pueblos, and from these communities 
much information has been obtained in 
rejation to their mode of life ; special 
effort has been made to obtain all pos- 
sible knowledge of their ceremonial ob- 
servances, which seem to have been the 
most important events of the otherwise 
monotonous existence of these isolated 


The study of the ceremonial observ- 
ances, made up of a combination of the 
illustrations of folk-lore, simple, fairy- 
like traditions, gross superstitions, with 
some scientific attainments, have brought 
to light the existence among the various 
tribes, of extensive secret societies or 
associations, with well defined rituals, 
and governed by stringent rules. 

The mystic lodges are secret societies 
based not upon descent, but made up of 
individuals who are considered fitted for 
the acquirement of certain kinds of 

The order of hunters guard the secrets 
of obtaining and preserving game ; an- 
other order, the rites and ceremonies for 
worshipping the deities both in secret 
and in public ; still another is devoted to 
preserves the secrets 
of knowledge for mili- 
tary art, while the 
medicine order heal- 
ing the sick. 

In many tribes com- 
plicated rituals and 



extensive symbolic regalias were used 
and each of the various orders had its 
own myths and fables, traditions and 
folk-lore, by which its history was trans- 
mitted from generation to generation as 
with the Masonic fraternity of our own 

The orders or guilds differed in the 
various tribes, but the Medicine-man 
always formed an important factor in the 
tribal government, and exercised an in- 
fluence antagonistic to the absorption of 
new ideas and the adoption of new cus- 

Their practice was a peculiar combina- 
tion of amulets, charms, mummery, mys- 
ticism, with some knowledge of nature's 
laws and the medicinal and curative qual- 
ities of native plants ; many of their 
practices were so nearly like the well- 
known feats of jugglery of the Hindoos, 
that the perusal of accounts by credible 
eye witnesses of the wonderful feats ac- 
complished by the Medicine-men, seem to 
connect them in some way with the 
Hindoo Adepts. 

In many instances it is difficult to decide 
as to where priest craft ends and med- 
icine begins, like the priests of ancient 
Egypt, with whom doctors were identi- 
fied, and were separated into classes or 
as we would term them, specialists ; 
among the Apaches, Mohaves and others, 
some doctors are famous for bringing rain, 
some consult the spirits and treat the sick 
only in the absence of other practitioners, 
others claim special power over snakes ; 
other special functions were claimed by 
the Medicine-men of other tribes ; among 
the Oregon tribes there are Spirit Doc- 
tors and Medicine Doctors. 

Some tribes claim a special heaven for 
Medicine-men, and believe in a hereafter 
composed of four lives which is symbol- 
ically represented by the four lodges and 
the four degrees through which the adepts 
are required to pass, and upon the attain- 
ment of the fourth degree the Medicine- 
men claim divine power. 

Among some tribes the Priests and 
Medicine-men are selected from a particu- 



lar gens, or clan ; but 
in California no he- 
reditary right was 
claimed, their quali- 
fications being based 
on their individual fit- 
ness for perpetuating 
=. certain special kinds 

^ia JO 

of knowledge, in many 
cases however, the 
great Medicine-man of a tribe was a 
near relative of some prominent chief. 

Among the Apaches a candidate who 
desires to become a " doctor " is required 
to convince his friends that he " has the 
gift," that is, he must show that he is a 
dreamer of dreams, given to long fasts 
and vigils, able to interpret omens, and 
do other things of that general nature to 
demonstrate the possession of an intense 
spirituality. (John G. Bourke.) 

The illustration Fig. i, copied from the 
first pictorial representation made by an 

eye witness of the esoteric work of an 
Indian Medicine Lodge, a painting of some 
fifty years ago, represents some of the 
terrible ordeals through which the candi- 
dates were required to pass before attain- 
ing the fourth or highest degree of their 

" In the Indian lodges the four spaces 
were typified severally by the posts 
erected, their number and decoration be- 
ing sign of degrees of initiation, mile- 
stones, as it were, marking the journey 
on the pathway of life." (Ella Russell 
Emerson, in Am. Anthropologist.) 

Fig. 2 represents a magic cord with 
pendant feather ornaments in pairs, one 
of the characteristic articles of dress of 
regalia of a Medicine-man, obtained trom 
one of the members of a branch of the 
Tulare Indian tribe, which tribe has been 
living for the past two hundred years in 
the vicinity made notorious by Evans 
and Sontag. It was given to me by Mrs. 


American Anthropologist. 


Rider of San Jose, who obtained it from 
an Indian whom she had befriended in 
Fresno County. 

This Indian told her that, when a 
young boy is intended for a Medicine- 
man, this cord with a single pair of the 
feather pendants is placed about his neck, 
and is afterward worn continuously, an 
additional pair of pendants being added 
each year ; in their " dances " the Med- 
icine-men wear a girdle composed of a 
large number of these pendants, around 
the waist. 

The principal cord of this part of their 
paraphernalia is made of a silk-like veg- 
etable fibre of a rich brown color, the 
smaller cords to which the feathers are 
attached are of a white vegetable fibre, 
and* between the twisted strands of all 
the cords downy feathers are arranged, 
the ends of which cover the surface of 
the cord ; the eagle feathers forming the 
pendants are tied two together, with their 
under sides in contact, on the ends of the 
short cord, crest-feathers of the California 
quail, and red feathers from the head of 
the wood-pecker, are arranged around 
the shafts of the eagle feathers and all 
held in place by wrappings of sinew, the 
sinew and ends of the feathers where at- 
tached, covered by a strip of raw hide of 
a fawn, lapped in a spiral form to cover 


the wrappings of sinew, with a final neat 
cap of sinew over the upper end of the 
rawhide ; all the materials of which this 
necklace is formed are sacred, or " med- 
icine" and doubtless have some myste- 
rious meaning, but what that meaning is 
it is impossible to state. 

Mr. Bourke, in his interesting article 
"The Medicine-men of the Apache" 
published in the Report of the Bureau of 
Ethnology, 1886-87, as the result of 
twenty-two years of research among the 
savage tribes, remarks of the Izze-Kloth 
or medicine cord, " There is probably no 
more mysterious or interesting portion of 
the religious or " medicinal " equipment 
of the Apache Indian, whether he be 
Medicine-man or simply a member of the 
laity, than the izze-kloth " or medicine 
cord, . . . Less, perhaps, is known 
concerning it than of any other article 
upon which he relies in his distress. 

I regret very much to say that 1 am 
unable to afford the slightest clew to the 
meaning of any of the parts or appendages 
of the cords which I have seen or which I 
have procured. . . . The Apache 
look upon these cords as so sacred that 
strangers are not allowed to see them, 
much less handle them or talk about 
them." He admits that the most diligent 
efforts in this line were unsuccessful. 

1 7 6 


" That the use of these cords was re- 
served for the most sacred and important 
occasions, I soon learned ; that they were 
not to be seen on occasions of no moment, 
but the dances for war, medicine, and 
summoning the spirits at once brought 
them out, and every medicine-man of any 
consequence would appear with one hang- 
ing from his right shoulder over his left 

Only the chief medicine-men can make 
them, and after being made and before 
being assumed by the new owner they 
must be sprinkled," . . . with a 
great deal of attendant ceremony of a 
religious character. 

These cords are supposed to protect a 
man while on the war path, and the 
Apaches firmly believe that a bullet will 
have no effect upon the warrior wearing 
one of tham ; the wearer can tell who has 
stolen his ponies or. other property, can 
help the crops, and cure the sick. 

Magic or Medicine Cords and Rosaries 
have from time immemorial, in varied 
forms, represented some superstition and 
magic powers among all races of people, 
and until a comparatively recent period 
in Catholic countries, have been buried 
with the dead. In the sixteenth and 
seventeenth centuries the Laps and Fins 
sold wind contained in a cord with three 
knots, by the untying of which mariners 
could regulare the wind according to their 
wishes ; and to this day, the presence of 
a Russian Fin among a crew of sailors is 
looked upon as indicating the presence of 
witchcraft among them ; in other coun- 
tries cords were worn to protect their 
wearers from misfortune and disease ; in 
others as a sign of grief, or of baptism. 

The Aztec priests consulted Fate by 
casting upon the ground a handful of 
cords tied together, if the cords remained 
bunched together the patient was to die, 
if they stretched out, the patient would 
soon stretch out his legs and recover ; the 

Australian wears s cord of opossum hair 
around the neck to signify that he has 
attained to manhood. 

Amulets in endless variety, medicine 
bags, &c., were attached to these magic 
cords and the custom of wearing strings 
of beads with amulets attached has not 
entirely disappeared among the most ad- 
vanced civilized nations. 

The writer distinctly recollects in his 
schoolboy days, being cautioned against 
untying any knotted string or cord, which 
might be found attached to any fence, 
gate, or tree, as it was the practice of 
people who were afflicted with fever and 
ague, or had warts upon their hands, to 
tie a knot for each " shake," or wart, in 
a cord which was then tied in some prom- 
inent place, and the unlucky wight, who 
should untie the knots, would thereby 
take upon himself the disease, or the 
number of warts upon the hands of the 
afflicted person, who would by this trans- 
fer be entirely relieved of his troubles. 

Having always been proof against su- 
perstitious belief and so having no fear of 
the results, if 1 wanted a string which 1 
saw carefully fastened, which required 
some considerable untying of knots to 
obtain, 1 deliberately and against the ad- 
vice of my schoolmates, and even of 
grown up people, proceeded to untie and 
appropriate it, nor did I afterwards surfer 
from intermittent fever, or cultivate any 

Referring to the eagle feathers used as 
pendants in Fig. 1 quote from an account 
of the method used for catching these 
birds, the feathers of which were and are 
so much used in Indian ceremonies and 


" Late in the autumn or early in the 
winter, when they go out in their winter 
hunt, a few families seek some quiet spot 




in the timber, and make a camp with a 
view of catching eagles. After pitching 
their tent, their first build a small med- 
icine-lodge, where the ceremonies, sup- 
posed to be indispensable, are performed, 
and then make several traps on high 
places among the neighboring hills. 

Each trap consists of a hole dug in the 
earth, and covered with sticks, sods, etc., 
a small opening is left in the covering ; a 
dead rabbit, grouse, or other animal is 
tied on top, and an Indian is secreted in 
the excavation below. The eagle, seeing 
the bait, sweeps down and fastens his 
claws in it; but the bait being secured, 
he is unable to remove it. When the 
eagle's claws are stuck, the Indian puts 

his hand out through the opening, and 
catching the bird by both legs, draws him 
into the hole and ties him firmly. The 
trapper then re-arranges the top of his 
trap, and waits for another eagle. In this 
way many eagles are caught ; they are 
then brought alive into camp, the tails 
are plucked out and the bird is set at 
liberty, to suffer, perhaps, a similar im- 
prisonment and mutilation at some future 


In the majority of Indian tribes every 
man has his personal medicine, which is 
usually some animal. On hunting and 
other excursions he carries the head, 
claws, stuffed skin of his medicine, if an 


VOL. xxviii. 12. 


animal ; or a crystal, fragment of mineral, 
an arrow-head, a fragment of a tree struck 
by lightning; in some cases portions of 
their enemies who may have been killed 
in battle are selected as their medicine, 
some wear necklaces ornamented by 
stuffed human fingers or preserved finger 

The Indians seem to regard their " med- 
icine " in the same light the Europeans in 
former days regarded, and in some 
cases still regard, " protection charms." 
Among the Hidatsas, to insure the future 
fleetness of some promising young colt, 
"they tie to their colt's neck a small 
piece of deer, or antelope horn. The 



rodent teeth of the beaver are regarded 
as potent charms, and are worn by little 
girls on their necks to make them indus- 

All charms, idols and Sacred Regalia 
should be blessed if not made by the 
Medicine-men, who have charge of all 
ceremonials and dances ; preparations for 
war are under their control, and when on 
the war path their power is supreme, 


A description of all the practices of 
the medicine-men would fill a large book, 
and even an outline of the principal cer- 
emonies connected with their methods of 
curing the sick would fill more pages 

i This charm is composed of the feathers of the eagle, 
wood pecker and quail ; where the shaft of the feathers (2) 
in attached to the cord it is covered with the sinew of deer 
and this is again covered with strips of rawhide of fawn ; 
the cord is made of the fibre of the nettle twisted into a 
string and eagle down is worked into the strands in such 
a manner as to completely cover the cord. 

The child that is ordained as a Medicine Man from early 
youth begins by the wearing of the charm cord around 
the neck with (4) feathers in pairs to which for each suc- 
ceeding year is added two more pairs of feathers similarly 
attached to the original cord. The wearing of charm 
cords is a common superstition in many aboriginal tribes 
and in fact among the civilized races of today, instances 
l>*ing common in England and America and in sonic parts 
of Europe. The native races of Australia have a similar 
system of cord amulets. 

than could be reasonably expected for 
this article ; but 1 cannot leave the sub- 
ject without endeavoring to correct some 
erroneous statements made by former 
writers, in which incorrect uses have 
been assigned to some of the many im- 
plements made use of in their most im- 
portant ceremonial observances and ope- 

Among them are the cylindrical tubes 
of stone, bone, or reed, represented by 
Figures 2 to 17, some of which, notably 
such forms as are represented by Figs. 2, 
3, 4, 17 have been called pipes. 

All bodily ailments being attributed to 
malevolent spirits, these must be driven 
out or placated before the patient can 
recover ; this was done by various cere- 
monies, the use of charms of various 
kinds accompanied by certain formula of 
words, motions, a mixture and distribu- 
tion of combinations of herbs and other 
substances ; all these were accompanied 
by more or less impressive ceremonies, 
among which the' sprinkling of meal 
formed an important item, as did the use 
of pollen of corn and other plants, with 
tubes of various colors, and prayer sticks 
ornamented with feathers, beads, etc. 

One of the prayers used by the Nava- 
jos is as follows : 

" People of the mountains and rocks, I 
hear you wish to be paid. 1 give to you 
food of corn pollen and humming-bird 
feathers, and I send to you precious 
stones and tobacco which you must 
smoke; it has been lighted by the sun's 
rays and for this I beg you to give me a 
good dance ; be with me. Earth, I beg 
you to give me a good dance, and I offer 
to you food of humming-birds' plumes 
and precious stones, and tobacco to 
smoke lighted by the sun's rays, to pay 
for using you for the dance ; mak a 
good solid ground for me, that the gods 
who come to see the dance may be 
pleased at the ground their people dance 




upon ; make my people healthy and 
strong of mind and body." 

The wonder is that such a people 
should have been able without a written 
language, to transmit from generation to 
generation such a masi. of formulae. 


In the treatment of wounds the medi- 
cine-men exhibited considerable skill, 
but in the treatment of internal diseases 
it was mere luck and chance ; as the 
malevolent spirits are credited with be- 
ing the cause of diseases, so various 
herbs were regarded as fetishes, and 
selected from fancied connection with the 
disease cause ; this haphazard method 
resulted in the discovery of various 
medicinal qualities and their more gen- 
eral use in certain diseases, but the fetish 
idea was carried out in most instances, 
thus for forgetfulness a decoction of burs 
was prescribed, because nothing sticks 
tighter than a burr ; when a patient 
vomits yellow bile he is treated with a 
decoction of a yellow root, and so on 
through all diseases known to them. 

Sweat baths were in general use for the 
treatment of diseases. 

In a letter written in 1852 by the late 
Hugo Ried, we are informed that, among 
the Indians located near San Gabriel 
" Local inflammation was scarified with 
pieces of sharp flint and procuring as 
much blood as possible from the part." 
Stranguary was treated by sweating, 
"and when that failed, drawing blood 
by sucking the abdomen immediately 
above the bladder hardly ever failed to 
give relief." 

Many diseases were claimed to have 
been caused by the conveyance by an 
enemy , of foreign|substances into the body 
of the patient, and the Shaman or medi- 
cine-man frequently pretended to suck 
out such an object by the lips alone ; 
tubes of bone, wood or stone were, how- 
ever, generally used forjthe purpose, after 
scarifying the surface of the body over 
the affected part, when the operator 
would spit out a minute pebble, or sharp- 
ened stick, which he claimed to have 
sucked out with the blood from the 

The scarification or cutting was per- 
formed with a sharp arrowhead, a briar, 
rattlesnake tooth, or some other suitable 




instrument. Among the Indians of South- 
ern California prepared flakes of chert or 
jaspery flint of a peculiar pattern or 
workmanship were used for this purpose. 
Figs. 12, 13, 14, 15, 16 represent some 
of these lancets or scarificators, from San 
Nicolas Island. The same instruments 
have been found in other localities, es- 
pecially on the Channel Islands. They 
were all made of the same material and 
similar in form.' While engaged in col- 
lecting relics for the Smithsonian Institu- 
tion on Santa Rosa Island, some twenty 
years ago, I found in one spot enough to 
fill a two quart measure, but during the 
three weeks' exploration on the island I 
found no others, and concluded that they 
had been the property of some medicine- 
man, used for some special purpose and 
buried with him ; I did not then know 
what use they had been put to ; several 
years afterwards, in an interview with 
one of the few survivors of a local tribe, 
learned that they were manufactured 
for and used by certain medicine-men of 
the tribe, for the purpose above named ; 
the surface of the body of a patient was 
cut by these flakes in order to draw 
blood from the locality affected, this was 
done by applying one end of a bone tube 
over the cut surface, the medicme-man 
applying his lips to the other end of the 
tube and exhausting the air from it by 
suction, caused the flow of blood from the 

These scarificators have been described 
in some of the publications of our govern- 
ment, and their uses assigned as " barbs 
for spears and arrows." 

Their manufacture must have acquired 
special skill, as they are the cutting 
edges of large flakes, which have been 
chipped or broken off from the original, 
and worked down leaving very little sub- 
stance except the long cutting edge, 
showing the original fracture of the flake; 
and it is probable that the material of 

which they are composed was selected 
for its adaptability for the purpose, as it 
is doubtful whether any amount of skill 
would have enabled the artist to manufac- 
ture such delicate instruments from the 
material ordinarily used for the manu- 
facture of knives and other cutting im- 
plements ; the further fact of their being 
rarely found, and then only in large 
numbers, would indicate that they were 
used by certain individuals of the tribe, 
or specialists, and not by the masses. 

Fig. 18 represents a medicine-man of 
the Ojibwa tribe removing disease from 
a patient by means of a sucking tube of 

Among the Cherokees, for the treat- 
ment of certain diseases their written 
formulae, direct that after a prayer ad- 
dressed to the Black, Red, Blue and 
White Ravens, suction of the part most 
affected, the doctor having in his mouth 
during the operation, blossoms of tobacco, 
wild parsnip, and lobelia. On with- 
drawing his mouth from the spot and 
ejecting the liquid into a bowl, it is ex- 
pected that there will be found in it a 
small stick, a pebble, an insect, or sim- 
ilar substance, which the operator holds 
up to view as the cause of the disease ; 
this is afterwards buried a " hand's 
length " deep in the mud. 

Figs. 2, 3, 4, 17 represent some of 
these tubes made of stone found in the 
interior of California; they are of ser- 
pentine, very nicely made and polished, 
the one represented by Fig. 4 is a beau- 
tiful specimen, light pea green in color 
blotched with irregular black spots ; 
these have been considered as pipes, but 
a glance at their form, and the dotted 
lines showing the drill holes, will con- 
vince one that they were not intended for 
that purpose ; the specimen represented 
by Fig. 2 was probably originally made 
for a sucking tube, and afterward a bowl 
worked out either to increase its capacity 



as a sucking tube, or it might have 
been used as a pipe for smoking. Figs. 
5 to ii were found on the Islands of 
Santa Cruz and San Miguel, off the 
coast of California and were doubtless 
used by the medicine-men as sucking 

Medicine tubes were used by different 
tribes in their various ceremonies and 
incantations, they were sometimes pieces 
of reed colored and ornamented with 
cabalistic markings. 

The Navajos in their ceremonies for 
healing the sick, used in their medicine 
lodges a reed, which after a certain for- 
mula had been used in its preparation, 
" was rubbed with finely broken native 
tobacco, and afterwards divided into four 
pieces, the length of each piece being 
equal to the width of the first three fin- 
gers. The reeds were cut with a stone 
knife some three and a half inches long. 
An attendant then colored the tubes. 
The first reed was painted blue, the sec- 
ond black, the third blue, and the fourth 

Figs. 10 and 1 1 from San Miguel Island, 
although made of bone perhaps in ab- 
sence of reed, may have been used for 
some similar purpose. 

Fig. 8 of bone, ornamented by incised 
lines, from the same island, was proba- 
bly a drinking tube, as young warriors 
while on their earlier expeditions were 
not allowed to let water come in contact 
with their lips, nor to scratch themselves 
with their nails, and in order to carry out 
these requirements they carried with 
them on these expeditions a tube of reed 
or bone through which to suck water 
in drinking, and a straight piece of wood 
or bone to be used as a scratcher ; these 
two articles were tied together and worn 
suspended by a cord; the tubes repre- 
sented by Figs. 8, 10, n may have been 
of this character. 
The medicine tubes were filled with 

tobacco, humming-bird feathers, meal, 
and other substances, and laid in certain 
positions as offerings to the particular 
deities they were endeavoring to concil- 
iate ; the black tubes were offering to the 
gods, and the blue to the goddesses of 
the mountains, and to the earth. 

A tube about five inches long, filled 
with feather ball and tobacco, orna- 
mented with beads and feathers of the 
Arctic blue bird, and of some from a bird 
of yellow plumage, formed the great 
offering to one of their deities. 

Of the many well authenticated in- 
stances of remarkable performances by 
the Pawnee medicine-men, I will ap- 
pend the following, witnessed and 
vouched for to by Mr. George B. Grinnell 
by Captain H. L. North, who is further 
vouched for to the writer of this article, 
by Mr. George H. Gould, as being a 
truthful and reliable man, whom he had 
heard recite the witnessing of other and 
equally remarkable performances. 

" A man representing an enemy, came 
into the ring on foot. A doctor followed, 
armed with a hatchet, which he passed 
to the spectators for examination. It 
was an ordinary hatchet of the toma- 
hawk form. On receiving back the 
hatchet, the doctor started in pursuit of 
the enemy, who fled. The doctor over- 
took him, and with a vigorous blow, 
sunk the hatchet up to the handle in 
the enemy's skull, leaving it there. The 
wounded man staggered on, passing 
within five or six feet of the ring of spec- 
tators, who plainly saw the blood from 
the wound running down the man's face, 
and dripping from his hair behind. They 
saw also the grey brain-matter oozing 
from the wound. The wounded man 
was taken from the ring into the doctor's 
lodge. A few days later he was seen 
about, and in his usual health." 

Corn was planted in the center of the 
lodge, grew and matured in the pres- 



ence of spectators. These with other 
ceremonies equally as remarkable were 
performed under circumstances which 
would seem to remove them from the 
more commonplace tricks of professional 

The only plausible theory in explana- 
tion of these remarkable performances 
would seem to lie in the line of the, at 

present, little understood theory'of hyp- 

Fig. 19 is a reproduction of an^Indian 
drawing used as a pictograph emblem of 
a medicine-man's lodge, with rude out- 
lines of the various animals whose' aid 
they invoke. 

Fig. 20 a pictograph of a medicine- 
man curing a patient. 

L. G. Yates, F. L. S., 

Corresponding Member Anthropological 
Society of Washington. 



ARRIVED at Fort 
Bridger, Utah, by 
stage, from Denver, 
in December, 1866. 
Here I met Captains H. 
Burke and Mills, whom 
1 had only a short time 
before messed and 
fought with in the At- 
lanta campaign. They 
introduced me to Judge 
Carter, the " Oracle 
of the Wasatch." He 
was Territorial Judge, 
Circuit Judge, Justice 
of the Peace, Postmaster, and all around 
frontiersman, and a gentleman besides. 
Albert Sidney Johnson, Charles F. 
Smith, Philip St. George Cooke, Horace 
Greeley, Fitzhugh Ludlow, " Artemus 
Ward," Hepworth Dixon, Richard F. 
Burton, Schuyler Colfax, Samuel Bowles, 
Brigham Young, and many other men of 
prominence had been guests of Judge 
Carter at one time or another. I staid 
at Bridger two weeks and enjoyed the 
anecdotes and good fare of the scholarly 
Judge. One day, when 1 had about 
made up my mind to proceed to Salt 
Lake Judge Carter said to me: 

"You mustn't go yet. Tomorrow I 
shall have a tough customer up before 
me for horse-stealing. Of course he 
will plead not guilty, but we have the 
dead wood on the old scoundrel, and I 
shall send him up for about twenty 
years. Had he killed some one, his pun- 
ishment, naturally, would be less severe. 
But he has committed the greatest crime 
that a man can be guilty of in these 
parts. He has stolen a horse indeed, 
he has stolen many horses. If he had 
only murdered one of his wives, or all of 
them, I might have let him off with ten 
or twelve years." 

There was good sleighing, skating, and 
hunting, and abundant cheer all around, 
so I concluded to stay over and be pres- 
ent at the trial. 

The name of the notorious horsethief 
was Richard Gardner, alias " Obelisk 
Dick." Gardner was a magnificent- 
looking ruffian, with luxuriant long black 
hair/big brown eyes, and an intellectual 
face. He stood six feet three inches, 
and was large in proportion, without a 
pound of superfluous flesh. He had a 
perfect nose and mouth, an imposing 
mustache, small, handsome ears, and 
eyes that flashed like gems. 

1 84 


He had participated in a dozen or more 
stage robberies, and had stolen and sold 
nearly a hundred horses and mules dur- 
ing an out-side-of-the-penitentiary career 
of thirteen or fourteen years. And yet 
he said to me with bewitching placidity : 

" I have never stolen a horse nor 
pointed a loaded weapon to a human be- 
ing. 1 am as innocent as was the lowly 
Nazarene when he stood nobly but 
meekly before Pilate." 

" Are you married ? " I asked. 

"Married ! " he replied ; " Married ! 
Why I am a modern Solomon on the half 
shell. You forget I am a Mormon. 1 
have two white women and three squaws, 
who are my lawful wives. 1 have a 
good many children, but Jonas is the 
apple of my eye." 

" He is a terror, though, 1 under- 
stand ? " 

"He is so called by my wives and 
other evil-doers, as he takes it upon him- 
self to preserve peace and humility in 
my household and that means that he 
is compelled to thrash my women occa- 
sionally, especially vvhen they take too 
freely of valley tan, and get too animated 
in consequence. Then Jonas teaches 
them, gently, of course, by quietly set- 
ting them up and knocking them down. 
He is nineteen years old, and never told 
a lie except in self-defense, which is em- 
inently proper, you know." 

The particular accusation against Gard- 
ner at this time was for stealing a fine 
saddle-horse from the Cummings broth- 
ers, two honest traders and farmers 
residing in Bear Valley. The Cum- 
mings brothers appeared as witnesses 
against the dishonest old Mormon, and 
they swore vehemently that they had 
"laid for" "Obelisk Dick," and 
" nabbed him," with their animal in his 
possession. This simple testimony closed 
for the prosecution, and the accomplished 
bigamist and all-around scamp was asked, 

as he had pleaded " not guilty," what he 
had to say in defense. 

"Have you counsel to conduct your 
case, Dick ? " inquired Judge Carter, 

"Why, of course not!" responded 
Gardner. " What 's the use of an inno- 
cent man employing a lawyer ? Why 
should I throw away coin of the realm on 
a blatherskite of an attorney when the 
honorable court itself knows that the 
prisoner before it is not guilty ? 1 would 
scorn " 

" Have you any witnesses, Dick ? Can 
you set up an alibi ? " 

" If you Ml take my word, Judge, 1 Ml 
gladly set up the drinks. 1 can't prove 
an alibi at this time. My son Jonas has 
disappointed me. He should have ar- 
rived on the east-bound stage this morn- 
ing. If that truthful young Christian could 
have left the bedside of his infirm mother, 
he would have come to my relief. He, 
sir, could swear " 

" To anything ! " interposed Hamilton 
Cummings, the elder of the two brothers. 

" That 1 was in the bosom of my 
precious family the very night these 
Cummingses accuse me me: the very 
paragon of uprightness and respectabil- 
ity, of stealing their horse !" concluded 

"Have you anything more to say ?" 
urbanely interrogated the Court. 

"Yes; I have a good deal more to 
say. In the first place, Juddge, these 
Cummingses don't like me a bit ; they 
not only don't love the ground I walk 
upon, but they don't like the planet I 
live upon ; they " 

"You bet we don't!" exclaimed 
Amasa, the younger of the two. 

"Order in court, gentlemen," said 
Judge Carter, pleasantly but firmly. 

" That 's right, Judge ; give me a fair 
show. I 'm the under dog just at this mo- 
ment. Now, let me tell you the truth- 



"Great! " 


" Do give me a chance! Those two 
boys have had their whack at me, and 
when'l merely say they prevaricated I 
draw it mildly. Now it is my turn not 
to prevaricate but to tell the truth. I 
did n't interfere with those boys when 
they were getting in their underhanded 
work against me. Now, Judge, 1 want 
to tell you why the Cummingses are so 
infernally down on me. I do a little 
honest trading, now and then, with the 
Snakes, you see, and that riles them. 
So you see, Ham and Amasa got their two 
virtuous Vermont heads together one 
evening, and, seeing me coming toward 
them, they said : Here comes Obelisk 
Dick ; we '11 put up a cold job on him. 
He 's got some Snake women living with 
him, and that gives him influence with 
the tribe. We '11 just trot out Stonewall 
Jackson, and when the old duffer stops 
to examine his fine points,' you know, 
Judge, I am a great admirer of a good 
horse, 'we '11 rush out and snatch 
him, and get out a warrant against him 
for grand larceny.' Now, there 's the 
animus, Judge don't you see it ?" 

"Dick," said the Justice, " I must re- 
mind you that you are on your oath. 
How did you learn of this cold job, as 
you term it ? Can you swear " 

" Why, of course," responded the all- 
round colossal scouudrel. " 1 can't ex- 
actly swear to just what 1 say the 
exact phraseology, you know, without 
perjuring myself. And no gentleman of 
my standing in Utah would commit per- 
jury. 1 would rather snatch out my 
honest tongue than to permit it to veneer 
itself with a falsehood. I commend my- 
self to the honorable " 

" But will you swear to " 

" If my son Jonas were here he would 
swear " 

"Yes," interrupted Hamilton Cum- 

mings, " his son Jonas would swear that 
the old wretch had never seen a horse, 
if necessary. But he 's at home pound- 
ing one of the old man's variegated 
wives, probably, or planning to steal a 
saw-mill or a red-hot lime kiln. I 'm 
tired of Utah justice, at any rate. If I 
were you, Judge, I "d let the dear old 
saint go. He 'd talk the hinges off a 
penitentiary door even if you jailed 

' " Yes," added Amasa, " let him off. 
We won't trouble the court any more. 
We '11 just take the law into our own 
hands, and in course of a month or two 
you Ml see two new head-boaads in the 
Bear River Valley Cemetery erected to 
the memory of Richard and Jonas " 

" Here, now," said Judge Carter, ad- 
dressing himself to the Cummings boys, 
" if you utter another word I Ml fine you 
as much as the code permits me, and 
send you to the penetentiary, in the bar- 
gain. How dare you - 

"Hurrah for justice and old Judge 
Carter ! " ejaculated Gardner. " He 
knows the difference between an honest 
Southern gentleman and a pair of un- 
scrupulous Yankees. ' An honest man 's 
the noblest' " 

The boys had cooled down and taken 
a back seat, metaphorically. And 
Judge Carter had turned in a fine digni- 
fied way toward the prisoner, and said : 

" Dick Gardner, you had better come 
to your senses and tell the truth. You 
and your son Jonas live by stealing. 
The evidence is all against you in this 
particular case, and it is all in. You 
have no witnesses, and your word is 
baser than the meanest metal of the 
Wasatch. If you want the court to be 
lenient, make a clean story of this affair, 
and hope for mercy. What have you to 
say ? I 'm in a hurry. I expect forty- 
five teams from Denver, and I Ml give 
you just ten minutes to tell the truth." 

1 86 


" It will take him ten years to perform 
so great an act," ventured one of the boys. 

Gardner arose to address the court. 
He was as handsome a man as General 
Rousseau, and reminded me somewhat 
of that magnetic hero. He said : 

"Judge, there is no sympathy for me in 
this court, and 1 arn going to do a phe- 
nomenal thing. Of course, I am not un- 
mindful of the fact that I am now about 
to commit monumental perjury. When 
the peculiarities of jurisprudence of this 
section of the country are collected, my 
name will go down to posterity as the 
biggest fool that has ever lived. Never- 
theless, to satisfy the court, and to save 
the Cummingses the cost of those two 
uninviting head-boards, I withdraw my 
plea of ' not guilty," and confess that I 
did steal that horse. You see these 
Cummingses are lightning in every- 
thing they undertake, and they are 
bound to convict me as sure as you 
live I can feel it in my boots. They 
are regular Yanks from the word go. 
They are too cowardly to steal a fine 
horse, but they sell me pure maple syrup 
from Vermont, two-thirds of which comes 
from Louisiana cane, and they dose the 
Snakes with valley tan, and then get 
their furs for a song; and " 

" I ca n't stand any more of this, 
Dick ; confine yourself to the case," 
urged the court. 

" Y\\ do so," quickly responded the 
prisoner. " But I want to say one poetic 
thing concerning this, my only theft. 
Yes, sir, the stealing of that horse was 
the first and only dishonest act of my 
life ; and, even then, it was not the pal- 
try value of the animal, sir, that induced 
me to commit such a disgraceful act, as 
my darling boy Jonas would willingly 
swear to. It was the noble name of the 
quadruped, your Honor, that took me 
from the paths of honesty and virtue 
that I have meandered for fifty years. 

I am a Virginian, Judge Carter, an F. 
F. V., sir, if you want the facts, and the 
name of that grand old rebel thrills me 
next to the name of that other great 
rebel of Virginia, George Wash 

"Dick, that 's graphically said. But 
your registration papers make you out a 
native of Providence, R. I.," quietly 
remarked Judge Carter, " and 1 distinctly 
remember that you once said to me, a 
short time ago, that Jeff Davis ought to 
have been hung. But, no matter about 
such harmless tergiversations. Do you 
unequivocally withdraw your plea of 
' not guilty,' and enter one of ' guilty ? ' 
Time is precious, and the westbound stage 
is due." 

" 1 plead guilty, and beg the mercy of 
the court," said Gardner, and then he 
sat down. 

" It being your first offense, Richard 
Gardner, 1 sentence you to confinement 
and hard labor in the penitentiary at 
Great Salt Lake City for nineteen 

" Great God ! " gasped Gardner ; and 
then, after recovering himself, he asked: 

" What do I gain, Judge, by pleading 
guilty ? " 

" One year." 

"Jumping Judas Iscariotf I say, 
Judge Carter, how many years would 
you have given me had I maintained my 
plea of ' not guilty,' and not thrown my- 
self on the mercy of the court ? " 

"I should have made it an even 
twenty, Dick, all that the law permits. 
So, you see, I have tempered justice with 
mercy you perceive that, do you not ? " 

" You are a real Solon in your method 
of tempering justice with mercy, and I 
accept the sentence without resentment. 
Indeed, the remembrance of your com- 
passionate treatment will remain an in- 
delible element in my mind, and as the 
years pass by, I shall come to think of 
you, Judge Carter, as Aristides the Just 



of Utah. Joking aside, though Judge, I 
am of the opinion that when I pleaded 
' guilty,' and entreated for mercy, I not 
only crawled into a very ugly hole, but 
quietly pulled the entire apperture in 
after me. What do you think, Judge ? " 
" I think you have done the most ap- 

propriate thing you could have done, 
under the circumstances." 

" You do ? " 

"I do." 

"Will you setup the drinks on that 
proposition? " 

" Every time." 

Ben C. Truman. 



HE sun was vainly battling with 
the cold purple shadows that 
were stealing from 
among the vast domes 
and crags that crown 
the serrated granite 
walls that guard the 
western approaches to Yosemite. 

The shadows lingered long among these 
mighty solitudes as though loath to sur- 
render their wonders to the night, as 
though loath to commit to the awful fast- 
enesses a band of Indians, men, women 
and children, who were groping laborously 
onward through bush and chaparral. 

The Po-ho-nee-chee tribe were on their 
way to Yosemite to pay their annual 
tribute to its renowned chief. 

As the last lights went out among the 
gorges the little band halted silently 
and patiently to await the rising of the 
moon. Shortly after sundown of the same 
day, the annual fete, to which all the 
mountain tribes contributed, was inaug- 
urated in the Yosemite Valley with semi- 
barbaric ceremony by the great Tenaya. 
The Kah-we-ahs were the first to ar- 
rive ; from their distant and inhospitable 
home along the Kings River, the terrific 
grandeur of whose canon, with its ridges 
topped with pinnacles sharp as needles ; 
crater-like amphitheatres circled with 

precipices, endless snow-fields and frozen 
waters, surrounding shattered granite, 
and here and there a gnarled pine tree ; 
all evidenced a gigantic sublimity, far 
surpassing the Kah-we-ah's thought, 
the cafton of the Yosemite.' But for 
grand, rather than terrific beauty, and 
the shelter afforded from the fierce storms 
of winter, and the burning heat of the 
lower country in summer, scattered and 
broken, as it were, by the friendly walls, 
Yosemite became the ideal rendezvous 
of all the tribes. 

The Kah-we-ahs brought priceless ob- 
sidian arrow-heads, ornaments of gold, 
bracelets, rings, pins for the hair, roughly 
beaten and fashioned. 

The Chow-chillas had overtaken and 
joined the Kah-we-ahs. And their train 
of painted warriors, followed by their 
women, leading horses heavily laden with 
blankets, baskets, and those fanciful 
head dresses which they alone could pro- 

The procession reached Tenaya's 
camp, and, after observing the most 
elaborate ceremony of greeting, took 
possession, as. was their right, of the 
lodges nearest the encampment of their 
host. The next tribe to arrive, taking 
the next set of lodges, and so until all 
were housed each in turn. 



The Wool-chies brought pine and chin- 
quepin nuts, grass seed, wild oats, and 
rye, water baskets made of wire grass 
and ornaments of bear's claws, bird bills 
and feathers. 

The Po-ho-nee-chees were a wealthy 
tribe and could present to a chief of so 
great renown, robes of squirrel and rabbit 
skin and the very rare mantle made from 
the skin of the water-fowl, with every 
feather unruffled and its native brilliancy 

This tribe was also famous for great 
skill in making musical instruments. The 
thread used by them was much sought 
for, and was twisted from the inner bark 
of milkweed. 

The Piutes or Mono Indians from their 
cold arid land, round the alkali region of 
Mono lake, upon whose waters floated a 
scum that concealed a larvae of insects, 
which when dried became an article of 
food, as well as dried worms, and grass- 
hoppers scorched, brought looking-glasses 
set in frames of dull metal for the belles 
of Tenaya's camp ; bows of yew, cedar, 
and pine, and arrows made of reeds and 
other woods ; the choicest of the Indian 
arrow wood, the scarcity of which made 
it a valuable article of barter. The arrows 
were mostly tipped with Obsidian or vol- 
canic glass ; and when on the war path, 
were poisoned with rattlesnake venom. 

Their camp was in a meadow, through 
which ran the beautiful Merced River 
of Mercy, guarded on one side by Lqya 
- the Sentinel looming tall and forbid- 
ding, a solid spire of rock 3,000 feet 
above their heads, on the other by 
Pom-pom-pa- sus The Three Brothers 
yet mightier. 

As the darkness gathered, the village 
was alight and stirring. At the far end 
a group of lodges was dark and empty 
They were awaiting the coming of the 

The festivities were to open with a 
grand dance. 

A huge pile of fagots and pine cones 
had been prepared. The Indians began 
to assemble, clad in ceremonial robes and 
huge headdresses of feathers, their 
faces painted ; adorned with bracelets, 
necklaces, anklets of bear claws or teeth, 
or gold ; with bows slung over their 
shoulders ; shields on the left arms and 
quivers of arrows in their belts. Some 
carried spears and tomahawks. 

The women were gorgeous in beaded 
and tinseled attire ; a narrow band of 
feathers circled the head ; bangles of 
gold, glittering with beads, hung in 
strings far down their backs ; their arms 
and fingers were almos't hidden with 
massive bracelets and rings of beaten 
gold, copper and glass beads, the glass 
bead ornaments coming always first in 
the affections of the Indian maidens. 

The fnen formed a circle around the 
pile of fagots. The women, just as en- 
thusiastic, were according to Indian cus- 
tom relegated to the background with the 
children and the dogs. 

Amid solemn silence an old fire priest 
stole from out the darkness and began a 
slow dance and chant round, the pile. 
He was joined by another figure, and 
then another and another until there 
were five. 

Each old fire priest carried the usual 
bow and arrow, and in a hole punctured 
in the lobe of his ear, a fire-stick about a 
foot long. His reed pipe was carried in 
like position in the other ear, while a 
pouch, made of skunk skin, contained a 
piece of dry charred cedar, on which he 
obtained a fire by rapid friction with a 
fire stick. 

As the figures circled round, keeping 
monotonous time to their droning chant, 
the circle narrowed each time ; the fire 
sticks were drawn, and upon the piece of 



charred cedar were beaten in perfect time 
to the chant, until the sparks flew. 

Having imperceptibly approached the 
pile of fagots, each one of the priests 
stooped at the same moment and fired the 
wood in five different places. In an in- 
stant the huge pile was ablaze, so full 
of resin and pitch were the cones. 

The priests continued dancing ; swing- 
ing smoking pots of incense, which they 
held in place of the discarded sticks, 
chanting magic words, whose meaning 
had become lost to the memory of the 
oldest of the race. 

The tom-toms beat faster, the reed 
pipes shrilled louder, the monotonous 
few-few of the flageolet and the voices 
of the priests became lost in the volume 
of sound that rose, as chief after chief 
with his followers joined in the dance, 
and kept time to the cabalistic words 
" Hi-Yah, Hi- Yah, Unah-Unah-Nee," 
" Hi-Yah, Hi-Yah, Unah-Unah-Nee." 

The fire flamed high and threw its 
fierce light on the swift flowing water. 

The dance went on. The endless 
song rising to a discordant scream, as 
the performers became too excited to 
heed time or harmony. 

Castanets had been added to the din 
and clamor. 

Some of the younger squaws, carried 
away with the excitement, had drawn 
near ; slowly and timidly at first, they 
joined the swaying throng, though keep- 
ing well in the shadow. 

The children were quiet but eager 
spectators, while the dogs, of which there 
were legions, sate like so many sphinxes, 
as silent and motionless as though carved 
out of stone. 

The din and tumult was at its height, 
the dancers giving no sign of weariness, 
when there suddenly bounded into their 
midst, an Indian. 

His clothing was torn. He had lost 
his head covering, and his unkept hair 
was matted with half-dried blood. 

There was instant silence. 

It was the chief of the absent Po-ho- 

He held in one hand a small bunch of 
slender twigs, each bent in a way to- 
convey a meaning, known only to cer- 
tain tribes. 

The chiefs knew this. The torn and-, 
wounded condition of such a haughty 
chief as Pon-wat-chee would alone have 
told them that something unusual had 

With a wave of his hand Tenaya 
silenced the great drum. The women 
and children disappeared. The lesser 
members of the band fell back. 

* * :fc * * * 

The Po-ho-nee-chees had awaited on' 
the cliffs the coming moon before essay- 
ing to enter the valley by the narrow: 
dangerous trail. 

The silence, ruffled only by the rest- 
less movement of a horse, or the smoth- 
ered bark of an unruly dog, was broken' 
by a soft whir, and an arrow nearly 
spent by its long flight, and the weight 
of a bunch of slender twigs hit Pon-wat- 
chee on the temple. 

Startled into a hasty " Ugh " the chief 
grasped the twigs, and hastily mastered 
their meaning ; then, forgetting his 
wound, he mounted his horse, and started' 
off through the darkness, to deliver the 
message to Tenaya. 

It was from one of Tenaya's runners, 
some of whom were always abroad in. 
these troublesome times. 

The gold diggers had encroached upon 
the country more and more every year, 
until they had at last threatened to send 
the troops after the "thieving Indians," 
as they delighted to call Tenaya and his 

Tenaya laughed at them. They might 
occupy the lower country; but they could 
never penetrate this stronghold to which 
he had bid the friendly chiefs, for their 
Autumnal feast and triumphal dance. 


" - 

^^^^HB-'-. -N 


His confidence was shaken when the 
message was interpreted. The troops 
were in the mountains, and had burned 
Indian villages after capturing and killing 
iheir defenders. One of his own scouts 
had been tracked almost to the Yosemite. 
After a hasty consultation Tenaya dis- 
patched Russio, one of his swiftest run- 
ners, with an imperative order. 


As they consulted, there came the 
report of a rifle, clear and sharp ; it rolled 
down to them from just behind The 
Three Brothers Mountain. 

Another report followed another, 
three rifle shots. It was a warning of 
danger, from one of their scouts ; danger 
immediate and near. 

They waited, listening breathlessly for 



the signal that would explain the nature 
of the danger. 

But all was quiet. 

Then Jose Rey lifted his rifle, exam- 
ined it carefully, and said : 

" The gun makes too much noise, the 
bow is better." 

"I will go myself and find this danger. 
1 will send a message to you. By the 
notches in this arrow you shall know what 
evil threatens." 

The entrance to the valley had always 
been carefully guarded by Tenaya and his 
people. Seventy years before Tenaya's 
mother had, after the death of the old chief, 
his father, left .Yosemite and crossed the 
mountains to the Mono country which 
had been her home before she became 
the wife of the old chief. 

Most of the tribe had gone with her, 
and others had drifted after ; until all the 
Yosemites were living near Mono Lake. 

As Tenaya neared manhood, he be- 
came restless, and his fierce young mind 
was easily led to dreams of ambition and 
independence, by the old medicine man, 
who sung of the deeds of might and valor, 
of the old chief, Tenaya's father, and re- 
lated the traditions of their grand old 
home Yosemite. 

Before many months had passed Ten- 
aya, with a few choice friends, returned 
and settled in the home of his ancestors. 

Not long before the death of the medi- 
cine-man he called Tenaya to him, and 
in a spirit of prophecy, assured him that 
while he retained possession of the valley, 
his tribe would increase in numbers and 
wealth and become very powerful. That 
he must always befriend those who 
sought . his protection then, no other 
tribe would come to the valley to make 
war upon him, or attempt to drive him 
from it. 

He then assured Tenaya that he would 
place a spell upon the valley, whose 
magic would hold it sacred to him and 
his tribe forever. 

He cautioned the young chief, how- 
ever, against the coming gold diggers, 
declaring that if they should enter the 
valley, his tribe would be scattered and 
destroyed, or his people would be taken 
captive, and he would be the last chief 
of the Yosemites. 

For this reason had Tenaya so rigidly 
guarded his valley home, and all who 
lived under his protection. 

No one ventured to enter without his 
permission. All feared him, and his re- 
puted magic, and believed he had a 
band of witches who would render him 
assistance at his command. 

Hence the anxiety of the chief at the 
tidings, which proved such a shock to 
their fancied security. They had known 
there were dissatisfied white men in the 
mountains. They had heard the talk of 
calling out the troops, but they had 
laughed at all this. 

They reasoned, that as Tenaya had 
fulfilled all the requirements of the 
prophecy, therefore the valley was his, 
and danger could not come near them. 

They thought it fortunate that this 
trouble had come at a time when most of 
the outlying tribes were gathered in Yo- 
semite and were sheltered from all evil, 
by its protecting spell. 

"I will not leave my land " said Ten- 
aya, as they broke up the council. " The 
spirits among the rocks, the waterfalls, 
in the river, in the wind, will be with me. 
You shall not see them, but should you 
turn from me, you will feel their power 
and grow cold. The festivities will go on. 
I have said it." 

The fire was hastily built up. The 
tom-tom sounded out again, the flageolet 
screamed shrilly while the castanets gave 
to all a monotonous time to which danced 
a circle of men. Out of the darkness 
through the yellow glow of the fire, 
circling about, come the gaudy fantastic 
figures in red and yellow, glitter and 
tinsel, waving feathers and flying stream- 

1 92 


ers, swaying their lithe bodies in rythmic 
time to the music. 

Each warrior in perfect time bowed to 
the fire in ceremonious courtesy ; chant- 
ing, and circling, and bowing, shaking 
aloft their hands, in which blazing pots 
of incence were carried by the priests ; 
while the chiefs held bows or tomahawks. 

Now and then a figure in savage en- 
thusiasm would fall to the earth and 
writhe like a snake. 

At some distance down near the river 
bank, in one of the lodges that waited so 
long for their tenants, a slow mourn- 
ful chant arose. The sounds rising and 
falling in slow cadence, were absorbed 
and taken up into the tempestuous roar 
of the revelers. 

Gaining in volume as the wind took 
up the strain, these minor singers were 
heard reciting in formal phrase, the deeds 
of valor and daring of a great chief. 

The chant was low and mournful, but 
was intended to encourage the passing of 
a soul, about to start on its last jour 

Abruptly the singing ceased, and 
silence surrounded the lodge. The sounds 
of noisy revelry again filled all the air. 
But through all the noise and motion there 
seemed to Tenaya, who stood apart, 
thoughtful and silent, a hollow mocking 
sound, as though the trees, the river, the 
echo, the very air, refused to absorb, and 
gather it up, and carry the merriment 
off; but beat it back, muffling, stifling 
and smothering him until his breath came 
with difficulty, and he had found himself 
repeatedly, about to stop the revelry. 

They were in danger, but he had only 
to wait for the morning, when the mes- 
sage, which Jose Key's arrow would 
bring, would explain all. 

It suddenly seemed to Tenaya that the 
witches, whose aid he always invoked 
had entered his own heart, and were 
making the night a horror to him. 

He withdrew farther into the shadow, 
lest his gloom be observed. 

Though Tenaya's faith was profound 
he craved a sign that would point to his 
success in contest with the white men, 
whom, he now felt sure, were close upon 

These thoughts brought to his mind, 
Pon-wat-chee the chief, and his haggard 
appearance when he brought the bundle 
of twigs. 

He had not seen him since they led him 
away, dazed with the wound in his 

As he neared the wounded chief's door, 
the death wail broke upon his ears. From 
each lodge rushed forth the women 
and children wailing and beating their 
breasts until the death wail reached such 
proportion, that it mingled with the loud 
beating of the dance drums and the shrill 
whistle of the flageolet. Some one of the 
dancers caught the wail, and raised his 
hand to his ear to listen ; others observ- 
ing, did likewise. Soon it was known that 
Pon-wat-chee was dead. 

It seemed to Tenaya that his wish for 
a ' sign ' was fully and fearfully answered. 

The morning broke cold, with a cloud 
like mist obscuring the tree tops, and 
effectually hiding all view of the massive 

Tenaya with his warning before him, 
placed runners all along the length of 
the valley, with orders to keep up a con- 
stant search for the arrow, that Jose 
Rey was to send, freighted with the 
anxiously awaited message. 

By mid-day the mist had risen suf- 
ficiently to allow the relatives of Pon- 
wat-chee to gather the requisite amount 
of oak, pine, and cedar logs to build his 
funeral pyre. 

The warriors went about their work 
in grim silence, but the women and 
children gathered about the lodge, with 
most woeful shrieks and wails, beating 

VOL. xxviii. 13. 

I 9 4 


their breasts and throwing their arms 
into the air, then subsiding into dismal 
wail as they became exhausted. 

The day grew old, the shadows crept 
lower, until they enveloped the great 
domes T-o-cqy-ae and Ti-sa-ack. 

Every face wore an anxious look, as 
the runners reported no news of the ex- 
pected arrow. 

Tenaya marveled greatly for the 
mountains were full of his men. 

Jose Rey had at one time been an in- 
habitant of the missions in the lower 
country, and he, better than Tenaya, 
understood the motive that had induced 
the rhing of the whites. 

It was, with a great and gloomy fore- 
boding, that Tenaya as the night grew 
dark and cold, called in the runners, and 
made arrangements for a grand funeral 
for Pon-wat-chee. 

Jose Key's knowledge of the intricate 
trails, had enabled him to make rapid 
progress, and the early dawn found him 
crossing the open country, surrounding 
the Yosemite Creek. 

His first intention was to find the scout, 
who had fired the three rifle shots. 

Incidentally he believed the same scout 
had dispatched the bundle of twigs. 

The scout evidently believing the 
first message had been lost, had resorted 
to this more dangerous method be- 
cause of the distance the sound would 
carry among the echoing canons of the 

Jose Rey crossed the rapids and passed 
swiftly through the dense forest of tama- 
rack and spruce, only pausing by a spring 
like lake to eat a hearty meal of jerked 
venison and acorn bread. 

He slipped on a granite surface, worn 
smooth as glass by glacial action, in ages 
long past, tearing his moccasin and 
wounding his foot. 

At mid-day he paused a moment, to 
wrap his painful wound anew. 

The silence had become oppressive, 
even the birds were still, and the day 
had become hot, with heavy clouds in 
the sky. 

Suddenly he dropped to the ground 
and lay motionless, his eyes never mov- 
ing from some object in the distance. 

How quietly they were coming, those 
soldiers, marching in single file. 

Laying his ear to the ground Jose Rey 
could just hear them tramp, raising his 
head he could not hear them at all. 

" They 're coming to fight the Indians, 
Indian fashion," he thought. 

" Had they seen him ? Men would 
have sharp eyes and know how to use 
them, who marched through an Indian 
country like that," he reasoned. 

Still and steadily they came. Directly 
a number separated from the advancing 
column ; some to the left, some to the 
right widening the line. 

Jose Rey took up his bow, and exam- 
ined it carefully. He was more careless 
of his movements now. 

" There 's a message to be sent," he 
said aloud. 

He selected an arrow threw it aside, 
and selected another, fitted it to the bow, 
then carefully cut some symbols in the 
arrow stick, after which he looked care- 
fully around, and seemed to select some 
point, for he looked long at one object 
in the distance; then deliberately turned 
and watched the advancing column of 

They were quite near now, so near 
that Jose Rey could distinguish figures. 

His attention became attracted, then 
riveted. He partly raised to his knees 
and so, holding his bow rigidly waited, 
until at last he hissed, " Sandino, lead- 
ing the troops ; Thou ti\iitor." 

Taking his knife again, he cut more 
notches in the arrow. 

And now, to speed the arrow on its 
way, he would have to stand nearly erect. 

Painted expressly for the OVERLAND by C. D. Robinson. 
The Rock pinnacle immediately to the right of Yosemite Falls, standing- 50 feet out from the face of the.clift. 



Well, he would do that, if they would 
only give him time to send the arrow, 
before they killed him. Thus he thought, 
knowing his inevitable doom. 

He rose to his knees, fitted the arrow, 
and drew the bow as far as possible in 
that position, then paused a moment. 

What he did now, must be done with 
swiftness and strength. 

The tall lithe figure sprang as by magic 
from the earth ; his back was toward the 

The bow was drawn to its fullest ten- 
sion. The arrow sped on its way. Jose 
Rey fell pierced by a dozen wounds. 

The funeral ceremony had filled the 
night with shrill wailings, and callings to 
the departed spirit of Pon-wat-chee, sen- 
tences filled with messages, they desired 
him to deliver to the presiding spirit of 
the Happy Hunting Grounds. 

The tom-tom and reed pipes had played 
their wildest dirges. The fire priests had 
chanted their weirdest incantations as 
the body was taken to the Pyre and ten- 
derly laid on the choicest bear skin, and 
surrounded save the head, with the frag- 
rant pine, fir, and spruce. 

These things done decently and in or- 
der, from shear wearir.ess the camp had 
dropped into sleep. 

In the pale spectral light of earliest 
morning, when all the world lay in the 
thrall that mirrors so weirdly, its sister 
silence death ; a figure came swiftly 
through the trees. Breathless with haste 
and stumbling with fatigue, yet straight, 
strong, and fierce ; he seemed in his im- 
patience to spurn the earth and fly, so 
secret and swift was his advance. 

It was Russio. Yesterday his rugged 
copper face was young and hopeful. To- 
day fierce fiery eyes glowered in a face 
grown hard as iron, and seamed with 
lines of rage and scorn and deadly hatred. 

Making no sound, he passed into Ten- 

aya's lodge, spoke a few words, received 
an order, and passed on to the next lodge, 
and on through the camp, rousing only 
the chiefs. 

They gathered quickly. Scarce a foot- 
fall betrayed their presence. 

As they listend, each face acquired the 
same dark, deadly look of hatred, mingled 
with blank surprise, as, in low tones, 
Russio told them that the soldiers were 
coming, led by Sandino ; Sandino the 
traitor ! 

Russio was returning from Mono when 
he saw a camp fire. Upon creeping closer 
he had discovered the soldiers in camp 
for the night. 

Not understanding the full significance 
of their presence, he yet felt the danger, 
and hastened away to warn the chiefs. 

As he was about to descend the trail 
into the valley, his quick eye spied an 
arrow lodged on a ledge of the wall, be- 
side the great fall Yo Semite. 

Being so near, he had thought he would 
pluck it from its giddy position. As he 
reached for it, it seemed to recede, and 
what was his amazement to see it grow 
taller and larger, until it stood alone and 
distinct ; a sharp pinnacle of rock. 

As he gazed in wonder, there shone 
forth on the rock, in distinct lines, the 
notches and symbols as cut by Jose Rey. 

Thus was the message delivered, to- 
send which, Jose Rey had given up his life. 

"Had the message come too late ? 
Would they be able to place the women 
and children in safety ? " asked Tenaya* 

" The Pyre ; light the Pyre," he cried. 
" There is no time for ceremony now, 
but Pon-wat-chee shall have such a light 
to guide him on his way, as never chief 
had before." 

" Go, rouse all the people. Bid them 
bring of their wealth, the choicest ; that 
Pon-wat-chee may take it with him, to 
store for them, when they shall join him, 
in his happy home." 


1 97 

"And bid them be silent silent 
No wild wailing now, or funeral chant. 
Silence of voice and motion," commanded 

Thus, when his fate came upon him, 
was he found strong, wary, self sufficient. 

No more doubts or forebodings. No 
more propitiation of the Spirits or Witches, 
or blind trustings to prophecy. 

His hope and glory had gone from him. 

Henceforth he was to be a wanderer, 
landless, homeless, hunted, hated, 
scorned, and despised. The common 
prey for all. He and his people. 

He was to become the most despised 
of mankind a digger Indian. He the 
born inheritor of this valley, the grand- 
est the most beautiful. 

The Great Spirit had given it to him. 

Had given it to his fathers from the re- 
motest ages. 

The gentle winds had received their 
ashes in tender reverence. 

Here generations of his people had 
been born, had lived and died. 

And now, were the white gold diggers 
to say he must go ? Go where ? 

No ; he and his men would place the 
women in safety, then they would return 
and fight. 

As the dawn lengthened, a cold mist, 
thin, gauzelike rose from the earth. 

Through this, figures, large and small, 
distorted by the burdens they bore, 
passed ceaselessly, silently from the 
lodge to the Pyre. 

The throng grew, dwindled, and grew 
again, as priceless robes of squirrel skin 
were laid beside mantles formed of 
breasts of woodpecker and plumed heads 
of the mountain quail, bordered with the 
golden wings of the oriole. 

Necklaces and bracelets of beaten gold 
alternating with gay colored beads ; little 
mirrors of burnished metal, the choicest 
possession of Indian maidens. 

The treasures of the hunter the 
grizzly bear skin, the lion and the wild 
cat, the antlers of the deer, from which 
rare ornaments were fashioned, with 
bear claws, bird's bills and feathers. 

Musical instruments, tom-toms, flageo- 
lets, castanets in countless numbers, 
went to swell the fire, blazing fierce and 

All the treasures of the camp. All the 
offerings brought to Tenaya, in such 
confidence and security, now formed the 
funeral Pyre of Pon-wat-chee. 

When the fire was hottest the caches 
were opened. 

Squaws began filling with food such 
baskets as they could carry away. 

All the vast store remaining, that 
would have fed all the tribes of the 
mountains, was thrown in the fire. 

The lodges were thrown down. 

Cooking utensils, baskets, bows and 
arrows in quantities too great to carry 
away, were destroyed and burned. 

Then they started on their exodus, a 
sorrowful, homeless band. Their pride 
of life, their wealth, their hopes, lay in 
ashes behind them. 

The Indians had secret ways of escap- 
ing from the valley, that they intended 
to utilize now; but it would require some 
time to secrete such a number. As they 
rounded Pom-pom-pa-sus, not a mile 
away, was a band of soldiers, riding full 
speed toward them, but on the other side 
of the river. 

Tenaya commanded the women to drop 
their packs and take to the rocks with 
the children, each one to save herself 
and to return to Mono if possible. 

The Indians, after a consultation, de- 
cided that only by strategy could they 
hope to win, and they in their turn dis- 
appeared in the talus. 

Only Tenaya remained. 

He watched the soldiers ride along the 



valley, shouting and swearing, seeking a 
shallow place to ford the river. 

Tenaya had been recognized, and 
word passed along the line that he was 
not to be injured, but taken alive. 

Tenaya smiled grimly as he heard the 
order, and calmly waited. 

At last his eyes lightened fiercely, and 
an expression of grim delight shone on 
his face. 

Across the river, riding close to the sol- 
diers, whose charge he was, came Sandino. 

Tenaya's piercing gaze compelled his 

He shrank closer to his protector, but 
his eye was ever on his chief. He saw 
Tenaya raise his rifle, saw the slow aim ; 
saw the flash. 

Tenaya had avenged the betrayal of 
his people. 

K. Evelyn Robinson. 



LONE ! At night the moon looks down 

Upon the mountain-gloom ; 
Its lays a silver robe and crown 

Over a poet's tomb. 
Covering the mound are stone on stone, 
Borne there by travelers, one by one. 

No shaft climbs skyward, marble-pale; 

No alien throngs intrude ; 
No warders guard the forest-trail 

To mar the solitude. 
Alone, beneath the beech and pine, 
She rests, who sang her songs, divine. 

The hermit-thrush its note outwells 
Within the shaded deeps; 

The wandering breeze bemoans, and knells 
Its requiem while she sleeps ; 

Save these, O Silence, claim thine own 

Where she lies, in the mount, alone! 

Stephen Henry Thayer. 


So the loud torrent and the whirlwind roar 

But bind him to his native mountains more. Goldsmith. 

T is a proud thing for one state to 
be able to honestly claim two of 
the greatest natural wonders of 
the world. There may be a 
question as to the highest moun- 
tain, the most beautiful lake, the 
deepest crater, but Yosemite has 
no rival or the Sequoia gigantea 
any living counterpart. 
So comparisons are impossible. With- 
in a granite-walled chasm of the Sierra 
Nevadas, there are 8480 acres that con- 
tain more wonderful and varied mani- 
festations of the Creator's power than 
can be found in all the world together. 
The Yosemite Valley, as one gazes down 
into it from Glacier Point, strikes one as 
some vast divine museum. As though 
here beneath the eye, were the perfect 
models from which all other natural mar- 
vels that are scattered over the earth 
were copied. It is possible to make com- 
parisons in detail. There are crags that 
remind one of parts of the Alps, sheer 
precipices that might be in the Hima- 
layas, waterfalls that are Japanese, 
Swiss or Norwegian according to the eye 
of the beholder, peaks that call forth im- 
pressions of the Andes, lakes whose 
fellows are hidden among the glens of 
Scotland, mountain torrents that rush 
down the Pyrenees, meadows that call 
up pictures of Southern France and color 
effects that we have seen in the Red 
Sea, but the ensemble it is beyond 

1 99 

and above all else it commands the 
wonder of the most hardened globe-trot- 
ter. I do not wonder that one of our 
greatest descriptive writers turned sadly, 
away without trying tO" express in words] 
what he saw, and I no longer laugh at 
the writers of its guide-books who inter- 
lard every labored effort with " the pen 
is powerless to describe."' 

There is so much in this hidden chasm 
and each object is so beyond anything 
that imagination pictures, that there 
would seem to be no beginning or ending. 
It took all the adjectives in the English 
language to relate how the waters came 
down at Lodore, and yet here within the 
radius of one's eyes are a half dozen falls 
that might be the gigantic ancestors of 
pretty little Lodore. 

Our first view of the Yosemite was 
from Glacier Point. We had been driv- 
ing all day from Wawona along the back- 
bone of the High Sierra 8,000 feet above 
the Sea. We were above the fierce heat 
of the lowlands and the forests of pine, 
fir and tamarack were broken time and 
again by glacier meadows. We ate our 
lunch in one of them, close by the bank 
of the ice-cold stream that later breaks 
into a bewildering profusion of point lace 
and silky muslin as it drops into the 
heart of an embroidered rainbow below 
the Bridal Veil. 

Neither lawn mower or scythe has ever 
mutilated the soft, plushy sod of these 

Painted expressly for the OVERLAND by C. D. Robinson. 

meadows. All about these patches of 
vivid green are natural fences of white 
and grey boulders lying just as they 
were in the time when the meadow was 
a glacial plain and the breaking up of 
the prehistoric ice crowded them back, 
levelling the bed of the lake. We mar- 
velled at the gentians, daisies, flowering 
clover, ivesias, that struggled with the 
soft, free grass panicles for place, and 
watched the bees and the butterflies dip 
into the delicate spore-cups of the flow- 
ers and then waver off into the tender 
sun-gold that filled the air. We congrat- 
ulated ourselves that while we had 
missed seeing the Yosemite from Inspi- 
ration Point, we had made the acquaint- 
ance of these Alpine lawns, and yet we 
might have saved our selfish enthusiasm 
for they like all other natural beauties 
are found in their fullest perfection in the 
Yosemite. The very first item in the 
panorama that spread out before me as I 
placed my hands on the railing at Glacier 
Point and gazed over a precipice that fell 

sheer down into the floor of the valley 
3,200 feet were meadows so level, so 
beautiful, that in my egotism 1 refused to 
believe that the hand of man had noth- 
ing to do with their making. It is such 
a simple thing to say that you caught 
your breath, or were awe-struck, or 
rendered speechless. Neither is there a 
tinge of originality in any of these com- 
monplaces, but what after all is there 
more pregnant with meaning in our poor 
language. I had seen Tom Hill's and 
C. D. Robinson's many paintings of the 
Yosemite. 1 had seen it pictured over 
and over again in magazine and souve- 
nir. We had talked of nothing else for a 
week. I recognized the Half Dome, the 
North Dome, El Capitan, Cap of Liberty, 
etc., the moment my eye fell upon them, 
as I am sure I would recognize Washing- 
ton, Napoleon, Lincoln or Gladstone 
should it ever be my lot to see them in 
this world or the next. But that was all. 
The rest may be expressed in the thread- 
bare-commonplace, " I was speechless." 



From this Glacier Point, which to me 
is the grandest view in the valley and 
consequently on earth, you for the first 
time really arise to the sublimity of Yo- 
semite. Here in the very heart of the 
Sierras, seventy miles from the fertile 
plains of the San Joaquin and 7,200 
above the level of the sea, opens out a 
valley whose sheer sides rest upon the 
floor of a meadow, which is itself 4,000 
feet above sea level, and rise from 3,000 
to 6,000 feet above the olive green waters 
of the Merced. Directly across, forming 
the opposite wall is the Half Dome, ris- 
ing straight up nearly 9,000 feet in the 
air, one side bearing downward in strong 
rounded lines, the other cut away from 
the middle, straight and sheer, as you 
might slice a loaf of baker's bread from 
end to end. On its oval top is a plateau 
of fifteen acres and a few great pines 
that look like pins stuck in a cushion. 
The great Cap of Liberty, a name it 
fully justifies, a mass of granite, seems 

pretty in its shadow and yet it is nearly 
1,000 feet higher than Mt. Washington. 
Back of it and above it towers Cloud's 
Rest almost 10,000 feet in height, yet 

Liberty Cap. 


Photo by Tabe 

Washington Column. Stoneman House. 


Photo by Taber. 


Photo l>y Taocr. 



easily reached by the summer visitor on 
the sure-footed mountain horses. From 
between the Half Dome and the tremen- 
dous precipitous ledges on the right 
which are capped by Lyell and Dana 
in the far distance, and Starr King, 
Florence and Clark in the nearer fore- 
ground, break forth two falls one above 
the other. 

It is a great volume of green water 
that is lashed into the creamiest white 
as it falls in a bewildering cloud of liquid 
sky rockets 617 feet over the precipice, 

that is known to the world as the Nevada 
Falls. From the clouds of foamy spray 
and the resurrecting touch of the rainbow 
at the foot of the falls the stunned water 
becomes a roaring river and rushes heed- 
less on from cascade to rapids for a mile, 
catches its breath for a moment in Emer- 
ald Pool and then with one grand, reck- 
less rush goes thundering and charging 
over the Vernal Fall 336 feet down into 
the boulder-strewn gorge that leads off 
into the placid currents of the Merced. 
Within our vision were three great falls 

Photo by Tabcrl 


Photo by Taher. 


-the Nevada, the Vernal, and the Yo- 
semite, the last of which is 2,548 feet 
high, and the thunder of two more, the 
Ilillouette (500 feet) and the Bridal Veil 
(860) came distinctly to our ears. They 
are all alike in certain characteristics yet 

strikingly different. The family resem- 
blance is in their almost ethereal white- 
ness, so white as they fall that no night 
is dark enough to engulf them, then too 
in the manner of their falling. They do 
not come over in solid masses like Niag- 


(Black oaks in th? foreground.) 

Photo by Fiske. 

ara but shoot downward in rockets 
which resemble liquid icicles and from a 
little distance have the appearance of 
the finest lace skirt, full of furbelows and 
tucks, or when the wind strikes them 
sideways and carries a soft, delicate, 
shimmering spray of water outward they 
resemble a bridal veil or a queen's wash 
hung out to dry. To note their differ- 
ences is to describe in detail each one 
and to do that would require a series of 

It is only possible to mention a few of 
the remaining ones by name. There are 


so many wonders in the Valley that one 
passes by falls, cascades, cataracts, pin- 
nacles, spires, mountains, without even 
inquiring their name, wonders, any one 
of which would make the reputation of a 
summer resort anywhere in the world. 
The Sentinel Cascades (3, 270 feet), The 
Stepping Stones Fall, nearly as high but 
not containing as much water, The Cas- 
cade Fall (500 feet), The Royal Arch 
Fall (2, 500 feet), The Ribbon Fall (2,000 
feet), are forgotten in sight of the Nevada, 
the Vernal, the Yosemite and the llillou- 


Photo by Taber. 


iM.iri|xa Big Tren.) 

liy Talier. 

And yet they serve their purpose other 
than as gigantic waterfalls, they inten- 
sify the beauties of their more fortunate 
brothers. In like a manner the spires and 


domes that frescoe the valley walls suffer 

and yet aid each other in comparison. 

Across the valley from the mighty rock 

-El Capitan the captain of them all 



stands the massive Cathedral Spires, 
almost 6,000 feet in height ; so tremen- 
dous, so awful in their sculptured majesty 
that the mere thought of Notre Dame or 
Cologne brings forth a pitying smile, and 
yet they are only acknowledged with a 
glance, while we stand in unconcealed 
awe until our necks ache gazing straight 
up the polished sides of El Capitan, 7,012 
feet above the sea, 3,000 feet from our 
feet to the top. Yet it is hard to give 
life and meaning to mere figures. 

The Palace Hotel is no feet high, a 
baloon, a black speck in the sky, hung 
for days 1,000 feet above San Francisco. 
It would have reached but one third of 
the distance up El Capitan. 

A pine tree, 125 feet high, is growing 
in a cleft in the mighty face of El Capi- 
tan, half way up, and yet the guide was 
fully ten minutes trying to point it out to 
us. One side of the rock, that from the 
distance might be mistaken for the pol- 
ished surface of a window into the heart 
of the encompassing mountain, contains 
180 acres. With such figures and such 
facts, is it any wonder that more has not 
been written of the Yosemite ? The 
thought comes "What is the use." 

Side by side with El Capitan stands 
the Three Brothers, or as the Indians 
called them Pom-pom-pa-sus, " Falling 
Rocks," three vast pyramidical steps, the 
elder and larger brother of which is 7,751 
feet in height. 

We climbed to the top of these by one 
of the remarkable zig-zag trails of which 
the valley abounds, and it took us from 
8 o'clock in the morning until 7 o'clock 
in the evening to make the round trip. 1 
mention this to show the possibilities for 
the lovers of mountain climbing. To 
fully describe it would entail another one 
of the articles that I have laid aside for 
future efforts. 

As we rested on the edge of Glacier 
I Point, the famous hostelry the Stone- 

VOL. xxviii. 14. 

man House which is four stories high 
looked like a doll's house ; the incom- 
ing four-horse coaches would have escaped 
our notice had they not been pointed out, 
the Royal Arches directly across which 
might be the supporting arches of a uni- 
verse, looked almost artificial, and Mir- 
ror Lake, in whose depths we saw one 
morning at sunrise three great mountains 
reflected, looked like a mill pond. Away 
in the distance the snow-capped peaks 
of the High Sierras loomed up against a 
cloudless blue sky. 

Lazily we watched the far reaching 
panorama of mountain scenery. Fresh 
from the coast where the soft winds of 
the Pacific and the low boom of the 
breakers were a part of our daily life, 
this taste of another world seemed in- 
comprehensible. All that was sympath- 
etic and lovable in the landscape lay at 
our feet. Far beyond, our eyes feasted on 
the wild, savage, hacked bosses, spurs, 
buttresses and battlements of the earth's 
greatest mountains. Where we saw deep 
blue shadows we knew there were cre- 
vasses and gorges thousands of feet deep ; 
where a dazzling spot turned the burning 
lava of the sun full into our faces we 
knew was a bed of ice, the relic of an 
age that had ground down and carved into 
fantastic shapes these mountains. The 
reverberant thunder of the tremendous 
choir of waterfalls djd not drown the hum 
of the bumble bees. We could almost 
detect the noise of a butterflies wing the 
air was so still. Within touch of our 
hands a brilliant snow plant, like a cone 
of flesh dipped in its own heart's blood, 
bloomed in the shifting, broken granite. 

From the veranda of the Stoneman 
House all this was changed the flag 
that waved so proudly above our heads 
on the very edge of the precipice became 
almost indistinguishable to the naked 
eye ; the red cottage hotel of the old 
pioneer and guide, Jim McCauley, be- 



came but a red blurr amid a thicket of 
spruce, the warm air, laden with the 
heavy perfume of wild flowers and 
blossoming shrubs, swept down from en- 
chanted glades and the great domes and 
walls of the Sierra crowded closer and 
closer until as the twilight deepened the 
Half Dome, Washington's Column, the 
Royal Arches, all the wonderland of the 
Yosemite seemed within reach of out- 
stretched hands. 

The stars came out one by one, the 
deep boom of the many falls grew more 
distinct, and far above a fire glowed red 
on the jutting edge of Glacier Point. The 
romance of night intensified the realities 
of day. The Indian had confessed before 
the coming of the white man, and as the 
moon-silver came shimmering across the 
snow fields, across the polished acres of 
the Half Dome and picked out threads 
here and there in the Sentinel Cascades, 
we too, felt that God was in his Holy 

and containing 5 37,000 feet of inch lum- 
ber would be dwarfed in the presence of 
El Capitan and the Half Dome. We 
paused before the "Grizzly Giant," the 

One is almost thankful that the biggest 
trees in the world are not within the 
granite-bound confines of the biggest 
rocks in the world. For a tree even 375 
feet high, thirty-three feet in diameter, 

From a painting by Robinson. 




giant of the sequoias of the world, in the 
Mariposa Grove. It measures ninety- 
two feet at its base, and yet we did not 
appreciate its vast bulk until we stood 
two hundred feet away. Then it burst 
upon us like a revelation. Our two- 
horse team did not reach above the great 
burls that surmounted its roots, neither 
did it cover one third of the distance 
from side to side. The gigantic yellow 
pines that would make the heart of a 
Maine lumberman beat with joy, looked 
like saplings in comparison. There was 
something so tremendous, so sublimely 
majestic in these great monarchs of a 
pre-historic age that we felt like childish 
intruders. The rings of this old king of 
the grove, as scientists count them, give 
it a life of 4,680 years. Here it stood in 
all its glory when Christ was a carpenter 
in Nazareth. It was a full grown tree 
when Abraham went down into Egypt, 
when the Pyramids were built and for 
aught we know when Adam was ex- 
pelled from Eden. The 365 trees of the 
grove are all named. In the fire burnt 
heart of the " Haverford " sixteen horses 
have found shelter at onetime. Through 
holes in the " Wawona " and the 
"California" the wagon-road ran, and 
we drove directly through them and yet 
there was more than a third of the living 
tree on either side. Through the hollow 
trunk of another our accompanying horse- 
man rode without bowing his head. But 
a description of the greet trees of the 
Mariposa Grove of the lordly Sequoia 
gigantea is unsatisfactory, as the trees 
themselves are vaster than any precon- 
ceived picture. 

Wawona Point towers above the grove 
a hundred feet or more and looks down 
two thousand feet into the little valley 
meadow in whose center nestles the 
charming Wawona Hotel. The heavily 

laden four and six horse coaches that run 
between Raymond and Yosemite, 1 leave 
their tourists here to spend a day or 
week resting and sight seeing. Farther 
beyond is Signal Peak, 7, 500 feet above 
the sea, from whose summit 1,200 square 
miles of mountain and plain lies beneath 
the eye. The rugged snow-clad peaks 
of the high Sierras, the towering walls of 
Yosemite, the timber belts of the nearer 
purple and green ranges melt into the 
warm violet haze that rests above the 
fertile plains of the smiling San Joaquin. 
Here, too, at the very threshold of Yo- 
semite, within a few miles of Wawona, is 
a fall of water that for picturesque grand- 
eur, great height, and artistic possibilities 
ranks with the Bridal Veil and the 
Nevada. The Chilnaulna or Wawona 
Falls leaps down the mountain side from 
Capital Dome 3,000 feet. Its roaring, 
rushing, seething mass of irised water 
brings up recollections of the Alps ten 
times magnified. It is unequaled in its 
wild, free abandon, unrivalled in its pure, 
heroic beauty. It is one of the wonders 
of this land of wonders. 

Yet after all has been said that man 
can say Yosemite, Wawona, the Big 
Trees standout grand and sublime 
alone against a background of a world of 
lesser marvels, supreme defying their 
worshipers to chronicle one hundreth 
fold of their glories. 

Rounsevelle Wildman. 

i The route from San Francisco to Yosemite : 


ByS. P. Railway, to Raymond. 

By Carriage Road, to 

Grub Gulch 12.00 

King's Gulch i.oo 

Ahwahne (Dinner en route) 7.00 

Miama Saw Mill .... 8.00 

Wawona (Big Trees) (spend two d*ys here) 12. co 

Eleven Mile Station 10.76 

Chinquapin Flat (branch read here to Glacier 

Point, distance 14 miles) 2.20 

Stoneman House, New State Hotel (Cook's) 15.14 




N a bluff overlooking the waters 
of the Kentucky, two giant 
sycamores stand as sentinels 
above the grave of Daniel 

Upon this wild, sightly spot 
is erected, in lonely grandeur, 
a massive monument, once well 
chiseled and beautiful, but now crumbled 
and scarred by the storms that sweep 
into the valley below. Far to the right 
lies the sleepy old city of Frankfort. 
A church spire or a glittering dome here 
and there rises above its dense foliage 
and stands out in bold relief against the 
bed of green. Off to the south, the Ken- 
tucky makes a grand sweep to the left 
and is lost far up between its forest lined 
banks, only to greet the vision again 
among the distant hills, until at last it 
merges into the great sea of the horizon. 
Across the valley the hills rise gradu- 
ally, their summits forest crowned. The 
passing clouds present fantastic imagery 
of varying tints along their grassy slopes. 
On every side the view is limitless. 

Down along the face of the bluff is a 
narrow, hazardous pathway which termi- 
nates at the edge of the city. Along 
this zig-zag course is a stairway, cut by 
nature in the rocky sides. Following the 
path a few rods, it suddenly opens upon 
a wide ledge, sweeping inward. Here at 
the base of the cliff bubbles a stream of 
pure, cold, sparkling water. 

Resting by this spring one summer 
evening, just as the soft tremulous rays 
of the departing sun were creeping away 
to the horizon, and the moon and the 
stars were struggling for the mastery of 
the heavens ; with no sound save the 
distant echoes of the city bells blending 
in sweet harmony among the hills, and 


faintly conscious of the never wearying 
song of the Katy-did, I listened to the 
story of Wanita, the Indian maiden, 
whose name the spring bears, and whose 
humble grave shares with Kentucky's 
hero the lonely bluff above. 

More than a century ago, when the 
intrepid Boone, leaving his Pennsylvania 
home, was pushing headlong among un- 
paralleled dangers, into the heart of the 
beautiful blue grass region, Kentucky 
was the common hunting grounds in all 
the Mississippi low lands. No one Indian 
nation claimed exclusive right to these 
rich forest fields ; but on their hunting 
excursions many fierce feuds and wars 
were engendered. The many mounds 
scattered throughout the limits were filled 
with the bones of slain warriors, and so 
often does the farmer's plow exhume them 
that scarcely a thought is given to the sad 
remains of a once noble, though savage 
people, who fought more fiercely, wor- 
shiped more reyerently, and loved more 
passionately than the great race that in- 
vaded their territory, devastated their 
hunting grounds, and drove them to 
poverty and death. 

About the time of Boone's advent, a 
Sioux warrior loved and was loved by a 
Cherokee maid, whose father, a chief, 
was willing that the two tribes should 
be thus united. 

The lovers roamed through the forest 
or glided in Yohomo's canoe on the bosom 
of the river, whispering vows of love, 
where none but the silent rocks and the 
purring branches could share their secrets. 

The hunting season came on, and the 
forest was filled with the Cherokee and 
the Sioux. A stag, hotly pursued, sprang 
upon a rise of ground. For a moment it 
rested, then a wild plunge, and two 



arrows were quivering in its side. Like 
shadows that steal out when the moon is 
released from a cloud, two Indians rushed 
to where the animal lay. A dispute, 
and a fight followed. A short struggle 
and a blow of the tomahawk, and a 
Sioux fell sounding his death yell. In 
an instant a hundred braves sprang into 
the open, and with shouts of revenge 
fought until darkness separated them. 
Upon that day nor upon many after, 
did the fight cease. The Sioux and 
the Cherokee had dug up the hatchet. 
At the head of a band of braves Yohomo 
had gone 'deep into the forest to avenge 
the death of his brothers. 

Wanita waited. The stern old chief 
forbade her to speak of the young Sioux. 
Months passed, and yet no tidings from 
Yohomo. Wanita wandered but little 
from the wigwam. She grew listless, 
her face once radiant with health and 
dusky beauty had lost its color, and her 
eyes, which Yohomo had fondly called 
twin stars, were dimmed with tears. 

One night Wanita lay in her tent. 
Long she mused, gazing out through the 
opening of her tepee into the quiet sky. 
The deep hush of the night, broken only 
by the sighing of the breeze among the 
branches, oppressed her, and tears filled 
her eyes. 

" Wanita, Wanita." 

She listened, powerless to answer. 
Again, from the stillness of the night, 
the call was repeated. 

'" Wanita, my Wanita." 

Rising stealthily, struggling with hope 
and fear, she gazed out into the forest. 
The camp fires flickered, and the warriors 

" Come to me, Wanita," again it whis- 
pered. Yes, it was yet it could not be 

A dread thought filled her mind. Yo- 
homo was dead and his spirit called her. 
Her resolution was quickly formed. 

Without Yohomo life was nothing. 
Springing to her feet she rushed to the 
opening and whispered, " I am coming, 
my Yohomo." 

Dizzy and overcome with belief and 
fear, she knew not where she was going. 
Only to go to him, she loved. She be- 
lieved that he was near, whether in spirit 
or flesh, she stopped not to think. 

As she emerged into the shadow of 
the tree that stood above her wigwam, 
a pair of strong arms folded her in loving 
embrace and the tender voice she knew 
so well whispered again, " I am come for 
thee, Wanita. 

Joy filled her heart, but she hesitated. 

" There is war between my people 
and thine, how then will the Sioux na- 
tion welcome thy bride, a Cherokee 

" Wanita, fear not, on the bank of 
yonder stream, a sun's journey toward 
the lands of my people, is a wigwam hid- 
den by the great woods and each day the 
river washes from its banks the paths of 
yesterday. None will find us there, and 
we will live with the fleeting deer and 
the birds shall sing to us. We will for- 
sake our people, who are cruel and wrong 
us, and dwell happy in our love until the 
Manitou shall call us to the Spirit land." 

Thus did Yohomo urge in passionate 

' My Yohomo will be scorned and 
called traitor to his nation and to his peo- 
ple and his father will be tortured." 

" Wait not Wanita, our war displeases 
the Great Spirit. It is a war of ven- 
geance. Yohomo wrongs the Manitou to 
battle with his fellows. Come." 

Hand in hand they silently wended their 
way through the forest to the river. In 
Yohomo' s canoe they shot swiftly down 
the stream, and were soon far beyond 
the reach of the Cherokee. 

Next day the Cherokee nation mourned 



the loss of Wanita of all their maidens, 
the most beautiful. The great Medicine- 
man proclaimed that the Great Spirit had 
taken the loveliest maiden as a warning 
that war should cease between the Cher- 
okee and the Sioux. The old broken 
hearted Chief sent messengers of peace 
to the enemy and they, alike in great 
sorrow over the loss of Yohomo, who of 
all the young chiefs was the handsomest, 
the wisest in command, and bravest in 
battle, were glad to receive the summons. 
Thus peace again reigned between the 
Sioux and the Cherokee but Yohomo and 
Wanita knew it not. 

The sun had risen in splendor from be- 
hind the eastern hills, dew drop on flower 
and leaf had gone to slake his fiery thirst, 
when Yohomo's canoe grated the gravelly 
shore, and leaping to the land he wel- 
comed Wanita home. Joy and love were 
in his voice as he spoke ; 

" Come, on yonder cliff is our dwelling 

He led the way along a great pile of 
rocks, which were overgrown with blos- 
soming bushes, half concealing the nar- 
row pathway. Following along the face 
of the bluff and gradually ascending they 
at length came to a wide ledge. Here in 
the shadow of a cliff bubbled a stream 
of crystal water finding an outlet in a 
deep basin worn in the rocky floor. 

By the side of the spring was a wig- 
wam. Wanita gazed long on the scene 
and her heart was filled with gladness. 
The river flowed in tranquil beauty along 
the foot of the bluff and lost itself in a 
hundred curves among the distant hills. 
Across the valley great stretches of blue 
grass climbed the hillsides. It seemed 
as if Yohomo had given her all. She 
looked up triumphantly at her lover and 
placing her hands in his, said : 

" Until the Great Spirit shall take her 
beyond the setting sun, Wanita will 

dwell in this place, ever happy with her 
husband, Yohomo." 

This was their marriage. The flight 
of time only knitted more closely the 
hearts of Wanita and Yohomo. When 
her lover would go afar hunting Wanita 
was sad ; but at eventide, she would 
await his return at the top of the bluff 
and with joy welcome him back. 

Sometimes in Yohomo's canoe they 
would skim the bright surface of the 
river, and Wanita's silvery laugh would 
ring out over the waters at Yohomo's 
tales of chase. Often they would take 
long walks, and talk of the mighty trees, 
of the flowers and how they receive their 
coloring from the rainbow, of the birds 
that flew above their heads, and the rab- 
bits and squirrels that crossed their path- 
way every one of these presumably 
the abode of some departed spirit. 

At evening they would climb to the top 
of the bluff and watch the sun sink in 
purple glory behind the western hills ; 
watch until the last lingering ray tinged 
a passing cloud ; watch as the hazy twi- 
light deepened and lost its last vestige of 
color in the approaching night ; watch the 
glistening stars as each in its appointed 
time and place sparkled forth from its 

As they watched they worshiped ; 
worshiped with a pure devotion born of 
instinct, untrammeled by philosophy. 
The Manitou was their God. They wor- 
shiped him, in the sun which bore him 
in stately majesty through the heavens ; 
in the sighing zephyrs that whispered of 
peace ; in the whirlwind breathed from 
his nostrils when angered ; in the thun- 
der when he spoke his will for the whole 
earth to hear ; in the holy stars and moon, 
sweet influences of his mercy. 

Sometimes they sat silently, awed by 
the wonderful transitions of nature, but 
more often talking of their happy life 
and of the Manitou, and Wanita would 




chant a song of her people, partly of 
praise and partly of prayer, to Him they 
worshiped, the giver of all. 

There was but one cloud in the happy 
hours of gladness. Wanita had often 
noticed sadness upon the brow of Yohomo, 
and then Wanita, her mind filled with 
vague alarm and strong fancies, became 
sad and her heart was troubled. 

One evening Wanita nestled close to 
his side and looking up into his troubled 
eyes, murmured, 

"Why is Yohomo sad? Why is his 
brow like the night ? Does he pine for 
his people ; is he weary of Wanita ?" 

A great wave of troubled passionate 
tenderness came into his face and voice 
as he answered : 

" Yohomo's love for Wanita is more 
enduring than the mountains, more last- 
ing than the sun ; as long as the rivers 
shall flow, so long as the stars shall remain 
in the heavens, so long shall Yohomo love 
Wanita. If Yohomo should be called into 
the land of the setting sun without 
Wanita, he would be unhappy there." 

" Wanita will fellow Yohomo even 
where the Manitou shall call him, for 
without him she could not live ; but speak, 
why is Yohomo unhappy ?" 

" Wanita, often have 1 heard the 
fathers of my tribe speak of the anger of 
the Great Spirit at love so perfect as 
ours. He would not have his children 
too happy on earth lest they be unwilling 
to leave it for the Spirit land. This, 
Wanita, brings to my brow the shadow 
of night. Oh, Wanita, should the Mani- 
tou take thee from me never more could 
Yohomo be happy." 

" Be not troubled, Yohomo, should 
Wanita be called to the Spirit land we 
shall again be happy when Yohomo shall 
join her there." 

For a time they sat silent with clasped 
hands, then she continued : 

" Why should we fear to leave this 

world ? In the Spirit land there is happi- 
ness forever. See," she cried pointing to 
a pair of doves flying to their evening rest, 
"there are the spirits of two lovers, per- 
mitted by the Manitou to return to earth 
for a time, often have I heard my people 
say it. So shall we, Yohomo, when we 
go to dwell beyond the setting sun, re- 
turn to this our earthly home." 

Comforting each other in sweet inno- 
cence, they returned to the wigwam and 
dwelt happily in the faith of their fathers. 
Many moons came and went, and 
Yohomo and Wanita dwelt together in 
happiness. Their cliff guarded retreat 
had never been discovered. Neither 
Indian warrior nor white hunter had ap- 
peared to disturb the harmony of their 
dwelling place. 

One day Yohomo returned from the 
hunt bearing in his hand a long, keen, 
hunter's knife. His countenance was 
troubled as he told Wanita how, while 
hunting, he had discovered the lifeless 
body of a paleface and by his side was 
the knife. He anxiously cautioned her to 
be ever on the watch when he was absent, 
and to leave the wigwam as little as pos- 
sible, for he feared the paleface hunter 
would yet discover them. He gave her 
the knife as a weapon of defense. 

Weeks passed on and they were unmo- 
lested. The caution and depression caused 
by the incident were forgotten and they 
were again living in the old happy ways. 
The sun was nearing the western hills. 
Wanita, seated by the wigwam, was 
listening for the returning footsteps of 
her lover from his daily hunt. Eagerly 
she waited for the familiar sound, for he 
had been beyond his usual time, and she 
worried a little and was lonely. At length, 
hearing footsteps, she joyfully sprang to 
meet him, but suddenly she stopped, 
alarmed that it was not Yohomo's familiar 
step. Springing back to the wigwam 
she seized the knife and awaited. When 



she emerged, standing a few yards dis- 
tant, gazing in amazed wonder at the 
wigwam, stood a white hunter. 

He started as he saw her and his look 
of wonder changed to one of open admira- 
tion as his gaze rested upon her beautiful 
countenance aglow with fear and anger. 
The hunter did not stir for a moment, 
then he moved towards her, but Wanita 
reading the evil purpose in his face, 
pointed the knife to her breast, as a warn- 
ing against near approach. 

He paused, but as his eyes caught sight 
of her knife his face filled with rage and 

" Curse you !" he shouted. " That 's 
Turpie's knife. You red devils murdered 

Like a panther he sprang upon her, 
but too late. The knife had committed 
its sacrilege. 

Within that pure breast the keen steel 
had penetrated to the hilt. Her sweet 
soul had fled to the Great Manitou in re- 
fuge from threatened dishonor. Yohomo 
was making his way homeward, bearing 
on his shoulders a deer. He smiled as 
he thought how Wanita would praise his 
skill and admire his prize. As he neared 
the bluff he became conscious of a vague 
uneasy fear, impelling him onward more 
swiftly. The smile vanished from his 
countenance, and hastening more and 
more he reached the plain where the 
pathway began. Never before had Wa- 
nita failed to meet him. Dropping his 
burden he ran down the pathway. With 
a cry he sprang to the side of the lifeless 

"Wanita, Wanita," he moaned, 
" speak to me, Yohcmo calls thee." 

Never again would those pale lips 
speak on earth. Never more would Yo- 
homo be happy in life. 

" Oh, cruel Manitou," he cried, "thou 
hast taken Wanita from me. Cursed be 

Mourning, only as the broken heart 
can mourn, Yohomo remained kneeling 
at the side of the dead. Gradually he 
became calm. Wrapping his blanket 
around her form he raised her lovely head 
to his breast and gazed on the immovable 

The sun sank behind the purple cloud- 
wrapped hills : the twilight deepened 
into night. One by one the stars took 
their places in the never fading constel- 
lations and from behind the hills the 
queen of the night rose slowly toward 
the zenith and cast her silvery beams 
upon the sorrowing vigil. The solemn 
death watch continued. The moon com- 
pleted her nightly course and sank to 
rest. A grey tint overspread the sky 
The bright glitter of the stars paled be 
fore the dawn. The east became re- 
splendant with sun lit tints. 

The mourner heeded not the coming 
day. Steadily the majestic monarch of 
the clouds moved upward. Still mourned 
Yohomo insensible of nature's changes 
as again the departing rays of the sun 
melted in crimson and gold along the 
western sky. As twilight darkened, 
Yohomo arose, taking the beautiful form 
in his arms he climbed to the top of the 
bluff where her joyous voice had so often 
welcomed him, and there, beneath a great 
sycamore, he hollowed a grave and lined 
it with tender boughs and soft furs and 
here he buried her. High above the 
grave he built a monument. 

His task finished, a swift change came 
over the broken-hearted warrior. He 
was again a savage, thirsting for re- 
venge. Like a wolf he sought his vic- 
tim. In the soft earth near the spring 
were foot prints, not his nor Wanita's, 
and he followed them down the winding 
pathway. The blood mounted his tem- 
ples and vengeance filled his heart. 

Late in the afternoon of the next day 
an impulse drew him back to his desolate 



wigwam. Stealthily, he followed the 
pathway. Suddenly he stopped ; peer- 
ing through the bushes a sight met his 
gaze that filled his heart with savage 

Standing by the side of the wigwam 
was a white hunter. In his hand the 
knife that had murdered Wanita. Yo- 
homo grasped his tomahawk. Retribu- 
tion was at hand. 

The hunter, conscious stricken by the 
terrible tragedy he had caused, was filled 
with remorse. The sweet face, the wild 
beautiful eyes, were constantly before 
him. Like the ghost of the dead, an un- 
seen avenger pursued him. Swiftly he 
had fled heeding not his course. That 
night and all day he had wandered. 

In the deep forest he lost his bear- 
ings. As evening approached he dis- 
covered to his horror that he was wan- 
dering back to his starting point. A 
terrible fear overcame him, but he pushed 
on, though he felt he was walking to his 

Yohomo leaped upon his prey. Nerved 
by fear and terror the hunter with almost 
superhuman force warded off the blows. 
They grappled. Fierce and terrible was 
the struggle. The two strong bodies 
swayed to and fro like trees in a gale. 
Blood flowed from many cuts and gashes. 
The little stream that trickled from the 
spring ran crimson. Buoyed up by hate 
and revenge, the Indian fought with ter- 
rible endurance. The hunter sank to 
his knees. 

Wrenching free his hands, Yohomo 
grasped him by the wrists and forced the 
knife from his nerveless hand. 

Twisting the helpless arm over the 
hunter's head, Yohomo plunged his knife 
into his heart. For an instant he gazed 

at the body, then with fierce fury he took 
it in his arms and cast it far over the bluff 
and watched it smash headlong on the 
rocks below. 

Exhausted from his loss of blood he 
staggered. Victory was his and a mo- 
mentary joy o'er spread his face, and 
filled his soul, but his great sorrow rose 
to his mind and he gazed with tear dim- 
med eyes toward the sky. An intense 
agony overcame his senses. He longed for 
death. He praised the Manitou for his 
revenge and supplicated forgiveness for 
the curse he had sworn. 

"Oh, Manitou," he cried, "take me 
to Wanita." 

He heeded not the waning day. Sud- 
denly, as if new life had come to him, he 
arose and scanned the sky. A plain- 
tive cry reached his ears from the cliff 

In the deepening twilight, soaring in 
graceful cycles, a dove flew round and 
round and ever and anon a call broke 
the silence. 

A great wave of joy filled Yohomo's 
soul. He bared his swarthy breast to 
the sky and his eyes filled with an un- 
earthly joy. He seized his hunting knife 
and stretching his arms upwards toward 
the bird, he cried: 

" Wanita, I come, I come." 

As his lifeless form sank to the ground 
a speck appeared against the sunset 
clouds. Straight it came to the turtle 
dove. An answering cry from the ap- 
proaching dove and these sweet messen- 
gers of peace joined in the high air. 

They hovered for a moment over the 
body of Yohomo, and then they soared 
from the cliff out across the shimmering 
river and disappeared into the sunset 

Edwin WiLiiujn. 


O do successful work of any kind 
one must have three elements 
of strength. First, he must have some 
knowledge of the material on which he is 
to work, of the tools which he is to use, 
and of the finished product which he is to 
secure. Second, he must have some 
knowledge of the underlying principles 
that govern his work, which knowledge 
necessitates his taking note of what 
others have done in the same line, of 
their successes and failures, and of the 
causes that led to them. Third, he must 
have power and skill to apply his know- 

The first is the culture side, without 
which neither of the other steps can be 
taken. The second is the scientific side. 
These (the culture side and the scientific) 
may be acquired by study and observa- 
tion. The third is the art side, using the 
term in the active sense ; and this can 
be acquired only through practice. 

I wish to emphasize this third element 
of power. The progress of the world, 
the elevation of mankind, call for work, 
not for knowledge and theory alone ; for 
work that involves dexterity ; for trained 
workers ; and for the practical results 
that should flow from knowledge. With- 
out this, any field of study, any system 
of education, must lead to comparative 
failure. The education of teachers is not 
an exception to these statements. Grant- 
ing this, then, we arrive at some con- 

i Extracts from an address delivered before the South- 
ern California Teachers' Association, I,os Angeles. 


elusion as to the necessary preparation 
of those who should constitute the 
" teaching force " of the State. 

I need not emphasize the first two 
phases of a teacher's preparation. I pro- 
pose simply to point out one most im- 
portant phase of this preparation, and 
the most feasible and economical way of 
gaining skill in the application of its prin- 

Two things are of coordinate impor- 
tance to one who would succeed as a 
teacher of children: one is an understand- 
ing of the subject-matter to be taught, 
and the other is a knowledge of the child. 

Beginning with Comenius, the educa- 
tional reformers, have not only claimed 
that there are some well-defined prin- 
ciples underlying all correct teaching, but 
also that these must be learned through 
observation of the child and his mental 
processes. " Every educational reform/' 
says Stanley Hall, "has been the result 
of closer personal acquaintance with 
children and youth and deeper insight 
into their needs and life." The teacher 
who would know this psychology of child- 
hood must study it inductively ; that is, 
by observation of the children them- 
selves. He must not depend on the 
statements and generalizations of others, 
except as an aid to the better under- 
standing of the individual child. 

Skill is also necessary in his work, as 
in every other calling. This skill must 
not be the result of mere mechanical 
habit; and it can be gained only by 
actual work with the class. Without 
this power of adaptability, a teacher 
is likely to make two errors: If with- 
out professional training of any kind, 
he will talk too much ; and most of this 



talk will be' over the heads of his pupils, 
the more so- perhaps as his knowledge of 
the subject is great. And though a 
teacher may add pedagogic theory to sub- 
ject knowledge, he may yet fail, utterly, 
in his attempts^ to apply his theory to 
the needs of a class. ' How can a teacher 
make use of apperception that basic 
principle of nearly al.l gain in knowledge 
unless he knows from experience how 
to get hold of the real child and find out 
what and how he thinks ? 

Now, where can this experience be 
gained so cheaply and effectually as in a 
well-conducted training school ? By the 
very establishment of State Normal 
Schools, and the character of the work in 
them, it seems to me that two ideas are 
clearly recognized, viz.: that the principle 
of acquiring skill through practice is 
essential, and that it is the duty of the 
State to provide means for the profes- 
sional training of its teachers. 

It is a notable fact that in the first 
pedagogical seminary in Europe, the one 
established by Ratich at Kothen in 1619, 
practice was combined with theory, and 
the students were required to give model 
lessons. Another of the earliest teachers' 
seminaries about which we know any- 
thing very definite, the one connected 
with Francke's Pedagogium at Halle in 
1704, was the outgrowth of the plan that 
he had of allowing poor pupils to aid in 
the work of instruction. When these 
pupils left his school to teach independ- 
ently, their success was so marked in 
comparison with that of other teachers, 
that Francke's institution became noted 
throughout Europe. Hecker afterwards 
established two such schools, the one at 
Berlin in 1748, receiving aid from the 
Government. Gedike's school, partially 
professional in character, was also recog- 
nized by the Government. 

Germany now has about two hundred 
Normal Schools. 

France, since 1879, has done more in 
the same length of time to provide trained 
teachers for her schools than has any 
other country. In 1892 there were 172 
Normal colleges in the country, every de- 
partment having been compelled by law 
in 1886 to support two primary Normal 
Schools, one for each sex. The organi- 
zation of these schools was a matter of 
much dispute in the educational con- 
gress in Paris in 1889, but the follow- 
ing resolutions were unanimously adopted 
by the General Assembly : 

" A practicing school is indispensable for the 
professional education of pupils in a training 

"The practicing school will be attached to the 
training colleges. 

"The practicing school ought to be of the same 
type as the majority of the primary schools to 
which the students will be sent on leaving the 

As in Germany, the course of study 
covers three years, the age of admission 
is from sixteen to eighteen, and all of the 
students are required to teach in the es- 
tablished practice school. 

The educational history of Europe 
shows us that nearly every country has 
a system of training teachers, which in- 
cludes not only the theory of teaching, 
but also the actual practice of the art 
under competent critics. The Normal 
School idea has appeared even in the 
countries of South America ; and the Jap- 
anese, "the Anglo-Saxons of the east," 
not to lag behind in the march of progress, 
have a most elaborate system of teachers' 
schools, that we might well imitate. 

When, after the war of 1812, the States 
were bankrupt, there arose a question, 
" What can be done to strengthen the 
republic ? " and the accepted answer 
was, "Give its citizens intelligence." 
Interest in the schools aroused interest in 
the "teaching force " ; and later we find 
the legislature of New York authorizing 
many of the academies of the State to 


22 r 

spend part of the public money allotted 
to them for the special purpose of educat- 
ing teachers of the common schools. 
This plan was not a marked success, 
since the students in the teachers' classes 
received only "the same kind of instruc- 
tion in the academic subjects as students 
preparing for business or for college." 

We owe to Horace Mann's energy and 
his interest in public schools the appro- 
priation of money by the Massachusetts 
legislature for the first Normal School in 
America. He truly felt that " Neither a 
free press nor free suffrage can long exist 
to any beneficial purpose without the 
training of teachers." As the first shot 
fired at Lexington roused the people to 
action from Georgia to Maine, so this first 
Normal School, located on the same con- 
secrated ground, gave an impetus to 
public education that now carries with it 
the promise of a better liberty the free- 
dom from ignorance and vice. 

Normal schools'have continued to grow 
in favor in the United States, till there 
are now over 150 supported wholly, or 
in part, by the State governments, with at 
least 30,000 students. They graduate 
yearly about 5,000 teachers. While I 
recognize the fact that they may not 
give the broadest culture, while I am 
well aware that many of them do not 
give much educational science and phil- 
osophy, I am thoroughly convinced that 
any one preparing to teach in our ele- 
mentary schools, finds in the Normal 
School special advantages and acquires 
pedagogical habits unattainable else- 

First, he pursues a course of study 
planned especially to prepare him for 
teaching, not merely a general course 
equally well adapted to any and all call- 
ings. Each subject in the curriculum 
must be viewed " in all its aspects, with 
its antecedents and consequents," that 
the prospective teacher may be able to 

lead other minds to a clear comprehen- 
sion of its. essential principles. This 
consideration of each subject from a 
teacher's standpoint is of no -small im- 
portance in putting the student-teacher 
in the right relation to his future work. 
Besides this, in many Normal Schools 
the students are early made acquainted 
with the mental processes involved in 
learning different subjects, in this way 
being prepared at the outset to do some 
inductive work in psychology. 

Second, aside from observing the ex- 
emplification of principles and methods 
in the training school, aside from practice 
in teaching which is necessary to the 
attainment of skill,- there is the personal 
contact with children so essential to a 
real knowledge of educational psychol- 

This personal contact with the child, 
as Miss Haskill, of the Worcester Normal 
School, well says, "creates intelligent 
interest, sympathetic curiosity ; a feeling 
of charm in the tentative acts, in the 
curiosities, the failures, the make-shifts, 
the easily satisfied desires, the imperious 
demands, and the unalloyed enjoyments 
of the infant man." 

Third, the Normal School student 
breathes a pedagogical atmosphere, so to 
speak, which has no slight influence in 
preparing him for his chosen work. The 
artist spirit can develop most rapidly and 
effectually in an atmosphere of art, sur- 
rounded by art and associated with those 
who think art, and who encourage artist 
aims and desires ; it must have a chance 
to become acquainted with beauty in all 
its varied forms. 

A fourth important advantage gained 
is a certain mental momentum that im- 
pels students forward in the direction of 
the work for which they are preparing. 
This has a great bearing on the educa- 
tional advancement of the State. It is 
one of the reasons why Normal graduates 



stay longer than others in the work of 
teaching. When student-teachers under 
helpful guidance enjoy their work in the 
training department, when they come to 
their teachers cheerfully asking for direc- 
tion and criticism, there is a great prob- 
ability that they will continue in this 
spirit. . 

Through their training in the school, 
Normal students acquire an enthusiasm, 
as well as a momentum, that sends 
them to their chosen work, not merely 
intending to teach for a year or two to 
earn a little money, but, inspired by the 
nobility of the " election wherewith they 
are called," as the true " teaching force " 
of the State. And this in fact they be- 
come, not only by their work in the 
schools, but also by their influence over 
other teachers who have not had their 
advantages. The enthusiasm they have 
acquired inspires them with a love for 
their work ; and the momentum they 
have gained keeps them abreast of the 

I might continue to note points in favor 
of Normal-trained teachers, but I will 
speak of only one more. That, however, 
is, to my mind, the most important. Be- 
ginning their course with a special object 
in view, earnest, often anxious, to attain 
success in their preparation, Normal 
School students bend every energy for 
the accomplishment of their purpose, 
and thus, with few exceptions, keep 
toned up to the full measure of their 
ability. This purposeful work and the 
thought of their future responsibilities 
keep them in such straight paths of ex- 
emplary conduct and duty that they form 
habits of rectitude which greatly aid 
them to withstand the temptations of the 
world. This is a marked result of the 
training of our Normal Schools. By far 
the greater proportion of our graduates 
are pure, earnest, thoughtful, and right- 
minded men and women, worthy, in these 

most essential respects, to be guides to 
the young. 

If what I have said in regard to Nor- 
mal-trained teachers be true, we have a 
right to suppose that through them ben- 
eficial results to the cause of popular 
education have been secured, even dur- 
ing the short period of their existence. 

The Normal School has shown that it 
is possible to train teachers for better 
work, as it is possible to train for better 
work in any other calling. Most of our 
Normal graduates do good work from the 
very beginning of their teaching career. 
To put them in every district school of 
the State would be to save to the people 
an enormous amount of time and energy 
lost through the awkward experiments of 
untrained tyros, to say nothing of the 
pernicious effects of such experiments on 
the unformed characters of our children. 

The Normal Schools have exercised a 
great influence in arousing other teachers 
to do better work, and in creating a de- 
mand for better methods of instruction. 
Gradually they are " leavening the whole 
lump.'* During the fifty odd years of 
their existence they have done more to 
give general confidence in public educa- 
tion ' than has any other single influ- 
ence. Without them most of our teach- 
ers would still enter the work through the 
examination door. Their chief prepara- 
tion would be to cram themselves with a 
few facts, their only expectation to drift 
about from school to school and drift 
out of the work altogether as quickly as 

" But," say some of the friends of 
popular education, "though we may ad- 
mit the truth of all you say, yet we be- 
lieve that the Normal Schools have to a 
great extent outlived their usefulness. 
We now demand a more thorough pre- 
paration for teaching than they can give. 
We ought to have a ' teaching force ' 
that, to a college course as foundation, 



have added special training in the Peda- 
gogical Department of some University, 
or in some strictly professional Normal 
School. The Normal Schools should no 
longer stretch out their hands to the boys 
and girls from the grammar schools and 
attempt to furnish at one and the same 
time a training both academic and pro- 
fessional. Such a policy necessarily 
results in shallow work that turns out, 
at best, not artists, only artisans." 

Without quoting further, 1 assure our 
critic friends that I and my co-workers 
know the deficiencies of our schools better 
than we can be told. The critics utterly 
fail to appreciate the situation, largely 
because they fail also in true sympathy 
toward the cause of universal education. 
The Normal Schools were established to 
prepare teachers for the common schools, 
and this is still their true mission. They 
are confronted with the plain, practical 
question, " How may we elevate a great, 
cosmopolitan mass of people into an or- 
ganic, intelligent, and patriotic nation ? " 
From this " people" by far the greater 
number of our teachers must come, and 
the "teaching force" can be elevated 
only by reaching down to the people's 
schools and first lifting them to a higher 
plane. Suppose from the time of their 
establishment our Normal Schools had 
admitted only college or even high school 
graduates ? Our common schools would 
be today without even their ten per cent 
of teachers possessing some degree of 
special training. They would be utterly 
given over to the guidance of the peda- 
gogically lame and halt and blind. Little 
by little Normal graduates have raised 
the standard of work in our elementary 
schools until now the Normal Schools are 
beginning to feel the effects in better 
prepared students. This has been not- 
ably the case durin-g the last ten years. 
In proportion as country and village 
schools have improved, high schools have 

multiplied, until now in some States over 
fifty per cent of those entering Normal 
Schools are high school graduates. 

If all who desire to teach could first be 
tried by the tests applied in our Normal 
Schools, great gain would result to the 
country. Few know how many enter 
the Normals only to be speedily im- 
pressed with the fact that they lack 
either mental ability to do the work, or 
the peculiar qualifications necessary to a 
teacher. These give up the idea of im- 
posing themselves upon the children of 
the State, when, if it had not been for 
their brief Normal experience, they 
would have crammed up for the county 
examination and have become fully cer- 
tificated teachers. Few know of the rigid 
"weeding out" at the close of each 
term ; and no one can ever know of the 
devotion to duty and the conscientious- 
ness of the teachers in our Normal 
Schools, nor how carefully the fitness of 
each student is considered before he is 
given a diploma. Few understand the 
difficulties under which the work is car- 
ried forward. 

Under existing circumstances, it is 
absolutely necessary, if the Normal 
Schools are to fulfill their true mission, 
that they receive students from the 
public schools. As all who enter are 
not equally well prepared, it requires a 
constant effort to provide for their har- 
monious development. The time given 
to our Normal course has not been long 
enough, and the course, therefore, has 
not covered enough ground. Every step 
in advance in this direction has been 
made in the face of decided opposition 
to a more extended course, urged by a 
few ill-advised advocates of supposed 

Why have our Normal Schools done 
little else than prepare their students in 
a somewhat shallow way to teach in 
primary and grammar schools, as is often 



asserted by our college and university 
comrades ? Why have they plodded 
along without any great manifestation of 
ambition, content to do what lay in 
their power for the students under their 
charge ? Why have they not taken 
rank in the field of pedagogy, in special 
training for special work, with other 
professional schools ? Why have they 
not given the facilities for this special 
work that are now to be had in some of 
our universities ? Why, indeed ? 

Because their immense influence for 
good has been so gradual in its effects 
that they have not been sufficiently ap- 
preciated to secure for them a support 
commensurate with their importance to 
the community, a support in proportion 
to that received by other institutions 
maintained for the general good. 

Last year there were in the three 
Normal Schools of California over 1,200 
students. Nearly three hundred gradu- 
ates were sent out, carrying their whole- 
some influence into every part of the 
State. The State expended $89, 500 for 
the support of these schools, or $75 per 
student. The Normal Schools of Ger- 
many, France, and other countries cost 
the several governments not less than 
four times that amount per student. 
Geimany appreciating individual instruc- 
tion, assigns in her Normal Schools an 
average of only ten students to each 
teacher, and the same wise provision is 
made for most of our State universities, 
while we must do what we can with 
nearly four times that number per 

How, then, under these conditions, 
can more be expected of our Normal 
Schools than they are doing ? Little 
time is left to our over-worked teachers 
for investigation, as most of them teach 
these large classes from fifteen to twenty 
hours per week. This is poor policy, 
not only because it robs our Faculties of 

time to work out some of the great edu- 
cational problems confronting us, but 
also because it deprives our future teach- 
ers of the individual attention necessary 
to the best training. 

1 consider that our California Normals 
made a great step in advance by adding 
one year to their course. It has allowed 
us to plan courses for high school gradu- 
ates and for teachers who hold first grade 
certificates. The number who are al- 
ready enrolled in these courses shows 
the estimation in which the Normal 
School is held, and the growing desire 
for improvement on the part of teachers. 
While 1 am not in sympathy with the 
idea that Normal Schools should have in 
their curriculum no subjects that are 
found in High Schools, I believe they 
should raise their standards of admission 
as rapidly as the condition of the schools 
below them will admit. Thus, the Nor- 
mal School of the future will be able to 
do better work, because it will have bet- 
ter material. 

It will also have well-equipped libraries 
and laboratories and pedagogical mus- 
eums. The future Normal School will 
have different phases of manual training, 
fitting teachers to lead the coming gener- 
ations of boys and girls to do as well as 
to know. The training school will ex- 
ist not merely for the purpose of allow- 
ing student-teachers to practice, nor 
alone for the exemplification of the prin- 
ciples that must underlie all good teach- 
ing , it will be a teaching laboratory, 
where advanced ideas, the result of child- 
study in the same department, may be 
wrought out In practice, and where re- 
sults may be noted for the benefit of all 
schools. Finally, this future Normal 
School will have what is indispensable if 
it is to attain its legitimate end, viz.: the 
necessary financial support to allow the 
engagement of enough teachers so that 
some of them at least may have time for 



the thought that is essential to all intel- 
lectual progress. 

It is plain that under existing circum- 
stances the "teaching force" must be 
drawn largely from the Normal Schools. 
So long as salaries range only from $400 
to $800, even in this State, where they 
are higher than in the .majority of the 
States, college and university trained 
teachers will not compete for positions in 
the common schools. I know that some 
of our friends say it is better to have a 
few who are highly trained, and to de- 
pend on them to elevate their co-workers, 
than to have all our teachers partly 
trained. I disagree with them. If their 
plan were carried into effect, the country 
schools would feel scarcely any influence 
from advanced educational movements. 
Those who appreciate the importance of 
the country in the economy of the nation, 
will grant that " the trained teacher who 
even partially understands her vocation ; 
who is fruitful in expedients to interest 
children and arouse their ambition, is 
needed in the country schools even more 
than in the city schools. In the country 
district, the school depends very largely 
upon the teacher ; she is subject to but 
little supervision ; she is not often brought 
in contact with other teachers, apd in 
her little domain she reigns almost su- 
preme. Outside of and beyond their 
daily lessons, her influence over her 
pupils ought to make itself felt for good." 

Even in the city schools, though we 
may appoint " Generals and Field Marsh- 
als for teaching," it must be admitted 
that it is wise to require some training of 
the forces that work under their direction. 
We may rear a few philosophers who 
may settle many of the questions now 
before us. They may decide upon the 
relative values of subjects, and make an 
ideal curriculum ; they may determine 
the best plan of correlation, and build, in 
theory, a grand educational structure ; 

VOL. xxviii. 15. 

but with it all, our schools will never ad- 
vance in excellence unless we have 
teachers who are fitted to attack, with 
some degree of skill and self-reliance, the 
individual problems that rise in the every- 
day work of every school-room. 

As for the common schools, I can rejoice 
that they stand in need of no champion- 
ship. Our republic will always realize 
that the benefits derived from free edu- 
cation are given back to the State by the 
ever-increasing wealth and intelligence 
of the people. It follows that the State 
ought not only to assume the responsi- 
bility of ordering and supervising her 
system of free education, but also to insist 
on the proper preparation of her teachers, 
especially those who have charge of ele- 
mentary education the only education a 
large majority of her people ever get. 

The State can spend money to no bet- 
ter advantage than to support, liberally, 
Normal Schools enough to meet this call. 
California spends yearly almost $ 500,000 
on her prisons and reformatories, and 
$75,000 on the National Guard-; the Nor- 
mal Schools of California cost annually 
less than $100,000. Let this proportion- 
ate expenditure be reversed, and crime, 
with its attendant necessity for prisons, 
guards, and reformatories, would soon be 
reduced to a minimum. 

Of the teachers of Germany ninety- 
five per cent have had special training, 
of France, sixty per cent, and of England, 
forty per cent, while less than ten per 
cent of the teachers of this country have 
been trained for their work. If those 
countries, with their comparatively hom- 
ogeneous peoples, see the necessity for 
such a large proportion of Normal teach- 
ers, how much greater is our need, in 
order that our mixed multitudes from the 
ends of the earth may bequeath to their 
descendants an understanding and appre- 
ciation of the liberties that have been be- 
queathed to us ? 



In view of all these facts and require- 
ments, ought the special mission of the 
Normal School to be questioned for an 
instant ? Or is there any reason for be- 
lieving that any other institutions, or de- 
partments of institutions, can, now or at 
any time in the near future, take the 
place of such schools in our educational 
system ? 

They are the only schools that offer an 
opportunity for training in both 'theory 
and practice of teaching, and the only 
ones that offer any means of testing the 
teaching power of the student before he 
goes out a certificated teacher. They are 
the only schools whose definite aim is to 
reach and up-lift the common schools, 
and through them, the whole body of 
the people ; they are the only schools, in 
fact, that stand close enough to the com- 
mon schools to feel intelligent sympathy 
with their needs, and to realize their par- 
amount importance. 

The Normal Schools must never degen- 
erate into the mere mechanical workshops 
for learning " devices," which some seem 

to think they are, nor, what would be 
still worse, into mere academies of dead 
scholasticism. Upon their teachers and 
principals is laid the high duty to discern 
between the false and the true in educa- 
tion. In the spirit of this discernment, 
and by means of the " Teaching Force," 
they must move upon the chaotic waters 
of elementary instruction, until a light 
shall dawn upon the minds of men that 
will demand for every child its birthright 
of rational training ; until our public 
schools shall provide for our children a 
well-balanced, harmonious development 
of the entire being mental, moral, and 
physical ; until every district high school 
shall be a well-equipped polytechnic in- 
stitute, where may be gathered "the 
practical results that should flow from 
knowledge," and where our sons and 
daughters may be trained for the inevit- 
able duties of citizenship and of life. 

Is this " a vision of the ideal " ? Well, 
be it so. " The ideal is God's promise 
of expanding life to every human soul," 
and to nations and institutions as well. 

Edward T. Pierce, 
Principal of State Normal School, 
Los Angeles, Cal. 




THIS is her face, who loves thee more than life ! 

Think, when thou lookest on her pictured face, 
" This hair no hand but mine has e'er caressed ; 
These lips no lover's lips but mine have pressed ; 
These truthful eyes upon no rival shine ; 
All that I see is mine, and only mine ! " 

So shalt thou learn to prize the single grace 
Of sole surrender, in thy promised wife ! 

This is her face, whom thou hast sworn to love ! 

Think deeper, while thine eyes devour her face, 
" This cannot change, but she I love must fade ! 
Tears soon will dim these eyes, for laughter made ; 
This brow be lined with care, these locks turn white, 
Yet shall my love outlive the mournful sight ! " 

Tho' envious time steal every youthful grace, 
So shall each theft a deathless passion prove ! 

Elaine Goodale Eastman. 

THAT GIFTED French phil- 
On philosopher Chateaubriand 

International once wrote: 

Arbitration. "S'il existait, au millieu de 
I' Europe, un tribunal qui 
jugeat, au nom de Dieu, les nations et les mon- 
arques, et qui prevint les guerres et les revolu- 
tions, ce tribunal serait le chef-d'oeuvre de la 
politique et le dernier degre de la perfection 

Chateaubriand was not gifted with the pro- 
phetic eye ; for we are no nearer to the millenium 
in this year of grace than we were at the time 
the illustruous Frenchman penned the above quo- 
tation. With Spain at war with her richest 
colony, engaged in a war of cruelty and ferocity 
unequalled in civilized annals, when the cable 
brings news of the deliberate and horrible butchery 
of non-combatants ; France, so far from follow- 
ing the line of thought of one of its greatest 
scholars is lending, through her newspapers, its 
moral support to uphold a tottering monarchy. 
The ruling faction of Spain, a bureaucracy honey- 
corned with a corruption as vile as that which 
afflicted China at the time of its war with Japan, 
sends to Cuba a fit representative in the person 
of General Weyler. From canefields burned 
and desolate homes, from every household and 
fireside, from every citizen of that unfortunate 
Island who remembered the last visit of this 
scourge came a shudder of shame, and if Butcher 
Weyler has not outdone the atrocities of his 
former campaign, it is because of fear, not of 
these down-trodden and tax-ridden Islanders, but 
of the power of the United States. But France, 
instead of aiding to bring one more nation into 
the array of republics of the world, is under- 
handedly lending her influence in the council of 
nations to decrepit Spain, and nullifying by all 
the power of her press the good offices of the 
United States. 


ENGLAND through its Loh- 
The don Courts is amusing the 

Transvaal public with a farce trial of 
Crime. Jamison and his raiders. 
Although there is no appar- 
ent intention to punish " Doctor Jim " and the 
other freebooters for their crimes, it must be a 
great humiliation for a nation like England that 
has in an almost unchecked manner devoured 
African kingdoms and Indian principalities. In 
almost any direction from the Home Office across 
the fair face of Nature is the conscienceless track 
of the commercial Englishman in his quest of 

Afghanistan Punjaub, Burmah, the southern 
Provinces of Siam, Venezuela, Rhodesia, Orange 
Free State, Transvaal and innumerable little 
Zulu kingdoms all bear the ugly stamp of the 
leprous hand of English aggression. It is not 
that England Is suffering at the present time with 
an attack of virtuous indignation, it is that Eng- 
land was caught in the act and that it has no 
excuse for the indefensible actions of its Rhodes' 
and the other colonial thieves of lesser or greater 
degree that have passed into history. 

THERE are things that one 
A Plea does not care to say in an 

for attempt to describe the won- 

Yosemite. ders and glories of Yosemite. 
It is a descent from the 
sublime to the petty to mention, in the same 
breath, the most awe inspiring works of the Cre- 
ator and the infantile mistakes of man. 

I would not keep one person from viewing the 
marvelous valley by harping on the fact that 
its beautiful floor has, through fear of newspaper 
criticism and foolish arrogance, been given up to 
a jungle of underbrush and myriads of mos- 
When the white man first came upon the val- 



ley its floor was a succession of charming mead- 
ows. Indians, herds'of deer and forest fires kept 
it as clear of brush and dead limbs as Golden 
Gate Park and the view of its wonderful falls 
and majestic domes was unobstructed. Pines, 
spruces, mountain mahogany flourished and 
made wooded parks where meadows were not 
possible. It was all in perfect keeping with the 
highest conception of nature's own landscape. 
Such a thing as a mosquito was unknown. To- 
day all this is changed. A little band of dis- 
gusted fault finders and self-important critics 
sent up a cry that nature was being desecrated, 
that the cutting of a single stick within the con- 
fines of the valley was an act of vandalism and 
a half dozen distant journals echoed the wail. 
It had its effect and today the sight-seer in Yo- 
semite is literally buried in a thicket of scrub oak 
and cottonwood. In order to get a view of the 
valley he must ascend to a 3,000 foot elevation. 
The primeval meadows are gone, the original 
parks are lost. The mosquitoes have come and 
in another five years the Stoneman House (the 
State Hotel) will only be visible from Inspiration 
or Glacier Point. There is not a man in the 
valley, inhabitant, or tourist, that does not de- 
plore this condition of things and yet they are 
all afraid to protest. 

What the valley needs and what it will get 
sooner or later is a complete " brushing out." is not done by order, it will be done by some 
camper's fire, and if a fire ever does start, it will 
take everything bridges, hotel, and inhabi- 
tants. The river banks need attention, the 
trails need repairing, and a system of irrigation 
ditches need to be built so as to wet the roads 
daily. A little sense and a little money can 
make Yosemite as near perfect as anything can 
be on this foot stool. This subject is respectfully 
referred to the honorable Yosemite Commission. 

AS a voter and tax payer, 
Silver I am glad that at last the 

versus long expected duel between 

Gold. Silver and Gold is going to 

be fought to a finish. What- 
ever one's party affiliations may be, whatever 
his own convictions, he should be willing that 
his neighbor should have a fair and impartial 
hearing. The silver sentiment has become 
stronger year by year, until today it is a ques- 
tion whether or not the majority of the tax 
payers in the whole country do not believe in 
restoring silver to its place under the Constitu- 
Five years, even one year ago, Senators 

Stewart, Dubois, Bland, Bryan, and their little 
party of irreconcilables in Congress were looked 
upon as "cranks" and voted nuisances. It 
must be a great and almost a marvelous satis- 
faction to them, even if their nominee is not 
elected, to know and feel the change of senti- 
ment regarding their cause and themselves. One 
cannot but compare them to the despised aboli- 
tionists of before the war. 

The times have been bad during the past four 
years. What the causes are it is unnecessary 
to hazard a guess. The political orator invari- 
ably blames bad times to the administration in 
power. Be this as it may, the working people, 
the poor, the great middle class, know that 
something is out of joint. They have tried high 
protective tariffs and low protective tariffs, and 
have seen money getting tighter from day to day 
and their mortgages growing in spite of their 
labor and economy. 

Senator Stewart tells them that the free coin- 
age of silver will give them relief. They are 
willing to make the experiment on the basis that 
they have nothing more to lose and everything 
to gain. Now comes the opportunity for the 
financial writer and thinker. To him the mass 
look for a clear, simple statement of the contro- 
versy between the two metals. 

Even the campaign watchword of the Demo- 
cratic party 16 to i is more or less Greek to 
the masses. Who will explain the real difference 
between the purchasing power of the silver and 
the gold dollar as it circulates today. The work- 
man sees the difference. To him they are 
exchangable. His arguments are based on his 
own narrow experience at the grocery and with 
the milkman. One buys as much flour or to- 
bacco as the other. 

In the June and July OVERLANDS Irving M. 
Scott, Gov. W. J. McConnell of Idaho, and 
Bankers Story and Valentine have tried to make 
these and many other points clear. Read them 
and you will become familiar with the best argu- 
ments on both sides. It is not the province of a 
magazine to advise its readers editorially how to 
vote, but is it within its province to publish in its 
pages the live questions of the campaign, and 
this it will continue to do, trusting thereby to be 
of some educational benefit to its vast reading 

Charles Warren Stoddard. 

PROFESSOR STODDARD keeps Bachelor's 
Hall in "The Bungalow, "at 300 M, St., Washing- 
ton. The place is an ideal home for a poet, and 
is embowered in trees ; a little park with a foun- 



tain is separated from the private grounds by a 
footpath known as " Lover's Lane." 

" The Bungalow " is hidden like a nest among 
the trees, and the windows of the study open 
among the bird-haunted branches of a wide- 
spreading catalpa. The rooms are filled with 
books, rare pictures and bric-a-brac the pre- 
cious souvenirs of many years' wandering over 
the globe. 

Stoddard's poetry is warm in color, and full of 
melody : he never offends the finer sense of the 
ear. Some of his poems are perfect word-paint- 
ings of scenes in the tropics. Critics such as 
Joaquin Miller, Howells, Buchanan and Kipling, 
place him "on a plane of literary art consider- 
ably higher than that occupied by most litera- 
teurs of the day." 

The genial professor leads the life of a literary 
recluse, attending his classes regularly, how- 
ever, but returning to the "Bungalow," he 
buries himself there among his household gods. 
He seldom visits his friends preferring to receive 
them in his Bohemian quarters, where they are 
always assured of a warm welcome. He is 
very popular, and is cordial and informal to a 

Mr. Stoddard began writing for publications 
when he was only sixteen years old, and since 
that time has contributed to innumerable period- 
icals in the United States, England, Australia, 
and Hawaii. His collected works would doubt- 
less fill a score or more of volumes. 

His first book of poetry was published in 1867, 
and received warm praise from the critics. In 
1892, "South Sea Idyll," revised, with an intro- 
duction by his friend, William D. Howells, was 
published. Of these beautiful poems of the 
South Sea, Howells says, " He produced the 
lightest, sweetest, wildest, freshest things that 
ever were written about the life of that summer 
ocean." At present the professor is enjoying 
good health, and is hard at work on a new 

Among the many deserved honors that have 
been conferred upon him is that of Doctor of 
Literature by the Catholic University, and re- 
cently the honorary degree of D. H. L. 

The Orphan's bouquet, Boston. 

A Note on the Purchase of Alaska. 

AT A meeting of the Board of Supervisors of 
the City and County of San Francisco on the 
i4th of June, 1869, on motion of Supervisor 
Nunan, a resolution was unanimously adopted 
providing for the appointment of a committee of 
three Supervisors, who, with the Mayor and 

such citizens as they might invite to participate 
were directed to meet the Honorable William H. 
Seward on his arrival in San Francisco, and 
tender to him the hospitality of the City. The 
Committee was then and there appointed, and 
an invitation, which I accepted, was given to me 
by the Committee to accompany them. 

On a beautiful afternoon, June igth, we went 
aboard the Sacramento steamer to meet at 
Benicia the Yosemite, which was coming down 
the Sacramento River with the great American 
statesman on board. We found at Benicia a large 
concourse of citizens, waiting anxiously to see and 
give a hearty greeting to the distinguished ex- 
Secretary of State, who amid internecine war 
and strife had piloted the Ship of State into a 
haven of rest and security. 

The steamer Yosemite was soon alongside of 
the wharf, and cheer upon cheer was given for 
the great statesman as he appeared upon the 
hurricane deck. He addressed the assembled 
citizens in a few formal words. The Committee 
went aboard the steamer, and proceeded directly 
to where Governor Seward was standing. As 
soon as the steamer was again under headway I 
had the pleasure of introducing each member of 
the Committee to him and was in turn introduced 
by one of them. We proceeded immediately to 
the parlor of the pilot-house, where with good 
cheer we entertained one of the greatest men of 
our country. We found him affable and com- 
municative. He made many inquiries about the 
Pacific Coast and its people. He asked each 
member of the Committee where he was from 
and length of residence in this State. Upon 
being informed that I was from western New 
York, he said he knew my father well and made 
some" complimentary remarks about him. 

This gave me an opportunity to converse free- 
ly with him, and I said that the people of the 
Pacific Coast were grateful to him for the annex- 
ation of Alaska, and if it was not presuming too 
much we would be pleased to know how the 
treaty was brought about He said, in reply, 
that there is usually a private history in national 
treaties, that rarely becomes historical, and there" 
was one in this. 

Then he gave us the following narrative : 

Foreign treaties are negotiated by the Secretary 
of State through the foreign Minister, and in this 
case, in the most informal manner. You know 
Russia has always been our friend, and rendered 
us eminent service during the Civil War. 

I w.-is on terms of intimacy and friendship with 
Mr. Stoeckl, the Russian Minister at Washing- 
ton, while I was Secretary of State. One day he 



came to my office with a bundle of dispatches, 
and as he came in he said : 

" Seward, the Yankees are raising the devil on 
the Northwest Coast; what shall we do with 
them ? I have just received these dispatches 
from our Governor Maxitoff, and they inform me 
your people are interfering with their furs and 

I replied in a half-joking way, "Sell us the 

He asked, " What will you give for it? " 
, 1 said, " $5,000,000. " 

He replied that he did not think his master 
(the Czar) would accept less than ten million. 

1 said my government would not assent to the 
payment of so large a sum for what it considered 
a barren waste. 

Stoeckl finally said, "I will split the difference, 
and I will recommend to my master a sale for 

I said, " You throw off $500,000 and it is a 

Mr. Stoeckl wanted to know what would be 
done with the Russians in Alaska. 

I replied, " You must take care of them." 

He, after a moment's reflection said, "You 
give us two hundred thousand to pay for the 
franchises and property of the Russian Fur Com- 
pany and we will satisfy them." 

To this 1 assented. 

He put up his dispatches, and I said to him, 
" Stoeckl, I will bet you a box of cigars that the 
Czar will not sell Alaska." 

"I will take that bet," replied the Minister; 
"but, Seward, if I win the bet you shall go down 
to the street, purchase the cigars, and personally ' 
bring them to my house." 

"All right; you can have the cigars if the 
offer is accepted." 

1 thought very little of the matter until one 
evening in March, 1867. While 1 was engaged 
in the pastime of a game of whist, the Russian 
Minister was announced, and upon my receiving 
him he drewjrom his pocket a cable-dispatch from 
St. Petersburgh, and as he did so he said, " Gov- 
ernor, Alaska is yours. Get ready that box of 

1 replied that he would surely have the cigars 
but he must wait for them until the next day, 
and in the meantime we would draft a treaty for 
the purchase of Alaska. I immediately went 
with Minister Stoeckl to the Department of State, 
with such few clerks as I could find, and by 
early morning the treaty was drafted, signed, and 
ready to be sent by the President to the Senate. 

We told him that Alaska was rich in minerals, 

furs, fish, and timber, and its acquisition was of 
great importance to the United States, and espe- 
cially to the Pacific Coast; that the time was not 
far distant when the yearly exports from Alaska 
would equal the whole purchase-price. 

Now the steamer's bell was ringing, for we 
were nearing the city with its brilliantly lighted 
wharf, where Major McCoppin, the Board of 
Supervisors, and citizens, were ready to wel- 
come, receive, and entertain, the great American 
Commoner, and they did. 

E. T). Sawyer. 

The Matter of Reprints and Copyrights. 

In line with the controversy now going on be- 
tween the New York Evening Post and Mr. T. 
Fisher Unwin and Copeland and Day and the 
OVERLAND MONTHLY is the discussion going 
on between Thomas B. Mosher and Mr. Andrew 
Lang, the translator of the English version of 
" Aucassin and Nicolette." 

Mr. Lang displays just as little desire to un- 
derstand a very simple matter as do the editors 
of the Critic. The case plainly put is as follows : 

Mr. Lang translated the story of Aucassin and 
Nicolette and published a limited edition. He 
admits, first, that he expected no remuneration, 
"I did the work for love, not for lucre." Sec- 
ondly, that the English edition was a limited 
one and not copyrighted, and lastly, that the book 
was practically "out of print." Mr. Mosher 
therefore simply resurrected a beautiful piece of 
translation and by placing it before the public in 
a cheaper and unlimited form, he has conferred a 
favor upon the reading public and upon Mr. 
Lang, whose work bid fair to sink into the 
dusty oblivion of a bibliophile's shelf, to be 
known only for its rarity and its high price. 
Under these conditions, a reprint of Junius' Let- 
ters would be a heinous crime ! 

The indefensible act of reprinting articles or 
pictures without due credit is forcibly illustrated 
in the same issue of the Critic, in which is 
printed the correspondence between the parties 
interested and the summing up of the case by 
the editor. The Critic is published for the bene- 
fit of the mutual admiration society of hyper- 
critical and ultra-sensitive Eastern literary ex- 
otics, that revolve around the Constellation 
Gilder. .It is undoubtedly with the idea of 
adorning a moral that the picture of Joaquin 
Miller is published without due credit to or the 
permission of the OVERLAND MONTHLY. It is 
noticed that the Tribune is credited by the Critic, 



and presumably the literary mouthpiece of the 
elect thinks it is no prig to prig from a prigger. 
In this connection it is well to point out to Mr. 
Mosher that the " raison d'etre for existing," 
which he speaks of in his letter to Mr. Lang 
dated June 26th is a good deal like the " tout 
ensemble of the whole." 

An apology was demanded of the New York 
Evening Tost for its unwarranted attack upon the 
OVERLAND, and up to the time of going to press 
none has been received. It remains to be seen 
whether the Critic will emulate its metropolitan 
contemporary in excessive politeness. 

In the same number of the Critic is an ably 
written article on Joaquin Miller, in which that 
journal recognizes publicly, though very late, 
that there is genius in his writing and poetry in 
his poems. If Mr. Miller is wise, he will reason 
that this avowal of what has been known fo r 
years may have method behind it. There is just 
a bare possibility that some publisher is desirous 
of letting the public know, that with " Mr. Miller 
it is all feeling, and the feeling of a poet." 

A new volume of Mr. Miller's poems may be 
expected from the press of some Eastern pub- 

Songs of the Soul. 1 

The Whitaker-Ray Company of San Francisco 
have made a very handsome volume of 162 
pages of Joaquin Miller's latest collection of 
verse, Songs of the Soul. It embraces seven poems, 
the most elaborate being "Sappho and Phaon." 
It is a sculptured monument to love, with its base 
on the old red sand stone and its apex above the 
clouds. Love lived in the darkness of chaos, and 
from it radiated the first lines of light that illum- 
ined the earth. Heaven is wherever love exists, 
and after a separation of three thousand years 
Sappho and Phaon have been reunited by the 
poet, and are spending their honeymoon in Alaska. 
The field is broad, the subject is inspiring, and the 
imagination of the poet runs riot. He twists the 
tails of comets, plays football with the stars, and 

"The kind moon came - came once so near 
That in the hollow of her arm 

I leaned my lifted spear." 

Some of the descriptive passages are among 
the best in the language, and the poem abounds 
in strong lines, with few that are positively 

'Songs of the Soul. By Joaqi/in Miller, San Francisco. 
The Whitaker & Ray Company : 189*. 

weak. Many familiar lines will be detected by 
the reader, and lest the poet may be unjustly 
charged with plagiarism, we will mention that 
he has borrowed somewhat from himself, but 
with so little an effort to disguise as to provoke 
nothing more severe than the passing censure of 
a smile. " A Song of the Soundless River " is a 
melodious little story in rhyme, which does not 
rise above the poetic dignity of a ballad, nor does 
it embrace many lines that will be apt to be re- 
membered an hour beyond the reading of them. 
The poem of "Sunset and Dawn in San Diego " 
calls for more vigorous handling, and receives it. 
In subject and meter it appeals to the better 
faculties of the poet, and is sung in a loftier key, 
with flashes here and thereof genuine poetic fire, 
The most notable among the minor pieces is 
"Mother Egypt," not more for what it says than 
for what it suggests. And now, if our poet will 
indulge us in mentioning that the words 
"flower" and "heaven" and "hour" and 
" prayer " are always better to our taste when 
used in the capacity of single syllables in verse, 
we will conclude by welcoming " Songs of the 
Soul " as a charming and creditable addition to 



the literature of California, and as an assurance 
that the scources of the author's inspirations are 
broadening and deepening with the years, and 
that the greatest of his work remains to be done. 
Thinking as he thinks, dreaming as he dreams, 
moved as he is by the broadest and gentlest of 
human sympathies, he would be a power in the 
land were it possible for him to become more of a 
Beranger or Whittier and less of a Browning. 
The language of the people is simple, but he 
could learn to shape it into numbers. 

Life of L. Q. C. Lamar. 1 

Prof. Edward Mayes has prepared a careful 
and sympathetic life of the late Justice Lamar. 
The author says in the brief preface : " It is not 
the purpose of this memoir to rake over the ashes 
of old quarrels or to stir up the embers of dying 
animosities. * * * Nor is it an apology for, or a 
glorification of, the career of Mr. Lamar. The aim 
is to give the story of his life as it was; to show, so 
far as is possible, what he did and why he did 
it, conceiving that the story will be not only a 
merited tribute to a brave and patriotic man who 
dared much and suffered greatly for the good of 
his people, and in the end was greatly reward- 
ed. " The work also contains the most striking 
of Lamar's speeches and letters. It is a grace- 
ful tribute and one that will be gratefully re- 
ceived by his thousands of friends and ad- 

Lotos Time in Japan. 2 

Henry T. Finck has added one more volume to 
the rapidly increasing library on things Japanese. 
As differing from Mr. Hearn's delightful studies 
of the inner life of the Japanese Mr. Finck's 
book is the work of a keen-eyed, tireless " globe- 
trotter." He tells of outer Japan as it is today 
throbbing with its new life, fully awakened to 
the possibilities of occidental civilization. It is 
just the book for the tourist bound Japanward. 
It goes into charming details and is painstaking 
in its descriptions of life and customs. The 
author, however, gets outside of the well beaten 
paths. He visits Northern Japan which he calls 
" Japanese Siberia " and describes monkeys in 
the snow, an American city gone to seed, the 
great coal fields and the Anios. The book is 
handsomely bound and illustrated. 

'Lucius Q. C. Lamar. By E. Mayes. Nashville, Tenn. 
Publishing House of the M. E. Church, South : 1896. 

2 Lotos Time in Japan. By Henry T. Finck. New York ; 
Charles Scribuer's Sons : 1895. $1.75. 

A New Edition of Oliver Twist. 3 

A new and at the same time cheap edition of 
Dickens' work is by no means a novelty. In 
fact it would be an interesting item to know just 
how many "new editions'' of Dickens have ap- 
peared first and last. But an edition of Dickens 
combining cheapness and perfection typograph- 
ically is rare indeed. Macmillan's edition of 
which Oliver Twist may serve as a sample, is the 
most complete and valuable from every point of 
any popular editions brought out in this country. 
It is an exact reprint of the first edition with 
reproductions of the original illustrations by 
George Cruikshank and a biographical and bibli- 
ographical introduction by Charles Dickens the 
younger. In this introduction a novel method 
of "grangerizing" is introduced by reproducing 
Crukshank's cancelled plate of "Rose Maylie and 
Oliver, "the "Facsimile of the wrappers to the 
Edition of 1846," the Facsimile of Title Page to 
Vol. I of first three volumes Edition of 1838 " and 
the same of the pirated edition. The type and 
paper of the edition are above reproach and it is 
tastefully bound in green cloth. What is still 
more astonishing they sell for one dollar a 

Adam Johnstone's Son. 4 

F. MARION CRAWFORD'S last story is a pure 
novel of love and scenery. The theater of the 
plot is the picturesque old Italian town of Amalfi. 
The characters are few and act their simple parts 
in and around "the queer hotel, which was once 
a monastery, perched high up under the still 
higher overhanging rocks, far above the beach 
and the busy little town " with sea beneath. I 
know of no better or life like description of Amalfi 
than the one contained in the book. Clare and 
Mrs. Bowring, Englishwomen, have come to 
this quiet nook to recuperate. Here they meet a 
sturdy young countryman who falls in love with 
Clare. He is Adam Johnstone's Son which be- 
comes a title of some little significance in the 
development of the plot. The story like all of 
Crawford's is gracefully told but unlike his last 
Italian novel " Casa Braccio " it does not 
keep one's feeling up to concert pitch. The illus- 
trations give an added interest to the book ; 
they are intelligently drawn scenes about 

3 Oliver Twist. By Charles Dickens. New York : Mac- 
millan & Co. $1.00. 

*Adam Johnstone's Son. By F. Marion Crawford. New 
York : Macmillan and Co. 1896. $1.50. 



Palmyra and Zenobia. 1 

ONE of the most interesting books of explora- 
tion and travel that has been published for many 
a year is Dr. William Wright's account of Tai- 
myr a and Zenobia and of his travels and adven- 
tures in Bashan and the desert. There is not a 
dry or stupid page in the rather bulky volume. 
Every chapter contains one or more fights with 
the fierce, cruel Bedawi of the desert. His de- 
scription of the ruins of Zenobia's ancient capital 
is as vivid as it is surprising and the picture 
drawn of the home life of the natives and the 
misrule of the Turkish government fairly makes 
one's blood boil. Nearly all the people of this 
country are Christians, and tax gatherers rob and 
murder them at their will. Everyone lives in a 
state of terror and what law .there is is only for 
the oppressor. The illustrations, of which there 
are a large number are from photographs of the 
remarkable ruins that fill the country. 

A Lady of Quality.- 

novel A Lady of Quality will excite more dis- 
cussion than any of her previous books. It is 
one that jnvites argument and every reader will 
instinctively range himself under or against the 
glorious banner of the beautiful Clorinda. What 
Mrs, Burnett has really presented to us is a phys- 
iological problem which every reader solves ac- 
cording to his own experience. The scene of the 
story is English country life during the reign of 
Queen Anne. The characters are fox-hunting 
squires and court nobles. Clorinda is the way- 
ward, hot tempered daughter of the hardest 
drinking, hardest riding squire of the lot. She 
is brought up among such men in the atmos- 
phere of oaths and drink. With an education 
thus acquired the development of the woman be- 
comes a question of absorbing interest Whether 
one agrees with the author or not in- the manner 
in which the heroine acts her afterlife one cannot 
but admire both. 

The Damnation of Theron Ware. 3 

Harold Frederic has achieved the distinction rf 
writing one of the books of the year that will 
survive. Whatever the Churchman may think 
of the lesson taught in the life of the Rev. 
Theron Ware, whether Methodist or Catholic is 
offended or not by the picture drawn of their 

'Palmyra and X.cnobia. By William Wright. New 
York : Thomas Nelson and Sons. 1895. 

Udy of Quality. By Frances Hodgson Burnett. New 
York : Charles scribner n Sons. 1896. 

''The Damnation of Theron Ware. By Harold Fred- 
eric. ChicaRo : Stone Sc Kimball 1896. Ji.jc. 

peculiar methods, the book as a novel is above 
petty criticism. It is a strong picture of the 
hardships of the Methodist itinerary in rural New 
York. It deals with the narrow lives and faith 
of the old hardshell Methodists who placed the 
"Church Discipline" above the New Testa- 
ment, in contrast with the rather too free and 
liberal construction of the Commandments as 
practiced by the Catholics in the same city. 
Theron Ware is a young, brilliant minister with 
a sweet, simple wife. Between the grinding pre- 
judices of his own Church trustees on the one 
side, and the allurments of the worldly priest 
and a beautiful Catholic girl on the other, he 
falls into unbelief and at last complete shame. 
Certain passages of the book are intensely dra- 
matic, the raising of the debt on the church, 
the young minister's first introduction into Celia 
Madden's music-room, the final meeting with 
Celia in New York. The general novel-reading 
public will welcome the story with real enthus- 
iasm, and the reader who has been brought up 
in the Methodist Church will see in it a thousand 
points that will place in a new light the weak 
points of his own Discipline. It is bound to be 
the subject of innumerable articles in the church 
paper, and the controversy cannot but be of 

Dumas' Olympe de Cleves. 4 

A large minority of the admirers of Dumas are 
content with an excited chase through the 
charmed pages of the D'Artagnan romances and 
Monte Cristo, not knowing that he has written 
an entire library of historical novels, any one 
of which Iwill command the attention of any 
healthy reader. While O/rw/v ,/< CYer does 
not quicken the beating of the pulse as do the 
duels of the " Great Four " or keep as close to 
history as some of his other novels, it is still, as 
one can say of all of the Master's books, a per- 
fect portrayal of the life of the times it depicts. 
The story covers the years 1727-29 in the reign 
of the young King Louis XV. It introduces such 
historical characters as the King, the Queen - 
Marie Leczinska, Cardinal Fleury. and the Due 
de Richelieu: The book is uniformly bound with 
the handsome edition, and illustrated by Van 

A New Dictionary of Quotations. 

Macmillan & Co. have brought out an edition 
of an English Dictionary of Quotations' by Col. 

< Olympe de Cloves. By Alexandra Dumts. Hoston : 
Little, Brown & I'D. 2 vols. 

"nii-tiiiiinry of Quotations. By I'. Dalbiac. New York: 
Macmillan & Co. : i*j6. ft. 



Dalbiac M. P. It is always a pleasure to have 
in one's library a new dictionary of this kind, 
but it would seem that some publishing house 
would find it profitable to bring out an American 
edition of English quotations. Bartlett's " Fa- 
miliar Quotations " comes much nearer to the 
demand. In Dalbiac's book out of the 400 
authors indexed the only Americans honored are 
Poe, Longfellow, Bryant, Channing, Emerson, 
Hemer, Franklin and Irving. Nothing from Jef- 
ferson, Washington, Webster, Clay, or any of 
our regular standbys. Out of the 400 authors 
not more than half are known on this side of the 
Atlantic. However the book is carefully com- 
piled and well printed. 

Tom Grogan. 1 

Tom Grogan is not a Sunday School book, 
neither is it written for the benefit of the young 
alone, yet it is the ideal book for school 
libraries. If I were asked to name the best book 
of the year for our great school constituancy, I 
would unreservedly recommend Tom Grogan. It 
is a story so strong, so sweet, so simple, and so 
elevating that it teaches its lesson of the reward 
of honesty and industry without a suspicion of 
the goody-goody of the regulation Sunday 
School book. Tom Grogan is a woman a great, 
big, reliant, tender-hearted Irish woman with a 
crippled son Patsy. She is a teamster and 
stevedore who takes contracts for loading barges 
and hauling supplies. She talks with a fine 
Irish brogue and her right-hand man has the 
lingo of " Chimmie Fadden." The Knights of 
Labor declare a boycott on Tom Grogan and the 
story is the story of the boycott. The scene is 
Staten Island, and the characters are Knights, 
Walking Delegates, Police Justices and Work- 
man. The book will pay reading and rereading. 

What They Say in New England. 2 

Mr. Johnson has here gathered and given us 
in the language in which he received them the 
odd sayings, rhymes, and superstitions which 
are or have been current in New England. The 
volume was begun with the idea of collecting for 
private entertainment the remnants of folk-lore 
which are in constant use in many New England 
households. Not only was the number found to 
be remarkable, but according to the compiler, the 
amount of belief still held in them is astonishing. 
While the majority of these sayings have a for- 

'Toiii Grogan. By F. Hopkinson Smith. Boston: 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co. : 1896. $1.50 

2 What They Say in New England. By Clifton Johnson. 
Boston : Lee and Shepard. 1896. $1.26. 

eign ancestry they have been changed materially 
in many instances by being given a peculiarly 
local twist. For convenience the matter is class- 
ified under numerous headings, such as money, 
luck, warts, tea grounds, snakes, love and sen- 
timent, weather, etc. 

The Red Badge of Courage. 3 

For one I fail to find the charm of the much 
lauded T(ed Badge of Courage. To me it is noth- 
ing more than a hysterical, badly written ac- 
count-of somebody's conception of a battle from 
a private point of view. Privates and Officers 
may all act as though they were tipsy during an 
engagement, they may all swear and scream, 
use bad grammar and rush about as though they 
were headless, but I doubt it. What is more to 
the point the G. A. R's of my circle laugh at it. 
The book may be a classic, an equal to Tolstoi's 
and Zola's war pictures. It has so been desig- 
nated. It may also be trash. 

Aucassin and Nicolette. 

The Tale of Aucassin and Nicolette done into 
English by Andrew Lang, is out of the press of 
.Thomas B. Mosher, of Portland, Maine, and as 
a sweet song-story of overmastering love is de- 
serving of a lengthier mention than that accorded 
it in these columns in a previous number. The 
Tale of Nicolette is a sweet story as told and sung 
by the old French minstrel; we are told of the 
love and bravery of the lady of the eyes of vere 
and of the youth who. bore so much, for love of 
her of the tresses fair, in quaint chansons and 
quainter prose. Of these two devotees at Cupid's 
shrine in an abandon of sweet folly and love, the 
old captive sings of them in a measure that knows 
no falseness : 

"When 1 was young as you are young, 

When lutes were touched, and songs were 

And love lamps in the windows hung." 
There is about this tale the perfume of the an- 
cient days of chivalry "when knights were 
bold." It is the pleasanter feature of the age 
without the blood and fire or the clash of swinging 
swords, although our " merrie minstrel" was 
not without his share of the battle spirit. 

" Dreaming of his lady dear 

Setteth spurs to the destrere 

Rideth forth without fear, 

Through the gate and forth away 
To the fray. 

3The Red Badge of Courage. By Stephen Crane. New 
York : D. Appleton & Co. 1896. $1.00. 



" And the damoiseau was tall, fair, featly fash- 
ioned, and hardy of his hands." Truly, this 
was no milksop of a lover," and Aucassin 
was ware of him, and gat his sword into his 
hand, and lashed at his helm with such a stroke 
that he drave it down on his head, and he being 
stunned, fell grovelling." And all these men 
were valiant and good, chivalrous and courteous 
even unto the sentinel : 

" Maiden fair that lingerest here, 

Gentle maid of merry cheer, 

Hair of gold, and as clear 

As the water in a mere, 

Thou, meseems, hast spoken word 

To thy lover and thy lord, 

That would die for thee, his dear ; 

Now beware the ill accord 

Of the cloaked men of the sword, 

These have sworn and keep their word, 

They will put thee to the sword 

Save thou take heed." 

And then these two lovers, whom we cannot 
follow through all their travels in the strange land 
of Torelore, were constant and true until time had 
removed all difficulties. Truly this is a song- 
story of true love. 

" Sweet the song, the story sweet, 
There is no man hearkens it, 
No man living 'neath the sun, 
So outwearied, so outdone, 
Sick and woful, worn and sad, 
But is healed, but is glad 
T is so sweet." 

THE Series of Little Journeys to the Homes of 
Good {Mm and Great 1 , proved such a success 
in the attractive and inexpensive shape they 
were issued in that Mr. Hubbard and the pub- 
lishers continue it this year, changing only from 
English to American soil. Most of the papers 
chosen for the present series' were issued by the 
Putnams in 1853 under the name " Homes of 
American Authors. " It was well to revive them ; 
for it gives a charming contemporary point of 
view of these great Americans hard for us of the 
present day to attain, dazzled as we are by the 
splendor of their later fame. A view of Lowell, 
for instance, before the Commemoration Ode 
was written and before he was thought of as a 
political possibility is quite refreshing. 

A VALUABLE and scholarly study 8 into the 
shaping forces that made the Constitution that 

i Little Journeys to the Homes of American Authors. 
Edited by Klbert Hubbard. G. V. Putnam's Sons : New 
York : 1896. 

The Genesis of California's First Constitution. By 
Rockwell Dennis Hunt. Baltimore : The Johns Hopkins 
Press : 1895. 

served California for thirty years, a better Con. 
stitution in the opinion of many of the judicious, 
than that of California today or than that of 
almost any Western State, wrought out with 
the elaborate statement of authorities that en- 
ables the reader to trace each fact presented back 
to the original sources. 

A PRETTY pamphlet 3 of views and text about 
the Stanford University and its picturesque sur- 
roundings has been issued and hs for sale by 
Doxey. The beautiful college buildings are 
shown from many points of view, the rainy 
weather views with their reflections being the 
most striking. 

The Naulahka,* the joint work of Kipling and 
Balestier, has been placed within the reach of 
all. It forms Number Three in "Macmillan's 
Novelist's Library " of paper bound editions 
The story is one of thrilling interest Its scene 
is laid in a Colorado mining town and an East 
Indian Residency. Its characters act their part 
with the dash and force with which Kipling 
knows so well how to invest them. The inva- 
sion of a wide-awake Colorado miner and 
politician into the sleepy, treacherous life of 
an Indian court is almost as curious as Mark 
Twain's Yankee in the court of King Arthur. 
The story is one of Kipling's longest and best. 

A BOOK 5 for the religiously minded student, 
helpful in adjusting difficulties which very natur- 
ally arise in the mind regarding the difference in 
the tone of religious thought of today with what 
tradition has led him to expect. It is a calm 
dissertation on the Central Facts of Christianity, 
dealt with on a broad basis yet tinged through- 
out by the conservative coloring of an Episco- 
palian, brightened by an easy and flowing style. 
The various Interludes which are in a poetic vein 
are not the least pleasing feature of a readable 
and useful book. 

MERRIE ENGLAND 8 is the most convincing 
and plausible statement of the Socialist position. 
It will be applauded or cursed as the reader's 
point of view inclines him, but not denied a hear- 
ing, nor treated as of small importance. " A 
book that will create ructions," a Populist politi- 
cian said. Adapted to American readers by 

"Stanford University and Thereabouts. By O. L. Elliott 
and O. V. Eaton. >an Francisco : 1896. 

<The Naulflhka. By Rudyard Kipling and Wolcott 
Balestier. New York: Macmillan & Co.: i8#. Paper, 
50 cents. 

'Studies in Theologic Definition. Palmer. E. P. Dut- 
ton & Co. 

Merrie England. By Robert Blatch ford. New York: 
TheHumboldt Publishing Company's. 1895. 



Alexander Harvey. Six hwidred thousand copies 
sold in England, and it is said, a still larger edi- 
tion in America. 

Terdue 1 by Henry Greville, with explanatory 
notes by George MacLean Harper, Assistant 
Professor of French in Princeton University, is a 
pretty story in the French language, the style of 
which is so simple and clear that anyone even 
with a superficial knowledge of the language may 
read it with pleasure. 

The story tells of how a morose and jealous 
man broke the mother's heart, and of her pathetic 
death in a public park, of an aneurism. Of the 
father's departure for America filled with doubt 
and jealousy, and of the heroine, a young girl 
suddenly left a waif in Paris. The charm of the 
story lies in the skilful tracing and development 
of the pure young girl's character, and the 
sketches of the friends whom her sorrow and 
destitution raised up for her. There is a cleverly 
written scene in which an elder brother makes 
his declaration by proxy, through the aid of his 
junior, who also contracts to secure the father's 
consent to the marriage and who aranges the 
matter by cable from Paris to New York. 

VICTOR HUGO'S Quartrevingt-Trei^e 1 (edited 
in one volume, with an historical introduction 
and English notes, by Benjamin Duryea Wood- 
ward, B. des L., Ph. D., of the Department of 
Romance Languages and Literatures in Colum- 
bia University) is one of his most attractive and 
interesting novels. Dealing as the story does 
with one of the most terrible periods of the 
French Revolution, its import cannot be fully 
appreciated without a general acquaintance with 
the spirit of the times, and a knowledge of the 
most important events and happenings prior to 
the bloody days of the Reign of Terror. An his- 
torical introduction has therefore been made to 
the novel, in which those events are duly consid- 
ered, thereby adding greatly to the general value 
and usefulness of the volume. Victor Hugo has 
made of the National Convention an especial 
focus for research, and in his accounts of men 
and things of political interest, he has accumula- 
ted, in terse expression, a mass of interesting ma- 
terial. Any comment on the fierce struggle at sea 
between man and matter, on the careful descrip- 
tion of La Tourgue, on the stirring scenes that 
were enacted in and about that old feudal strong- 
hold, would here be superfluous. The book, 
intended in its present form, primarily for use in 

J Perdue. By Henry Greville. New York : Wm. R. 
Jenkins 85 cents. 

2 Quatrevingt-Treize. By Victor Hugo. New York: 
Wm. R. Jenkins. 81.25. 

American University work, appeals also to an 
audience at large, inasmuch as the difficulties 
that once beset its fuller understanding have now 
been removed in happiest measure. 

3 THE IMPROBABILITIES of this most improb- 
able story do not centre so much in the events, 
that the authors have evidently tried to describe 
as the acts of the Charlatan. There is nothing 
improbable in Philip Woodville's love tor Isabel 
nor is it strange that the heroine of this story 
should be of such a highly sensitive nature as to- 
be the subject of intrigue by a designing villain. 
The improbable comes in when Woodville, over- 
come by his own villainy performs such a noble 
deed that it can only be likened to a complete 
moral somersault and in one moment rises in the 
esteem of the reader and the heroine and becomes 
a gentleman of honor. This is improbable and 
this is followed by the impossibility of the Char- 
latan taking himself au serieux and acting the 
part so well that he believes in himself and dies 

As for Isabel ; why the novelist should deprive 
her of her only earthly affinity in order to obtain 
a tragic end to what might have been a passable 
story is past conjecture. Surely, the reformed 
conjurer was more of a man and deserving of 
Isabel than was Lord Dewsbury, English peer 
and gentleman. 

The Tourists Gitide Through the Hawaiian 
Islands* is the most practical and most attract- 
ive guide to the Hawaiian Islands. Full of val- 
uable information and interesting pictures. 

Trumpeter Fred' 3 is a story of army life on the 
plains by Captain Charles King. It is a bright 
healthy story about a resolute, manly soldier boy 
whom a designing sergeant tried to get into dis- 
grace. The action is spirited and shows an inti- 
mate acquaintance with army life. 

THE fine collection of ^American War Ttallads," 
edited by George Gary Eggleston and published 
five or six years ago by the Putnams in their 
pretty ''Knickerbocker Nuggets" Series, has 
been reissued, the two volumes in one. It satis- 
fies every wish of the lover of martial verse and 

3The Charlatan. Robert Buchanan and Henry Murray 
E- Tennyson Neely : New York. 

*The Tourist's Guide Through the Hawaiian Islands 
By Henry M. Whitney. Honolulu : The Hawaiian Gaz- 
ette Company's Press : 1895. 

STrumpeter Fred. By Capt. Charles King. New York : 
F. Tennyson Neely. 1896. 

SAmerican War Ballads and Lyrics. Edited by George 
Gary Eggleston. New York : G. P. Putnam's Sons : 1896. 


of dainty bookmaking. Mr. Eggleston's Intro- 
duction is also reprinted, a delightfully readable 
essay on the subject of the collection. 

A HANDY little pocket guide to San Francisco 1 
and its neighborhood has been issued by the 

i San Francisco and Suburbs. Robertson Publishing 
Company : San Francisco : 1896. 

Robertson Publishing Company. It contains 
maps and tables of all sorts likely to be of use to 
the visitor to the City, and answers in clear and 
easily found fashion all the inquiries that are 
sure to rise in his mind. It is remarkable rather 
for its usefulness than for its beauty and is not 
bound in a way to outlast the few days of pocket 
wear the stranger will be apt to give it. 

AS the editor of the OVERLAND MONTHLY, 
the only magazine on the Pacific Coast, Rounse- 
velle Wildman is well known in American liter- 
ary circles. 

A periodical which succeeds in establishing 
itself as an acknowledged representative of the 
literary interests and welfare of an area so wide, 
wealthy and populous as to be almost an empire, 
deserves honor. In conducting the editorial 
management of it a man has ample scope for 
good work and wise judgment. The success of 
the OVERLAND MONTHLY, from more than one 
point of view, shows that Mr. Wildman has been 
fully equal to the demands of his position, and 
the portrait of him which appears in this issue 
will interest many persons in all parts of the 

Mr. Wildman's avoidance of all imitation of 
the established eastern magazines, making his 
publication typical of his constituency, shows 
that he has the ideas of individual and successful 

The OVERLAND MONTHLY is widely read in 
the Eastern States, for it has a high literary 
standard, and, avoiding imitation, it brings to 
the East the best of the great West 

The Fourth Estate, (N. Y.) 

THE two concluding volumes of Mr. Aitken's 
edition of Defoe's " Romances and Narratives," 
published by Macmillan & Co., include the rare 

and valuable T)ue Preparations for the Plague, and 
a number of pamphlets relating to Capt Avery, 
Jack Sheppard, Jonathan Wild, and other 
pirates and robbers, now reprinted for the first 

GEORGE HAMLIN FITCH'S scholarly essays 

on literary people and things, his book reviews 
and newsy literary chats that are such a feature 
in the Sunday (S. F.) " Chronicle " are attract- 
ing national attention and relive in our Eastern 
reviews. His book reviews have made the 
" Chronicle " well known and eagerly watched 
for by the New York and London publishing 
houses, as there is seldom a well-known novel 
issued whose makers do not quote from the 
" Chronicle's " review, and place it side by side 
with that of the " Literary World," " The Dial " 
and " The Nation " in their advance sheets. It 
is to be hoped that Mr. Fitch's charming essays 
will be obtainable in book form. 

AMONG the educational works to be published 
immediately by Macmillan & Co. are An Ele- 
mentary Text-book of Physical Geography for High 
Schools, by Ralph S. Tarr, B.S., A.G.S.A., As- 
sistant Professor of Geology at Cornell Univer- 
sity ; <A Laboratory Course in Experimental Physics, 
by W. J. Loudon and J. C. McLennan ; and 
The Elements of Geometry, by George Cunning- 
ham Edwards, Associate Professor of Mathe- 
matics in the University of California. 



MACMILLAN & CO. announce an important 
work on the big game of South Africa, by John 
Guille Millais, F.Z.S., author of "Game Birds 
and Shooting Sketches. " It is entitled t/1 Breath 
from the Veldt, and the object of the author has 
b^en to supplement from personal observation 
what is already known of the animals he came 
across during a recent tour in South Africa and 
to present a true picture of the life in that country. 
In this book the drawing alone have occupied the 
author's close attention for three years, and they 
represent with the utmost care the actions and 
attitudes of the animals in motion. 

'THE PUBLISHERS of the Lark continue to sur- 
prise the public with this delightful little bibelot. 
The last production of Us Jeunes in the cover line 
is a masterpiece. 

DR. MAX NORDAU may be railed at by those 
in whom his darts find lodgment but his caustic 
applications still adhere to the public distempers 
and grow in public appreciation. 

The Comedy of Sentiment is a novel of rare ro- 
mantic, as well as didactic interest. Instead of 
being preachy as some might suppose it is full of 
spirit, action and life. 

To publish such a book at fifty cents, as is 
done by F. Tennyson Neely of New York City, 
is to place a valuable book within the reach of 

Les CMaitres des L'tSlffiche; the Masters of the 
Poster is issued under editorship of Cheret at the 
printing house of Chaix, Paris, and it is supplied 
monthly to subscribers at the remarkably low 
price of six dollars a year. Each number, of 
which eight have been published, contains an 
exact facsimile of four of the latest posters issued 
in Posterland. There is no other poster publica- 
tion that is so perfectly produced, the publishers 
sparing no expense to make each issue an edition 
de luxe. 

~Le Petit Journal des Refugees is a remarkable 
journal that shows in its make-up the most viru- 

i William Doxey, Publisher, San Francisco. 
^Frank Marrion, Publisher, San Francisco. 

lent attack of decadence in art that has comes to 
the reviewer. The artist vies with the editor 
and the contributor in producing this most 
atrocious little volume. It is a clever skit in 
more ways than one, but it is the cleverness of 
the incurably insane, and the purple cats and 
green elephants and spotted white lizards chase 
one another across the pages like the phantasma 
of mania a potu. 

THE quickened demand for the works of Mrs. 
Stowe, consequent upon her death, will be happily 
met by the new and definite edition of her com- 
plete writings, which her publishers, Messrs 
Houghton, Mifflin & Co., have for some time 
had in preparation, to comprise sixteen volumes 
in their excellent T^iverside editions of standard 
authors. The first volume will have a biographi- 
cal sketch, and all the volumes are to be thor- 
oughly edited and furnished with notes when 
necessary. Each of the volumes will have a 
frontispiece and a vignette, including several 
portraits, views of Mrs. Stowe's homes, and 
other interesting designs. There is to be a limited 
large-paper edition, each set of which will con- 
tain Mrs. Stowe's autograph written by hei ex- 
pressly for this purpose a few months ago. 

THE WH1TAKER & RAY Co. of San Fran- 
cisco, have issued "Pacific History Stories, as 
retold be Harr Wagner. They are illustrated 
by J. D. Strong, and are adapted for use in the 
schools as supplementary reading. The stories 
include Balboa, Magellan, Cabrillo, Drake, The 
Missions, The Journeys of Lewis and Claik, 
The Donner Party, Discovery of Gold, Fremont, 
Bear Flag Republic, Admission of California, 
Old Californians, and others. This book will 
place a large amount of information, in the hands 
of the children, not easily accessible in any other 

republished, with favorable comments, Mr. W. 
H. Mills' article in the June OVERLAND on 
"The Prospective Influence of Japan upon the 
Industries of America." 


HERE is no sun like the sun that shines 

In the valley of Comundu. 
There are palms and olives and figs and vines 

In the valley of Comundu. 

Ay! I was born in the valley below. 

Ay! That is the reason I love it so. 

And the jota, the jota, the dan^a bonita, 
By the vine-covered casa by one chiquitita, 
And the sweet pasadita upon the guitar. 

Ay ! the valley, the valley, so far, so far ! 

There is no bloom like the peaches' bloom 

In September in Comundu, 
When the world is happily, sweetly tuned 

In summerly Comundu. 

Ay! I am the valley's and love her too. 

Ay! Cries my heart for my Comundu, 

And the 'chachas in cotton, their eyes and cheeks 
I shall see in my dreams for weeks and weeks 
And hear (ojala!) our songs in the night, 
As we sang (ay de mi!) in the moon's white light. 

There is no moon like the moon that shone 

In the summer in Comundu, 
And water ne'er rippled so blithly o'er stone, 

As it rippled in Comundu. 



The melons, the brevas ! I can smell the corn. 
The fresh of the haze in the day new born, 
And the idle glad laughter, bonita, bonita! 
Her kerchief was red, ah, the sweet chiquitita! 

Arthur B. Bennett. 



** ^mHi 
ifty Pkylli.5 goes to t0wrY 4 __ . * 

ker QfAHJvrv't Sitfmrio'*. 

o a 

- ixv^kettv o'er a gown , 

wold l>e a-bu^ing* 
VoryOoap > "to 

tkat j\\sM. deck it 
Jack ske'll soon be flyine'. 

it sw<retlv, 

Copyright 1896, by The Proctrr 4 Gamble Co., Cin'tl. 

Overland Monthly. 

ttfiK ' 

The Teeth 
of the Gale 


On June 21st, 1896. 
Captain Charlsen (formerly an of- 
ficer on Mr. John Jacob Astor'p 
yacht) and his brother sailed from 
New York for Queenstown, via the 
Northern passage, in their twenty- 
foot open boat, th "SOZOO\T." 
If they arrive safely the Sozodon 
will make a tour of seaport citing 
in Northern Europe and sail for 
Xew York next summer. Eclips- 
ing All Transatlantic Records for 
Small Boats. 

A. "half tone" picture of the Sozodont 
for the postage, two cents, or a sample bottle 
of liquid Sozodont, including a sample cakt 
of Sozoderma Soap for the postage, thret 
cents, or ill for five cents, provided you men 
tion this publication. Address HALL & 
RUCKBL, New York, proprietors of Sozodoni 
and other well-known preparations. 

First Baking Powder Made 

Never fails to 
! make light and 
| wholesome Bread 

Cake or Pastry 

Perfectly Pure 
The Standard 

for the past 
Fifty Years 

Best In The World 

GEO. A. FISHER, Pacific Coast Agent, 109 California St., San Francisco 


Overland Monthly. 


Crown Lavender Pocket Salts 



Of London, call attention to one of their most charming 
novelties, _^ 

The Crown 

The Crown 


Pocket Salts 

Bottles as shown or 

Which can be carried in the 
Made by them for many years In England, 
this country. Made 






Deliciously perfumed with the Crown 
with the worll renowned crown Lav 
SnlU, the creation of the Crown Fr- 
known to their London and Paris clien- 

PRICES: Standard Size. 50 cts. 
Smaller Size, 40 cts. 

Pocket Salts 

in dainty kid purses 
pocket with perfect safety. 

but now for the first time introduced Into 

in the following odors: 



Ao<J all other o<lors. 


Ferfumes, and identical in quality 
ender Salts and various perfumed 
fiimery Co., so long and favorably 

In Kid Purses, 75 cts. 
Smaller Size, 60 cts. 


or by sending either of the above amounts to Caswell, Massey & Co., New York ; Melvin & Badger, or T. Metcalf Co. 
Boston ; Geo. B. Evans, Philadelphia ; E. P. Mertz, Wnshington ; Wilmot J. Hall & Co., Cincinnati : Auditorium 
Pharmacy Co., Auditorium Building;, or or W. C. Scupham, Chicago, 111.; The Owl Drug Store, San Francisco and 
Los Angeles; and the Scholtz Drug Co., Denver; one of these bottles of Pocket Salts will be sent to any address 
Name the odor required. 

Sold everywhere. Beware of worthless imitations. 








is rainproof and sheds water. It 
wears as only an S. H. & M. can 
wear and never turns gray as do 
the ordinary sorts. 

If your dealer will not 
supply you we will. 

Samples shouting labels and materials mailed free. 

' Home Dressmaking Made Easy." a new 72 pago 
book by Miss Emma M. Hooper, of the Ladies 
Home Journal, giving valuable points, mailed .< 

5. M. & M. Co., P. O. Box 699, N. Y. City, 

Overland Monthly. 19 

as a Columbia" 

You hear it everywhere 
The ringing proof that 

WOIUHI DlciS SLcillCl LllC Catalogue of Descriptive Fact 

_- . . . . + + free at our agencies by mail 

Standard of the World 

POPE MFG. CO., Hartford, Conn. 






Pullman Double Drawn-Bom Sleepers and Dinini Cars 

I'ersoiially Conducted Tourist Excursions Kvery Friday. 

EecliDiDi Glair Cars and Conipasilo Buffet Sinolici anil Library Cars 


Pullman Palace Sleepers, San Francisco to Kansas City, without change 

Upholstered Tourist Sleepers, San Francisco to Chicago daily, without change. 




"When you write, please mention " The Overland Monthly." 


Overland Monthly. 






' ' '' jf-* \ LJI .'> F * 'jik- % .'^r*-'-'^v'- > ' ': ..-. '.-." . : ; : ] 

When you write, please mention " The Overland Monthly." 

Overland Monthly. 


Hunter Cycles 



First class in every respect comparisons 

HUNTERS have gun barrel tubeing, double 
truss fork crown, visible bearings, easy and 
positive adjustment, extra large bearings and 
barrel hubs, adjustable cranks and handle bar. 
A practical wheel made by practical mechanics. 

HUNTER ARMS CO., Fulton, N.Y. 



159 New Montgomery Street 

No Air, No Life. 

because the 
s wol 1 en 
tubes get 
solid, and 
keep air 
from the 
lungs. Dr. 
Acker's English Remedy 
reduces the inflammation, 
o the patient breathes 
reely, and is soon well. 

says : ' ' When threatened with 
pneumonia, I took one bottle of Dr. 
\cker' s English Remedy, and the 
pain and cough disappeared." 

3 sizes, 25c.;SOc.;$I. All Druggists. 
ACKKK MEDICINE Co., 1-18 Chambers St., N.Y. 



are growing in popular- 
ity. The amusement 
is exhilarating, and 
ladies can indulge 
in it* Coasting is 
fine fun especial- 
ly if you win. 

are great coasters ! A bicycle fitted with them 
will outcoast a bicycle fitted with any other tires. 
Palmer Tires are livelier than other tires: they 
make the bicycle run easily. 

Our Catalogue tells why. Send for It. 

The Palmer Pneumatic Tire Company, Chicago 

" Rniri I amnc FrPP " 25 lamps, finished in Montana 
UUIU Udlllpjj Free. gol (j,will be presented to the 25 
ladies, sending in the best reading article on " The Aladdin 
Lamp "; contest closes Sept. 1st, 1896 

Send five two-cent stamps for full information regarding con. 
test and receive pocket clothes brush for removing mud spots, &e. 



Built to burn 
It -won't go out 
The highest 

grade lamp 
at the lowest 


If dealer doesn't keep it. send $3 for Nickel. We deliver 
carriage free. THE ALADDIN LAMP CO. 

511 Broad St., Newark, N. J. 






Nine Models Aluminum Silver, Maroon and Black Enamel Fin 
Ish. Extremely Handsome, targe Tubing Narrow Tread- 
Detachable Sprocket. Weight, 17-25 Ibs 

Write for our handsome Catalogue 

Plymouth Cycle Mfg. Co., Plymouth, Ind. 


When you write, please mention " The Overland Monthly." 

Overland Monthly. 


Put "Ball-Bearings' on your Feet 



: Corrugated Solea. Price Black, $3 OO | Tan, S3.5O j 

nee Boot, $4. BO to S8.OO. Pratt Fasteners secure laces without tying;. 
a. a ers are cautioned to look for the "Ball-BoarinK" on the heel. 


Do not be misled by designs which are made to LOOK LIKE the 
"Ball-Bearing," but which are not the same. Insist on having the 
"Ball-Bearing" Bicycle Shoes. 

all tbe leading Dealers, or 


ffor Sale 


B. T. Allen Co.; San Francisco 
Shoe House | B. Katchlnskl 


F. F. Wright A Co. 

H. L. Peck A Co. 


Stephen! & Hlokok. 


ohir > & Johnnen 


K C. <iod<lard & Co. 

Overland Monthly. 




yield to the persuasive 
powers of 

Pabst Malt 

The "Best" Tonic 

and strength conies with the first 
bottle. You can SLEEP soundly 
after taking it, and lift the sys- 
tem into a condition to resist the 
enervating heat of summer. 

It gives mental power to those 
who use 

Pabst Malt Extract 
The "BEST" 



When you write, please mention " The Overland Monthly." 

Overland Monthly. 


Pacific Coast Agents WATSON & C04 ^4 Market St., San Francisco 

Send for Book 

To Hay Fever Sufferers 

We Offer a Cure that Stays 

Change of climate is all very well, if you can afford it year after year, but 
it doesn't prevent the progressive tendency of the disease from causing steady 
development of more serious conditions. There is but one sensible and 
economical plan to pursue. Take 

Dr. Hayes' Constitutional Treatment 

and eradicate the cause of the disease from the system and ensure future 
robust health 

" Your treatment has done wonders for me. I did 
not lose a day's work last full, for the first time in 
twenty-five years, and 1 am perfectly well now.'* 

MRS. D. A. ELLIS, Plymouth, N. H. 

" It is one year and six months since I commenced 
treatment and I have never had but one attack of 
Asthma since. At the time I commenced I was not 
able to do n ny work. I could not walk up stairs with- 
out resting to get my breath. Now I can take two 
scuttles of coal and run up two flights of stairs and 
feel no Inconvenience. lam now forty years old and 
feel as goo i as I aid twenty years ago. 1 had Asthma 

You want to know more about this. 

and Hay Fever eight years before I commenced treat- 
ment with you and I passed last summer for the first 
time without either one a&Vcting me in the least. I 
am now positive the treatment Cures to Stay Cured as 
your Thesis explained to me, although I did not 
believe it at the time. I do not get colds any more 
as I used to, and when I do get a cold it does not stick 
to me as before the cure. 

I always keep a supply of medicine on hand, and I 
advise anybody troubled with Asthma or Hay Fever 
to write at once to P. Harold Hayes, M. D., and he 
will cure you as be did me. 

P. d. CREGAN, 8*2 Broadway, Albany, N. Y. 

Drop a line asking for our new Thesis, 
with full information, 2,000 other references, and blank for free examination. 

Address DR. HAYES, BUFFALO, N. Y. 


Approved by highest medical 
author! lie* as a Perfect Sana- 
tory Toilet Preparation for 
Infant* and adults. Positively 
relieves I'rlckly Heat, Nettle 
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kin smooth and healthy. L>eli htful after shaving 
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J Gerhard Mennen Co./Newark, N. J. 





ft CO. 

THE OVERLAND MONTHLY seems to increase in 
popular favor with each number and as one looks 
it over there seems to be good reason for its suc- 
cess. It covers a ground rather new to the maga- 
zine reader and does it in a bright way. 

Hartford (Conn) Post. 

THE ELECTROPOISE is a little instrument the 
application of which enables the system to take on 
oxygen freely from the atmosphere. This addition 
of Nature's Own Tonic increases vitality, tones 
up the nervous system, purifies the blood, and by 
expelling the morbid matter and diseased tissues 
restores the body to its normal condition health. 
Quite frequently it has effected cures where other 
remedies have proved powerless. How the Elec- 
tropoise accomplishes all this is briefly explained 
in a neat little book that will be mailed to you on 
application to Watson & Co., 124 Market St., 
San Francisco. 

The Educational Department of the OVERLAND 
grows more attractive steadily and in the same 
measure becomes more popular. It should be 
read more than once. Rounsevelle Wildman has 
his usual "As Talked in the Sanctum" always a 
favorite with us and it seems as if Mr. Wildman 
had done rather better work on this article than in 
some previous numbers. 

(News (Santa Barbara, Cal.) 

The most attractive, up-to-date feature of the 
lecture room is the use of the Stereopticon in illus- 
trating important points; especially in Geographi- 
cal lectures, the use of the Camera becomes indis- 
pensable. Of what effect would be a description 
of the Yo Semite Valley without the Stereopticon 
Views ; and the most perfect set of slides can be 
obtained at reasonable cost, by addressing the 
EDITOR of the Yo SEMITE TOURIST at Yosemite, 

At a meeting of the STATE BOARD OF EDUCA- 
TION held June 13th, the OVERLAND MONTHLY 
was made the OFFICIAL ORGAN of the BOARD. 
This carries with it the appropriation made by the 
State of $4800 per annum and adds 3241 subscrib- 
ers to the OVERLAND'S already large list. 

Times (Eureka, Cal.) 

THE PERFECTION of Toilet Powders is Mennen's 
Borated Talcum. It is a skin tonic, perfectly 
harmless and positively beneficial for all skin 
troubles. Approved by Highest Medical Authori- 
ties. There is nothing equal to it for Prickly 
Heat, Nettle Rash, Chafing, Sunburn, Blotches, 
Pimples, &c. Makes the skin smooth and healthy. 
Delightful after shaving. Be sure to get " Men- 
nen's." At all Druggists or by mail for 25 cents. 
Free sample by sending to Gerhard Mennen Co., 
Newark, N. J. 




Capital Fully Paid 

Deposits to December 31, 1895 

$300,000 Surplus 



J. WEST MARTIN, President 

WM. G. HENSHAW, Vioe-President 

A. E. H. CRAMER, Cashier 




Rates Paid on all Savings Deposits, 4 T V per cent, per Annum. 

This Bank has added a Commercial Department to its former business and is now transacting a general Bank- 
ing business as a Savings and Commercial Bank. 


Publisher's Column. 

The June OVERLAND is one of the very best 
issues of that meritorious "home " magazine; in 
fact the OVERLAND seems to be improving right 
along, under Mr. Wildman's management. 

El Barbareno (Santa Barbara, Cal.) 

Mother : I 'm afraid your husband is going to 
be ill. How did he look this morning at breakfast? 

Young Wife : I did n't see him. He was read- 
ing the paper. Echoes (Elmira, N. Y.) 

On the cover of the OVERLAND MONTHLY for 
July is a curious design by the Artist Boeringer. 

The traditional Grizzley Bear still holds his place 
on the cover, and looks quite at home beside the 
"BigOle Chief Winnemucca," who stands there, 
neither naked nor clad, but barefoot and bare- 
headed, with a cable-tow of tiger's or eagle's claws 
around his neck ; and for a breech-clout, he wears, 
as the "lambskin of innocence," a huge, fringed 
leather apron, while in one hand he carries a pot 
of incense, and in the other a sprig of shillalah, 
doubtless it is from the tree whose leaves are for 
the healing of the nations. 

Pacific Mason (Seattle, Wash.) 


About the worst case of attempted economy is 
buying cheap garden hose. If you buy any one 
of the brands manufactured by the GOODYEAR 
RUBBER COMPANY you are certain to get the best 
the market affords. In garden hose strength and 
wearing qualities are the main points of value. 

Bound copies of the 27th volume of the OVER- 
LAND MONTHLY are now ready. A file of these 
books is the best cyclopedia of Pacific Coast history 
and resources extant 

It is not necessary to " talk through your hat" 
anv more, you have only to buy one of HERMANNS 
and let it speak for itself. HERMANN is a manu- 
facturer and his hats are well made, stylish and 
reasonable in price. 

She: This horrid article implies that you mar- 
ried me for money. 

He : Well, don't contradict it, I don't care to be 
taken for a fool. Echoes (Elmira, N. Y.) 

The OVERLAND MONTHLY, under the progres- 
sive editorial direction of Rounsevelle Wildman, 
is growing. His short stories are being copied in 
educational annuals, on account of their dramatic 
intensity. His ability as an editor and writer is 
unquestioned. The June number of the OVERLAND 
is great. 
Harr Wagner, in Western Educational Journal, 

San Francisco. 

Black : Say, White, can you tell me what alli- 
gators eat ? 

White : All live ones do, I believe. 

Echoes (Elmira, N. Y.) 

The artistic covers and posters put forth monthly 
by the OVERLAND are getting to be the talk of the 
West. The cover for the June number is an In- 
dian study well worked out in shades of red, olive 
and black. The design is by Boeringer. 

The Examiner (San Francisco.) 

The OVERLAND is a great magazine up-to- 
date, and plethoric with the best work of the best 
writers and artists. 

Current Literature (N. Y.) 

Bound copies of OVERLAND MONTHLY, $2.25; 
including one copy of "The Panglima Mud," a 
novel of Malayan life, by Rounsevelle Wildman, 

The Anglo- Calif ornian Bank 



Authorized Capital Stock, 
Subscribed, - 
Paid in. - 


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J. 6IMON, Managing Director, London. 

lections made, and Stockit, Bonds and Bullion Bought and Sold on most favorable terms. 



A. L. SELIQMAN, Assistant Cashier 

Overland Monthly. 


Duff Gordon 


The most celebrated and 
Best brand in the world. 



For Sale by the Leading Wine Merchants 
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Sole Agents Pacific Coast 









From Imported Stock for $20 and up- 
wards ; from All-Wool Domestics for 
$15 and upwards; Overcoats $15 and 
upwards; Pants $5 and upwards. 



Formerly In .... 
Crocker Building 

26 Montgomery Street 

Room 6 


Well dressed aud up to date to 
convince you that H. S. Bridge 
& Co: are the best Tailors in 
San Francisco. 


You will remember that it was 
said and currently believed to 
be true that 


In matters of dress H. S. Bridge 
& Co. do not need this amount 
of assistance, but will make a 
man of you on short notice 
without outside help. 


a specialty 

622 Market St., 


Bear in Mind 

That we can always furnish the best CUT FLOWERS In the 
market. Special orders for Weddings and other occasions prompt- 
ly and carefully filled. 


Telephone, East 702. 1125 gutter Street, S. F. 

'When you write, please mention " The Overland Monthly." 

Overland Monthly. 







Hot Springs 


Wild Animals 






The Qramid 


Take your vacation trip to the Park 

It is the cheapest and most interesting line 



Has all the colors of the Rainbow 
and some it has not 


5. S. FEE ^ T. K. 

* P. & T. A. N. P. R R. A Gene 

St. Paul, Minn. 


General Agent Northern Pacific R. R. 

638 Market St., San Francisco 

When yon write, plea*e mention " The Overland Monthly.' 

Overland Monthly. 


Lower Geyser Basin 


Join our Excursion to the 
Yellowstone leaving S. F. 
August 16th + * * 

" We have now reached that part of the Park 
where the most peculiar phenomena found there, 
the geysers, are seen at their best. We had a 
foretaste of them at Norris Basin. Here we find 
them bunched together. Like the deer and ante- 
lope in the Park, they are in herds and droves. 
The first of these localities for there are three, 
more or less connected is the Lower Basin. 
Here again one's powers of pedestrianism are made 
available. Near at hand, indeed, are the rare 
Paint Pots, and a group of geysers and hot pools. 
But farther away are springs and geysers so much 
finer that it were a pity to be ' so near and yet so 
far.' For the regular tourist it will be a tight 
squeeze to work these into his programme, unless 
he is routed out of bed early in the morning. 

Of the group near the hotel, the Fountain Gey- 
ser is the chief, and, whether it be in full play or 
quiescent, it is a captain. It plays at intervals of 
about five hours for from thirty to forty minutes. 
The crater is about 20 x 20 feet, and it ejects 
large volumes of water to a height varying from 
fifty to one hundred and fifty feet. The eruption 
is a beautiful one, and more like a large fountain 
than the typical geyser, if indeed there be one. 
There are several small geysers and some beauti- 
ful hot pools near the fountain. These, with the 
richly-colored clay Paint Pots, worthy of .a care- 
ful examination, will serve the tourist a good 
turn if he does not visit the larger collection. In 
close proximity to the Paint Pots is the spring 
that supplies the Fountain Hotel with its hot 
bath-water. The larger and more distant group 
of springs and geysers about a mile and a half 
from the hotel extends over a considerable area. 
They constitute a wonderful collection. The more 
prominent if distinctions can honestly be made 
are Firehole Lake, the natural hot Swimming 
Pool, the Pink Dome, White Dome Geyser, 
Great Fountain Geyser, Surprise or Sand Spring, 
Firehole Pool, Mushroom Spring, Buffalo Pool, 
the Five Sisters and others. Of these I can refer 
From " Wonderland ", our Tourist Book for 1896. 

specificially to only two or three. Firehole Lake 
is some 300 feet long by 100 feet wide, and has a 
small geyser in the center that plays continually, 
and is called the Steady Geyser. The name of the 
the lake is derived from a peculiar feature of it. 
From deep down in the north end of the lake, 
large globes or bubbles of a bluish silver cast are 
always ascending. On a clear day or a moonlight 
night, these bubbles, apparently of gas or hot air, 
appear like a bluish flame, hence the name Fire- 
hole Lake. On cloudy days the resemblance is 
not so striking. It may be, on such days, difficult 
to discern the bubbles clearly, as the water gives 
off such clouds of steam. 

The Great Fountain Geyser is the mammoth 
geyser of Lower Basin, and one of the largest in 
the whole Park. Special efforts are now made to 
keep a record of its eruptions, so as to advise tour- 
ists of them. It appears to play with moderate 
regularity every eight to eleven hours, throwing 
water and steam to a height of from 60 and 75 feet 
to 150 feet. Before eruption and just previous 
thereto, it gradually fills both of its basins an 
inner within an outer one to overflowing, and 
when the drainage begins to seek the various out- 
lets the display may be looked for. It comes sud- 
denly, first boiling furiously, then becoming quies- 
cent. The outburst comes violently and it lifts 
an enormous mass of water from the whole pool, 
some fifteen feet in diameter. The eruptions fol- 
low each other quickly at first, it then takes 
matters more leisurely, and alternately, boils fur- 
iously and throws out its seething contents for an 
hour and a half. The first three expulsions are 
usually the finest. Some of them are very violent, 
and the mixture of water and steam and the var- 
iety of effects produced are beautiful beyond des- 
cription. Between its convulsions, after a time, 
one can walk out on the formation and look down 
into the throat of the monster. The crater and the 
entire formation are white, and are exquisitely 
beaded and fretted." 

Overland Monthly. 


The Wilder's Steamship Company 

Volcano can be reached with trifling inconvenience. 


Fine iron steamboats fitted with electric lights and bells, convey the passengers from Honolulu 
to Hilo. A greater part of the voyage is made in smooth water. The steamers pass close to the coast 
so that the shore can be readily seen. Natives engaged in their simple occupations, planters raising 
sugar-cane, and cattle men in the midst of their herds give life to an ever varying scene. The scenery 
is the finest in the world. Leaving Honolulu the rugged coast of Oahu and Molokai is passed, thence 
the beautiful and fertile island of Maui. After crossing the Hawaiia Channel a continuous view of sixty 
miles of the coast can be had. First high cliffs, against which the ever restless waves dash. Just 
above, the black rocks and further up, the clifl's are decorated with a most magnificent tropical growth. 
Every few hundred feet cataracts and waterfalls lend an ever changing beauty to the scene. From the 
brow of these cliffs fields of sugar-cane stretch back for miles; beyond, the heavy dark green of the coffee 
plantations and the tropical forest form a sharp contrast to the lighter shade of the fields of cane. 

The sea voyage terminates at Hilo Hay, pronounced by all who have seen it, by far more 
beautiful than any of the far famed ports of the Mediterranean. 

The sailing time of the steamers has been changed and the speed increased sothat only one night 
is spent on the water. Tourists are conveyed from Hilo to the Volcano over a fine macadamised road 
wending its way through a dense tropical forest of great trees and huge ferns, beautiful climbing and 
flowering vines. 

The Volcano House i modern in all its appointments. The table is supplied, not only with all 
that the market affords, but also with game, fruit and berries from the surrounding country. 

Steam sulphur baths have been entirely renewed and refitted. Wonderful cures from consumption, 
rheumati&m, gout, paralysis, scrofula and other blood ailments have been effected. Those suffering from 
nervous prostration regain complete health in a few weeks, the pure air of the mountains and the steam 
sulphur baths being trie necessary remedies. Beautiful walks in all directions give ample employment 
for those to whom brain work is prohibited. 

Parties contemplating a long stay can arrange to visit the Puna Hot Springs. Elderly people 
find these springs particularly efficacious in building up and toning the system. The sea bathing is 
one of the great attractions. Accommodations are good and prices moderate. 

The Puna District contains the finest coffee lands in Hawaii. Coffee plantations located there 
are paying from forty per cent, to seventy per cent, on the capital invested. 

For further particulars inquire of YVllder's Steamship Company (Limited) Honolulu. 

Overland Monthly. 



Occidental and Oriental Steamship Co. 


Connections at Yokohama for all ports in Japan, North China and Corea; at 
Hongkong for East Indian, Australian and European ports. 

Four First-Class Steamers Superior Table. 

In winter the O. & O. Line steamers take the southern track, thereby avoid- 
ing the cold winds and rough weather of the northern route. 

Steamers Leave San Francisco at 3 P. M. 

Belgic (via Honolulu). ..Saturday, August 8, 1896 
Coptic (via Honolulu). .Wednesday, Aug. 26, 1896 
Gaelic Saturday, September 12, 1896 

I>oric (via Honolulu)....Wednesday, Sept. 3O, 1896 

Belgic (via Honolulu) Saturday, Oct. 17, 1896 

Coptic Tuesday, November 3, 1896 

Principal Agencies in the United States: Baltimore. 207 East German Street; 
Boston, 292 Washington and 9 State Streets ; Chicago, 191 and 238 So. Clark Street ; Cincin- 
nati, Carew (Union Pacific Co.) and Chamber of Commerce Buildings (So. Pacific Co.); New 
York City, 287 and 349 Broadway ; Philadelphia, 40 So. Third and 20 So. Broad Streets ; 
St. Louis, 213 and 220 No. Fourth Street. Also at offices of Messrs. Thos. Cook & Son, Henry 
Gaze & Sons, and Raymond & Whitcomb, Tourist Agents. 

Head Office: 421 Market Street, San Francisco. Cal. 



225 Rooms, Single or En Suite 


American Plan. Rates, $2.00 to $2.50 per day. Parlors 
and rooms with bath extra. 

Coach and Carriage at depot on arrival of all trains 


Oregon Railway and 
Navigation Co. 




For All Points North and East. 

Should miss a ride on the beautiful 
* * Columbia River. * * 

Tickets at Lowest Rates at 



W. H. HURI.BUR/r, 

General Passenger Agent, 

F. F. CONNOR, General Agent. 



Cash Assets, .... $ 20,000,000 
Losses Paid, ..... 180,000,000 

ROBT. DICK SON, Manager 


4O1 Montgomery Street. 

; ; BANK SAFES : : 

Diebold Safe and Lock Go. 




No. 6 California Street, 


Second-hand Safes taken in exchange, and Sales re- 

Standard Scales. Bicycles and Repairs. 


An immense stock from which 
to select your outfit 


Guns and. Hunters' 

GEO. w. 

739 Market Street, ... San Francisco 

Opposite Examiner Office. 

Overland Monthly. 



Drawing Room Sleeping Cars ) 

Buffet Library Smoking Cars Daily without change 

Upholstered Tourist Cars ) 


Sleeping Car reservations and all other information at 



Under Palace Hotel, SAN FRANCISCO, CAL. 


General Agent. 


Pacific Coast Passenger Agent 

Dave Samson 

Fine . German . Kitchen 


Fine Wines, Liquors & Cigars 

327 and 329 


Salad Dressing 
Challenge Sauce 
Celery Salt= 

.E. R. DURKEE & CO., 
Condiments of Every Description. 


Spices, nustard. Extracts, Salad Dressing, Sauces, 
Herbs, Celery Salt, Oils and Essences. Kuch an< 
article of the choicest kind, full weight and of full 
strength and flavor. Gold Medals and Diplomas 
awarded at Columbian Exposition to each art trie 
exhibited for Superiority to all others. These articles 
cannot be excelled, and we challenge comparison 
with any goods sold. 


\vticu you write, please mention "The Overlaud Mouthly. 




Breakfast Cocoa 

* Baker & Co.'* 

I Breakfast Cocoa 


4 1 Beware of Jniitati r 


THE WONDER Hat Flow* ath 


Three Dollars a Year SAN FRANCISCO Single Copy, 25 Ce 




San Francisco Shoe House 
931 & 933 Market St., Suit. 

The Largest and Finest Appointed Shoe House on the 
Pacific Coast 


Largest in Variety 

Latest in Style 

Lowest in Price 

Send your name for a Catalogue 


President and Manager 

Manager Retail Department 

Goodyear Brands 



44 Gold Seal" brand 

The Best Made. 

"Badger" brand 

Excellent Quality. 

"Conqueror" brand 

Fine Quality. 

44 Elk" brand 

Good Quality. 

44 Pioneer" brand 

Medium Quality. 

44 Anvil" brand 

Fair Quality. 


R. H. I'KASK, Vice-PresideDt and Manager 

577 A 570 Market St. 
73 * 75 First Street 

San Francisco, Cal. 
Portland, Or, 

One of the Greatest Factors 

in producing a clear, clean skin and there- 
fore a perfect complexion, is the use of 


preventives taken in season are much surer than belated 
drugs. A healthy condition of the Kidneys, Liver and 
Bowels is the strongest safeguard against Headaches, 
Racking Colds or Fevers. Syrup of Figs is 

Idild and Sure, 

pleasant to the taste and free from objectionable sub- 
stances. Physicians recommend it. Millions have found 
it invaluable. Taken regularly in small doses its effect 
will give satisfaction to the most exacting. 

Manufactured by 


For Sale by all Druggists. 



Because It 

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unexcelled as 
Table Water. 

Because It aids Digestion and cures 
Dyspepsia and Rheumatism. 



A I^D I want to be taken into your Homes 
5 AYS * want to be taken in your Claret 
I want to be taken In the morning 

I - ernotlBde 

Delivered in Boxes containing 2 Dozen Bottles, 
from Office, 619 HOWARD ST., S. F. 

Overland Monthly. 


Fine Shoes 


9 c* 


738-740 Market Street. 


The Original and 


Of the World to=day 




Presents Many Notable Improvements 
But Retains the Essential Features of 




For which the 

Remington has so 

long been famous 

3 and 5 Front Street San Francisco 

Overland Monthly 


No. 165. 


FRONTISPIECE. Napa Soda Springs, California 241 

FRONTISPIECE. Scene on Upper Eel River 242 

As TALKED IN THE SANCTUM. By the Editor 243 

THE GOOD ROADS MOVEMENT. Charles Freeman Johnson 247 

Illustrated from photos. 

THE QUICKSANDS OF PACTOLUS. Concluded. Horace Annesley Vachell 262 

CATALINA. Sylvia Lawson Covey 273 


Illustrated from photos. 

Illustrated from photos. 
UNDER THE HEADIN' OF TRUTH. I. Cusack's Ghost. Batterman Lindsay... 281 

Sketches by Boeringer and Dixon. 

Illustrated from photos. 

IN SUMMER WOODS. Herbert Bashford 288 

THE WATER SUPPLY OF A GREAT CITY. Rounsevelle Wildman 289 

Illustrated from photos by Taber. 
WHAT SHALL I CARE? Madge Morris 297 

( Continued on next page. } 

Overland Monthly. 



Illustrated from photos. 

A SUMMER SONG. Harriet Winthrop Waring 302 

As SEEN OVER THE HANDLEBARS. Phil Weaver ; Jr 303 

Illustrated from photos by Carpenter. 

THE LAW AND THE MINER. Tirey L. Ford 310 

Illustrated fr/)m photo. 


A SONG OF THE TULE. Laura B.Everett 319 

WELL WORN TRAILS. X. Napa Soda Springs. Rounsevelle Wildman 321 

A CALIFORNIAN PRINCIPALITY. Humboldtand its Redwoods. Melville M. l/aughan. 328 

ETC 366 


Overland Monthly Publishing Company 

San Francisco: Pacific Mutual Life Building 

The Pacific Coast : San Francisco News Co. 
New York and Chicago : The American News Co. 

Extern Advertising Agent, Frank E. Morrison. { 

[ Entered at San Francisco Post-office as Second-class Matter.] 


Sewing Machines and Paper Patterns 




Between 6th and 7th Streets. 






Home Office, 8. E. cor. Sanaome and California Sts. 

Subscribed Capital, over . . $2,OOO,OOO.OO 
Monthly Income, over .... 25 y OOO.OO 

Does a general Savings and Loan Business. 

A diverter of monthly payments of rents to the monthly pay- 
ments on homes. 

7 per cent. Paid up Coupon Certificates, protected by first mort- 1 
gage securities a specialty ; coupons payable semi-annually at the 
office of the California Title Ins. and Trust Company. 

DR. ED. E. HILL President 


WM. COHHIN secretary and General Manager 


Overland Monthly. 

Take the 


when you go EAST. This popular line now 
inthelead. Operating ten thousand miles 
Of track in ten different States and Terri- 
tories, with equipment of the latest design. 
Running daily and leaving San Fran- 
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Pullman Tourist Sleepers, newly upholstered 

and up to date in every respect. 

Weekly excursions leave every Wednesday for Boston, personally 

accompanied by polite attendant through to destination. 

Ticket Office, 644 Market Street, 

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When you write, nlease mention ' The Overland Monthly." 

Overland Monthly. 



Practical Rhetoric. 

By JOHN D. QUACKENBOS, Emeritus Professor 
of Rhetoric, Columbia College, New York 1.00 
JUKI published. Cli arjrimple and logical la treatment, 
original in it" departure from technical rules and tradi- 
tions and copionsly illustrated with t-xamples, it is cal 
rulaied in every way to awaken an interest in and en- 
thusiasm for the study. 

An Introduction to the Study of American 

By BRAXDER MATTHEWS, Professor of Liter- 
ature, Columbia College, New York. Fully 

illu-trated 1-00 

1 Any student of the subject who wishes to do good 

work h'erearter uiusi not only read Mr Matthews' book but 

must largely adopt Mr. Matthews' way of looking at 

things." The Bookman. 

English Grammar. 

English, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, 
Tenn., and J. W. Sewell, Fogg High School, 

Nashville, Tenn 90 

" It seems to me a model of good workmanship. Pupils 
that have learned from it the facts and laws of their lan- 
guage will not iiave false statements and false doctrines 
to unlearn as a condition of acquiring higher know- 
ledge.' Thox. R. Price, Professor of English Literature, 
Columbia College, New York. 

Spencerian Vertical Penmanship. 

Shorter Course, Nos. 1 to 7, per dozen . . .72 
Common School Course, Nos. 1 to b', per dozen .96 

Latest copy books in the vertica 1 style. Letters modeled 
on the graceful forms of the well known Spencerian 
slanting script. Teachesa combined finger and muscular 
arm movement, n-sulting in cpeed and legibility, thereby 
rendering Vertical Penmanship practicable for business 

Natural Course in Music. 

By FREDERIC H. RIPLET, Principal of Bige- 
low School, Boston, and Thomas Tapper, 
Instructor in Musical Theory and Compo- 
sition ; Examiner in Theory in the Amer- 
ican College of Musicians. 

Primer and Fir*t Reader, each 30 

Sec nd. Third and Fourth Readers, each . .35 

Fifth Reader 50 

Natural Music Charts, Series A, B, C, D, E, 

F and G, each 4.00 

Phenomenallr successful. Mrs. Emma A. Thomas 
Supervisor of Music, Detroit, Mich., says : "The Natural 
Course in Music ha* more poinU or sujieriority than any 
other. I believe to a certain extent it is going to revolu- 
tionize muj-ic teaching in thl* country, l regard it as the 
beat yet published the natural outgrowth of all which 
have preceded it." 

White'* Elements of Geometry. 

By Jons MACNIE. Edited by Emerson E. 

White "..... 1.25 

Plane < M-niiM'try (separate) 76 

" I hnve not neen anything in the line of text-book* on 
Geometry which I regard M quite so complete and quite 
so well adapted to Mlmulate and natisfy an interest in 
trl mud) as White's Geometry." H'm. it. Thrather, Pro- 
faworof Mathematics, Bailer UnlvctMty. ln<l. 

Hook* sent prepaid on r-< .- 1 pt of prlCR*. 


Hornbrook's Concrete Geometry . . 

" An excellent book for the purpose for which it is in 
tended." Lucien Aguslus Waite, Professor of Mathematics, 
Cornell University. 

Eclectic English Classics. 

Carefully edited ; helpful notes ; good printing 
and paper; uniform binding in boards; 31 vol- 
umes now ready. Latest additions : 

Coleridge's Rime of the Ancient Mariner . .20 
De Quincey's Revolt of the Tartars . . .20 
Goldsmith's Vicar of Wakefield . . . .35 

Macaulay's Life of Johnson ...... 20 

Milton's Paradise Lost. Books I and II . .20 
Shakespeare's Macbeth ....... .20 

Shakespeare's Hamlet ....... .25 

Souther's Life of Nelson ....... 40 

Eclectic School Readings. 

A new series of supplementary reading books in 
collateral branches in primary and grammar 
grades. Charming literary style ; perfect mechan- 
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ready : 

Stories for Children. By MKS. C. A. LANE .25 
Fairy Stories and Fables. By JAMES BALDWIN .35 
St-'riesof Great Americans for Little Amer- 

icans. By EDWARD EGGLESTON . . . .40 

Old Greek Stories. By JAMES BALDWIN . .45 

Old Stories of the East. By JAMES BALDWIN .45 

Stories of American Life and Adventure. By 

EDWARD EGGLESTON ...... ! .50 

Egberts Introduction to the Study of 
Latin Inscriptions ...... 3.50 

A full course embodying the latest investigations in 
Latin epigianhy. The only book in the English language 
on this subject. One hundred photo-engraved produc- 
tions showing forms of the letters and general arrange- 
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Lindsay's Cornelius Nepos 

Profusely illustrated ........ l. 

" An excellent edition, admirably suited for its purpose. 
All teachers of preparatory schools ought to welcome so 
scholarly a text-bo^k as this." E. P. Crowell, Professor of 
Latin and Literature, Amheret College. 

Modern German Texts. 

The new Schwabacher tvpe ; useful vocabulary 
and notes; uniform binding in flexible l>o;inK 
Now ready : 

Seidel's Die Monate. (AjtBOWRMJTH) . .25] 
Seidel's Der Lindenbaum and Other Stories 


Seidel's Herr Omnia. (MATTHEWMAN) . .25J 
Stifter's Das Heidedorf. (MAX LICNTX) . .25] 
Volkmann-Leander's Traumereien. (A. 


Hillern's Hoher als die Kirche. (F. A. 

DAUER) '_'"> 

Ebner-Enchenbach's Krambambuli (SrAN- 

HOOFD) 251 

Riehl's Die Vierzehn Nothalfer (SIHI.ER) -301 
Hen I den the above, the American Book Company 

Ciii.ll.h. . tin- i.i-ii.nii K T.-\t I s. .ok, of America, book* that are adapted to every grade and 
(ml of ftchool, public and private, oltjr and country. It offer H the largest variety of the 
li-t book, at the lowent pr !<. If a book In desired In any new nubject, or If the books now 
In im are unsatisfactory, correspond with us. We can help y.n. 


When you write, please mention 


The Overland Monthly." 






Well Worn Trails. 

By Rounsevelle Wildman, M. L., a series of outdoor 
articles on the Coast. 

"Santa Barbara," " Capay Valley," "The Gey- 
sers," "The Redwoods," "Santa Monica and Mt. 
Lowe," " Del Monte and Monterey." and " The Petri- 
fied Forest," "Shasta and the Crags," " Yosemite 
and the Big Trees," "Napa Soda Springs," which 
have already appeared, will be followed by 

" Mendocino," " Lake Tahoe.' 
" Santa Cruz," " Alaska," " Mexico." 
Unexplored Regions of the High 
Sierra. By T. S. Solomons, the 
OVERLAND'S Author-Explorer. 

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From " Humholdt County and its Redwoodl 

Scene on Upper Eel River. 

Overland Monthly 

VOL. XXVIII. (Second Series.) September, 1896. No. 165. 

JN REPORTING the Parson's lecture before the " Young Men's Self Culture 
Club," one of the morning papers charged him with being a Transcendentalist. 
How a beardless reporter had discovered such a defect in the good man's armor, 
when we of the Sanctum had known him for generations without ever detecting it, 
set us to thinking. Like the fish woman whom Curran called " an isosceles tri- 
angle," we were at first carried off our feet. In these decadent times it is not 
polite to charge a public man in print with being an ass, so such specious terms as an 
" isosceles triangle " and a " transcendentalist " have become common. 

The Contributor was mad. He arose to defend our absent colleague's char- 

The Contributor. " It is a disgrace that there is no protection for a man's good 
name. The Parson a trans trans O, well, whatever you call it, it is a disgrace. 
He is no more a transcen thing-a-me-bob, than I am, and the Lord knows I never 
let one of my notes go to protest. What 's a trans what do you call it ? any 
way ?" 

The Reader. " One who believes in transcendentalism." 

The Contributor. " That's it. Now, who dares to defame our Parson ? Er 
Er What in the name of common sense is this new ism ?" 

The Reader. " The spiritual cognoscence of psychological irrefragability, con- 

(Copyright, 1896, by OVERLAND MONTHLY PUBLISHING CO.) All rights reserved. 

Commercial Publishing Company, S. F. 


nected with concutient ademption of incolumnient spirituality and etherealized con- 
tention of subsultory concretion." 

The Reader put up his guard as though he expected to be struck. The Con- 
tributor's old face fairly glowed. His chair came down on all four legs and he 
grasped the Reader's upraised hand. 

The Contributor. " A thousand thanks. You have made many things clear to 
me. 1 once knew a transcendentalist, only we called him a fool. He has since 
gone crazy, but alack ! too late, you have discovered my mistake for me. He lived 
in New York, and he figured out that a post-hole for a fence on Broadway cost, 
as real estate sold, one hundred dollars. Up in Allegany County where he 
was born, good land was worth twenty-five dollars an acre. He conceived the idea 
of digging post-holes in Allegany, where they could be had for a song, and shipping 
them to New York, where a car-load would sell for a small fortune." 

The Reviewer. " In good Anglo-Saxon, then, transcendentalism is two holes 
in a sand-bank ; a storm washes away the sand-bank without disturbing the holes." 

The Reader. " I have always noticed that the people who are forever discuss- 
ing these many isms take themselves more seriously than does any one else. 
They get hold of a lot of stock words and phrases and build up an article around 
them, which, when torn apart and reduced to good, old fashioned United States, con- 
tains but one single every-day idea. Our dictionaries grow year by year in bulk 
because of the thankless tasks its compilers undertake in clearing up and making 
plain a lot of this stilted bosh. When 1 read that some short-haired woman is going 
to lecture on transcendentalism or empiricism, I wonder how big an audience she 
would draw if she advertised to speak on ' The Absurdity of Experience,' on the one 
hand, or ' The Value of Experience,' on the other. In the case of the Parson, the 
callow reporter no doubt meant to be complimentary, or at the worst, to say that the 
preacher talked over the heads of his audience. There is nothing more serious in 
these weak-minded isms than in Curran's isosceles triangle." 

TO THE average man all this vain striving after the " thingness of the here " and 

" the whichness of the where " is supremely laughable. It is but just one re- 
move from the madhouse. A world-renowned theosophist dined with us one night. 
We were all "average men and women " at the table except himself, and we were 
as curious as children to know what he knew. The General, who was something of 
an Oriental scholar and had been in charge of the British-Palestine. Exploration Ex- 
pedition, expressed his polite though undisguised astonishment at some of the 
statements made by our guest. When cornered as to his authorities the theosophist 
at last cited the cuneiform inscriptions. 

"But surely not from any of the cuneiform inscriptions that have been re- 
corded." And the old General arose from the table to take down some ponderous 

" O, no, not from the Persian or Assyrian inscriptions." 

" What, then ?" And the old man replaced the tome, his face all alight with 
the thought that the theosophist had discovered some unknown people that used, 
the famous wedge-shaped characters. 

"From the cuneiform inscriptions of the temples of the Aztecs," replied the 
high priest of theosophy triumphantly. 


There was a stillness of death about the table. The General's face was a 
study, but our guest was mighty in the double-riveted armor of his own ignorance. 

" Theosophy is all wise, all powerful," he went on. 

" But is it practical ?" some one timidly suggested. " Can it build a Brooklyn 
Bridge, or make known the law of repulsion ?" 

" Practical ?" he sneered. " What are the triumphs of the material in the light 
of the fact that we know where we came from and where we are going to ?" 

" Nothing," we admitted in one voice. 

" And do you know ?" 

" I do, but 1 am one of the elect." 

We did not embarrass him by asking vulgar questions, we were fearful he would 
refer us to the cuneiform inscriptions of the Esquimaux. 

The other evening the Parson and I heard a female adept in theosophy a 
Russian Countess lecture on death and what comes after. She outlined cleverly 
enough the seven stages through which the soul would pass after death. She said 
that cremation was the only humane manner of disposing of the earthly body. From 
the moment the body was consumed the astral body was released, whereas if ordinary 
burial took place, the soul had to remain until the body was decayed. She proved 
conclusively that a man who committed suicide did not deliver himself from his 
troubles. The soul was condemned to remain on earth and work out its own salva- 
tion. It suffered hunger and thirst and the real temptations of the flesh. It 
attached itself to weak-minded persons, who became what is styled mediums, in 
order to inhale the aroma of their dinners and participate in the essence of their 
pleasures. In payment for these privileges it aided the medium in his or her table 
rappings and chair knockings. Naturally the thought took possession of us that the 
wandering, condemned soul showed very bad taste in its choice of victims. If they 
wish to smell good dinners, why do they not attach themselves to Chauncey Depew 
or one of a dozen bon vivants that we could name. And all the authority our 
countess could give for her remarkable scheme of after death was two cases re- 
corded by W. T. Stead in his Review of Reviews of the sensations of two men coming 
back to life, one of whom was nearly frozen to death and the other nearly drowned. 
In our minds, the only difference between the lecturer and an old inmate of a mad- 
house who labored under the agreeable hallucination that she was Queen Victoria 
was, that in one case the people did not smile and in the other they did. 

The Reviewer. " Her logic was not half as clever, yet fully as absurd as the 
verdict of a Mohammedan court of ' homicide by an intermediate cause.' You re- 
member the case of the young man of the Island of Cos in the /Egean Sea who was 
desperately in love with a girl of Stanchis and sought to marry her. His proposals 
were rejected. In consequence he took poison. The Turkish police arrested the 
father of the obdurate fair one, and tried him for culpable homicide. If the 
accused,' argued they, with much gravity, 'had not had a daughter, the deceased 
would not have fallen in love ; consequently, he would not have been disappointed; 
consequently, he would not have swallowed poison ; consequently, he would not 
have died; but the accused had a daughter, the deceased had fallen in love, and 
so on.' Upon all these counts he was called upon to pay the price of the young 
man's life ; and this, being fixed at the sum of eighty piastres, was accordingly 



The Occasional Visitor. " 1 have noted that these clever spirit mediums who 
can make chairs and miscellaneous furniture dance a hornpipe always call in a very 
material drayman when they want to move the piano." 

The Contributor. "That's simple; the spirit was willing but the flesh was 

The Artist. " However absurd the Countess's explanation of the how of a 
medium's powers, it may be true, nevertheless. You recollect the Frenchman 
who asked an Irish medium to produce the spirit of Voltaire. Voltaire came forth, 
much to his admirer's delight. It was Voltaire complete in every detail. The 
Frenchman began an animated conversation in their native tongue. The shade did 
not respond. At last the Frenchman grew exasperated and turned to the medium. 

" ' Not can ze great Voltaire converse ?' 

" ' Ov course he can, yez heathin, if ye will stop that furrin' lingo and talk 
good English. Do yez take him for a frog-eater?' 

" It occurred to me that the medium was rather to be pitied than laughed at. 
Her silent partner, the suicide, according to the Countess's theory, had not learned 
French before he took his own life. It was not the medium's fault that in the spirit 
lottery she had not drawn a linguist." 

The Poet. " It occurs to me that the Circle has been housed too long in the 
city. It has become hypercritical. A season at the summer resorts would put new 
blood and kindlier feelings into it. For one, I take the train tomorrow for Castle 
Crags. I bid you, my good fellow mystics, good-day." 

As the Poet passed through the Office Boy's sanctum he was arrested with a 
defiant, " Say !" 

There was no help for it and no rescue possible.' " Well ?" answered the Poet 

" Are you de Editor ?" 

The Poet's modest explanation was unheeded. 

" I brung up a poem here two weeks ago on ' The Cooing Dove.' I want ter 
know why it has not been brung out. I 'm no tenderfoot, der you see, an' if that 
'ere poem don't see light in next month's OVERLAND, there '11 be trouble. You 
sabe ! I don't forget faces and I've yourn spotted. Yo'll miss about twelve feet 
of that yellow alfalfa yer so all fired proud of. Now does ' The Cooing Dove ' go, or 
ain't I no poet ?" 

The Poet gave his word that " The Cooing Dove " would coo in large pica, and 
thanked heaven that he was leaving for Castle Crags. Whereupon it was at once 
deemed best that the Editor should recuperate at Napa Soda instanter. 

The Office Boy. " Proof." 

,!' $:>&'$:.<[ ,:.' 

-' :< ^te>f 



Photo by Thors. 




N THE United States, the problem 
of road construction comprehends 
many features of world-wide impor- 
tance. Prominent among these is the 
enormous area to be traversed, with 
its great diversity of topography and 
climate. This great area presents 
at once the gigantic problem of de- 
vising a road system commensurate with 
it. The system must be adequate to the 
physical demands upon it, proportionate 
to the fiscal strength of the various com- 
munities, and sufficient in all its bearings 
to meet, not only present requirements, 
but the wants of a future generation in 
a rapidly growing empire. It is a prob- 
lem calling for the highest engineering 
science, the greatest financial skill, and 
the best legislative sagacity of an intelli- 
gent people. 

The subject of convict labor is involved 
.in road-building in many of the States ; 
the question of taxation is an intricate 

one ; the struggle between the still un- 
conquered problem of local administra- 
tion and old methods, against the reforms 
of modern progress, the centralization of 
power , and the economies and science of 
a thorough organization and management 
on a large scale from a systematized 
head ; all these are questions of univer- 
sal interest for comparison in every por- 
tion of this, now, road-building nation. 

Road construction in the United States 
was taken up by the founders of our 
national government in the second term 
of Thomas Jefferson's administration. 
Next to the tariff it was one of the most 
important subjects under the considera- 
tion of Congress. On March 9, 1806, a 
commission was appointed for the con- 
struction of a national highway, known 
as the " Cumberland Road," from Cum- 
berland, Maryland, westward to the 
Ohio River. This was soon followed by 
provisions for the extension of this road 

2 4 8 


Photo by Watkins. 

as far west as Illinois, and for the con- 
struction of other national roads running 
north and south. The construction of 
highways was thus fostered by the high- 
est governmental power for two pur- 
poses ; to bind the people together by in- 
terstate communication, and to furnish 
roads built with the highest engineering 
skill as models for the building of the 
local roads of each State. 

Photo by the Bureau <>f Highways. 




This is the trend of governmental re- 
form in road-methods today. The evo- 
lution of road administration is slowly, 
but surely, towards a central manage- 
ment, through a State Bureau of High- 

Only through organization and cen- 

tralization of power, do we secure the 
highest exhibitions of intellect and the 
best economical results, whether it be in 
road building, or any other branch of 
human industry. 

New York, New Jersey, and Ohio, are 
working out the problem actively, 

Photo by the Bureau of Highways. 

through their road improvement organi- 
zations. Massachusetts already has its 
State Bureau of Highways and a State 
road system, while California is rapidly 
nearing the same goal of perfection in 
road-building methods. Connecticut and 
Vermont also have their State Highway 
Commissions, and Good Roads Associa- 
tions are industriously at work in the 
States of Tennessee, Iowa, Indiana, 
Maryland, Missouri, Michigan, Nebraska, 
Virginia, Wisconsin, and Florida. 

Photo by tli- Bureau uf Highways. 




Photo by convicts. 


Massachusetts may be called the 
"father" of the State road system; it 
is, perhaps, the farthest advanced in the 
organization of its permanent highway 
commission. To the State of California, 
however, and to the work of its experi- 
mental Bureau of Highways, the eyes of 
all the road-builders and of people inter- 
ested in road improvement in every State, 
are at present turning. For this there 
are two reasons, of national interest : 

First. Owing to Califorhia's vast area, 
with its topographical and climatic vari- 
ations, there is comprehended within its 
boundaries and under the operation of 
one road system, every peculiarity of 
road-building to be found in any portion 
of the United States. Here are moun- 
tains, valleys, bays, rivers, canons, 
plains, table-lands, and deserts, bogs, 
swamps, and quagmires, sun, rain, and 
snow, localities of greatest, as well as of 
smallest, rain-fall in the United States, 
regions of perennial flowers and perpetual 
snows. In California every day of the 

year, snow and roses are found not far 
apart. The solution of all these features 
of road-building, therefore, will furnish 
instruction for similar work in every State 
in the Union. The Highway Acts of 
other States will, doubtless, be modeled 
upon what California adopts when her 
Legislature takes final action next win- 

Second. Her application of convict 
labor to road-building has a national value. 
In this matter California is a step in ad- 
vance of every other State, even of 
Massachusetts. Her present method of 
taxation is another subject of considera- 
tion. It will serve as a basis of instruc- 
tion to States farther east, when it has 
been finally systematized. 

California has an area of i 57,800 square 
miles, approximately eight hundred miles 
in length, by nearly three hundred miles 
in width. The Pacific Ocean coast line 
covers nearly 1,200 miles. If California 
were laid down upon the map of the 
Eastern States, it would reach from 



nearly one hundred miles north of New 
York City, to Savannah, including all of 
New Jersey and Delaware, part of New 
York, half of Pennsylvania, nearly all of 
Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, 
South Carolina, and a portion of Georgia. 
It is three-quarters as large as the whole 
of France. If laid down upon the map 
of Europe, it would cover half of Spain, 
half of Portugal, extending across the 
Mediterranean Sea and absorbing a large 
portion of Morocco and Algeria, in Africa. 

The principal industries of California 
are those requiring the use of the roads 
for the transportation of their products, 
horticulture, agriculture, lumbering, and 
mining, although San Francisco is the 
seventh city in the United States in man- 
ufactures. The cost of hauling these 
products over the roads, either in gather- 
ing the crops or in their transportation to 
market, is a material factor in their valu- 

It is easy to show the value of a sys- 
tem ot good roads to the State, and 
whether it pays or not, by figuring the 
number of loads a certain number of 
horses can haul per day over a bad road, 
and their hauling power over the same 
road after it has been put in first-class 
condition. Increasing the productive 
capacity of a horse in hauling power en- 
hances the value of the animal, and pro- 

portionately, appreciates the value of all 
other property in the State. 

For instance, a farmer in Sonoma 
County had a wood ranch reached from 
the town of Petaluma by a road com- 
posed of adobe and sand. In winter, the 
adobe portion of the road was almost im- 
passable, on account of the mud, while 
in summer, the sandy portion was in a 
like condition from the deep sand. In 
hauling wood over this road to Petaluma 
for shipment to the San Francisco mar- 
ket, a team of four horses was required 
to haul one cord of wood a day over the 
distance. This road was improved by 
money obtained from the sale of bonds. 
The farmer then found that over the 
improved road two horses could haul the 
same distance, one and one-half cords to 
the load, making two trips daily. The 
old ratio with the bad road, therefore, 
was one-fourth cord hauled per horse per 
day, while with the improved road, the 
ratio was one and one-half cords per 
horse per day, or the hauling power of 
each horse increased six times. Imagine 
the vast saving in labor of both horses 
and men, to say nothing of wear and 
tear on harness and wagons, in the trans- 
portation of the vast products of the 
State, calculated upon this ratio. The 
saving in cost to the property owners 
using the roads would more than offset 
the cost of taxation for the construction 
and maintenance of good roads, to say 
nothing of the consequent appreciation 
in the value of property. 

The Washington Department of Road 
Inquiry recently sent out ten thousand 
letters, calling for statistics on the cost 
of wagon transportation. Replies came 
from twelve hundred counties, giving the 
average distance hauled, average load, 
and the average cost per ton for the en- 
tire haul. The compilation showed the 
averages for the entire United States, as 
follows : 

Photo by Thors. 


Average haul 12 miles 

Average load, 2 horses 2,002 pounds 

Average cost of hauling . . 25 cents per ton per mile 
Average cost per load over the whole trip. .$3 oo 

The total cost of wagon transportation 
in the United States, for 1894, is esti- 
mated at close to $900,000,000. Of this, 
owing to the bad condition of the roads, 
it is estimated that sixty per cent is loss ; 
in other words, if the country roads had 
been in the condition they should be in, 
a saving in actual money for wagon 


transportation would have been effected 
to the people of the United States of over 
$500,000,000. In the State of California 
it is estimated by the Bureau of High- 
ways that the hauling for 1894 cost $60,- 
000,000, of which $36,000,000 could have 
been saved, had the roads been in proper 

The importance of good roads in Cali- 
fornia is accentuated by the long hauls. 
The, average distance is twenty-four 
miles, while there are points three hun- 

2 5 2 


100 being (fit -total percentages 
iff ihf United Sfufrs. the figure* 
fafforr/ny s/xv Ca/r/ornraS per 
based on the census a/ 

Krfuf of imports A *porf* S. 

. forms \ lin-s/vcfi 48 
. a// property 3 9 
ufb 35 
* 2 3 

Photo by the Bureau of Highways. 

dred or four hundred miles from a rail- 
road station. In New Jersey, no point 
is over seven miles from a railroad sta- 
tion, and the average haul is not over 
three miles. 

The Department of Road Inquiry re- 
cently sent out the following letter, with 
a view to enlisting superintendents, 
teachers, and pupils of country schools, 
in the movement for road improvement 
throughout the United States: 


WASHINGTON. D. c, June 2, 1896. 

HON. WILLIAM W. HARRIS, Commissioner 
of Education, 

Dear Sir: If your supervision extends to 
country schools, you will naturally feel a deep 
interest in the improvement of country roads, 
and I shall take leave to solicit your cooperation 
in devising some practicable method of bringing 
the aid of teachers and pupils into the campaign 
for road improvement, which is now so happily 
opened all over the country. 

I send you a copy of Circular No. 17 of this 
office and of a letter addressed to Members of Con- 
gress which is being widely and enthusiastically 
responded to by them. On pages four and five 
of the circular you will find a suggestion which 
points toward what might be done in schools, if 

a proper interest in the subject were engendered. 
It occurs to me, that not only might a moderate 
amount of primary instruction in road-making be 
given in the common schools, but a valuable 
practical application might be made of such in- 

The great want of the country roads is daily 
care, and such care would be extremely costly 
under the present methods of road work, but the 
roads of the country are actually patrolled twice 
a day by schoolboys old enough to give the ne- 
cessary attention to throwing out stones, open- 
ing ditches and sluices, draining off storm water, 
filling ruts and holes, etc., etc., and giving no- 
tice to the proper authorities of anything need- 
ing prompt attention on their part. If junior 
road leagues for this purpose were organized in 
the school districts and a few light, handy tools 
kept at the school houses, and perhaps prizes 
offered in each township for the best service ren- 
dered, very great practical benefit to the present 
roads would result at little or no cost, while train- 
ing up a generation of better road builders for the 
future. Country teachers would naturally take 
great interest in this work and any improvement 
in roads would, of course, be a benefit to the 
schools. In the localities in New Jersey where 
roads have been generally improved, the country 
schools have recaptured many scholars who had 
been driven to city schools, and who came in on 
bicycles from miles around. 

My object in asking you for a list of the State 
Superintendents of Schools, was to enable me to 
bring this matter to their attention, and if pos- 
sible, to have it favorably presented to the Na- 
tional convention of teachers to be held this 
summer. Before doing this, I shall be glad to 
have any suggestion from you upon the sub- 
Very respectfully, 

(Signed) ROY STONE, 
Special Agent and Engineer. 

The maintenance of a high average of 
intelligence among the people of Califor- 
nia is assured by the elaborate educa- 
tional system. The intellectual devel- 
opment of the people will be sure to de- 
mand better and better roads, as they 
will require continued improvement* in 
all other accompaniments of a progres- 
sive civilization. No State can boast ot 
more or better schools, than California. 
Two of her universities are in the front 
rank with the great universities of the 





world, the University of California, at 
Berkeley, and the Stanford University, 
at Stanford. The noble plan upon which 
all the details of the Stanford University 
are laid out, is typified by the grand 
driveway of the main entrance, and the 
good roads by which the grounds are 
traversed and surrounded. 

One of the Highway Commissioners, 
Mr. J. L. Maude, has already lectured 
before the students at the Stanford Uni- 
versity, on the subject of Road Improve- 
ment, and will address them again next 
year. He will also lecture at Berkeley 
on this subject. He urges instruction in 
road making and maintenance as part of 
the training of teachers at the State Nor- 
mal Schools, in order that it may be 
taught in the schools of the State. 

Of the 157,800 square miles in Cali- 
fornia, about one half, or fifty million 
acres, is arable land. At present, only 
ten million acres of this vast territory 
are under cultivation. The rest of this 

arable land will be thrown under culti- 
vation, mostly under irrigation methods, 
as fast as the requirements of the popu- 
lation demand. The irrigation system 
of the State is the most extensive in 
America. It is estimated that under this 
method of cultivation California is capa- 
ble of supporting a population of forty 
million people. In addition to the lands 
suitable for culivation, California pos- 
sesses vast tracts of timber land, upon 
which is growing the finest timber in the 
world. All of this also has to be trans- 
ported over the wagon roads. What 
then, must be the tremendous demands 
upon the road system of such an empire 
and such a population as this State will 
develop in the natural course of its or- 
dinary and steady growth ? 

The mileage of California roads makes 
a favorable comparison with the greatest 
road system the world has ever seen 
under one management, that of the Ro- 
man Empire. When the constructive 
and administrative methods have become 
systematized upon a scientific basis, her 
mileage will increase ; perhaps it will 
exceed that of Rome within the life of 
the present generation. 

The existing roads of California cover 
about forty thousand miles. The mili- 
tary and commercial road system of the 
Roman Empire covered 52,964 miles, 
according to the survey made under An- 
tonius Pius, in 138-61 A. D. At the 
zenith of her power, twenty-nine supe- 
rior roads centered at Rome, some of them 
extending into Spain, Gaul, Illyria, 
France, also Asia Minor, Pontus, the 
East, Egypt, Africa, and Britain. The 
Roman Empire was divided into n dis- 
tricts, of 113 provinces, united by 372 
great roads. The construction of this 
great road system, covered a period of 
more than three hundred years. It be- 
gan with the principal main road in 
Italy, the Appian Way, commenced by 





Appius Claudius Caecus in 312 B. C. 
This road extended from Capua (120 miles 
from Rome) to Brundisium, 320 miles. 
It was completed in the year 30 B. C., 
requiring 292 years to build this one 
road. The Appian Way was thirty-two 
to thirty-six feet wide ; the center, six- 
teen feet wide, was reserved for infantry, 
with side-tracks, eight feet each, for 
horses and vehicles. 

The characteristic feature of the Ro- 
man roads was their straightness ; they 
never turned aside for obstacles. The 
roads were built of solid rock, the road- 
bed being excavated four feet deep and 
filled up with layers of stone of varying 
sizes. The first layer was hewn and 
fitted together by hand, the interstices 
filled up with pozzuolana earth, a vol- 
canic ash solidified like cement. These 
roadways were laid to last forever. Many 
of them are to be found in France, Ger- 
many, and England, to this day. The 
old locations remain. Where the sur- 

faces have worn away, the foundations 
are still there. 

One of the earliest evidences of civ- 
ilization among the ancients in all coun- 
tries, has been the development of sys- 
tems of good roads. The Bible speaks 
of the highway from Egypt into Assyria, 
more than a thousand years before 
Christ. The construction of the great 
pyramid of Gizeh, by Cheops, King of 
Egypt, was preceded by the building of 
a polished stone highway twelve miles 
long, from the stone quarries of the Nile, 
to the site of the pyramid. It took 
100,000 men ten years to build this levi- 
athan highway, over which were to be 
transported the enormous stones for the 
pyramid. Some of these stones were so 
large that it took two thousand men to 
move them over the smooth surface of 
this rock roadway. 

The Carthaginians early became a 
nation of road-builders. It is probable 
that, from them the Romans took their 
first lessons in the art. The Moguls of 
India traveled over excellent roads. The 
Empire of Peru, at the time of the Span- 
ish Conquest, was traversed by roads 
built by the Incas, whose construction 
would be regarded in our day, as won- 
derful feats of engineering skill. A Span- 
ish writer says, of the great road from 
Quito to Cuzco : 

I believe that in all the history of man, there 
has been no account of such grandeur as is to be 
seen in this road, which passes over deep valleys 
and lofty mountains, by snowy heights, over 
falls of water, through live rocks, and along the 
edges of furious torrents; through the living 
rock cut ; along the river banks supported by 
walls ; in the snowy heights with steps and rest- 
ing places ; in all parts ten paces wide, clean- 
swept, clear of stones, and at intervals, post- 
houses and store-houses and temples of the Sun. 

With the exodus of the Romans from 
Britain, however, came the neglect of 
road-building. Little attention was paid 
to it, until during the reign of Charles II. 



about 1672, when a desultory attempt 
was made towards improvement of the 
roads. No marked advance took place 
in this direction, until 1798 to 1830, when 
over twenty-five thousand miles of roads 
were constructed in England by John 
MacAdam, under the supervision of the_ 
English government. It is from this 
great engineer that we derive the term 
" macadam," in use in this country. 

The theory of the Scotch Engineer 
Telford, who also operated in England, 
was a modification of the Roman method 
of filling up the road-bed several feet 
deep, with solid rock. Telford used a 
rock foundation of lesser depth. Mac 
Adam's method, however, is a radical de- 
parture from the Roman. It consisted of 
a shallow surface layer of fine stone, or 
crushed rock, usually laid upon either a 
shallow foundation of small stone, or upon 
the earth itself. 

The principal Roman roads in England 
were : 

1. Watling Street ; named from Vitellianus, 
who is supposed to have constructed it. The 
Britons called him Guetalin. (From Kent, by way 
of London, to Cardigan Bay.) 

2. Ikeneld, or Ikenild Street; from its begin- 
ning among the Iceni. (From St. David's, in 
Wales, by way of Birmingham, Derby, and 
York, to Tynemouth. ) 

3. Fosse, or Fosse Way; from its being de- 
fended by a fosse on both sides. (From Corn- 
wall to Lincoln.) 

4. Ermin Street; from Irmunsul, a German 
name under which the German ancestors wor- 
shiped Mercury. (From St. David's to South- 

The Roman plan of straight roads 
would not be practicable in California, 
owing to the irregular topography of the 
surface. Nor has the deep rock founda- 
tion system been adopted by modern 
nations. A revolution is, however, be- 
ing worked out in the road methods of 
California, as it is in others of the United 
States. This revolution is along two 
lines, in the physical methods of road 

Photo by Andrew & Hill, 
S. F. AVER, 





construction, and in legislative and admin- 
istrative methods. 

It is not so much in California, a ques- 
tion of physical obstacles to be sur- 
mounted, as it is a question of govern- 
mental control and the method of taxation; 
whether it shall be a State, county, town- 
ship, or district system, and what the 
system of management and taxation shall 
be. The physical questions are easily 
solved, when the legislative are decided. 
Therefore it is that the present educa- 
tional campaign is being prosecuted in 
California, by the State Bureau of High- 

At present, there exists in this State, 
no general road system. It is only with- 
in the past two years that the people of 
the State, as a whole, have begun to 
consider their roads from the standpoint 
of a system, or in fact, to give much at- 
tention to the roads. Since the begin- 



ning of the growth of the State, dating 
from about 1850, roads have been a sec- 
ondary consideration in the mind of the 
Californian. The great rush for gold 
was the all-absorbing topic. The road 
was laid out as chance would have it, a 
dim trail across the dusty plain, worn 
into a path by the passage of hasty trav-' 
elers seeking the easiest route to some 
distant point, winding along the sides of 
mountain canons, following the dry beds 
of erstwhile mountain torrents, or blazed 
through the woods by the ax of the pio- 
neer. Then came the period of wheat- 
growing, and after it, horticulture. With 
the growth of the urban communities, and 
the more intense cultivation rendered 
necessary by the subsidence of the 
booms in former lines of industry, the 
necessity for rural transportation and a 
better means of communication made it- 
self felt. Then- came the bicycle. To 
the bicycle and to the wheelmen's organ- 

Photo by Thors. 

I'hoto l.\ Tli'.r . 





izations, more than to any other one 
cause, is due the awakening which has 
taken place in the art of road-building in 

In 1889, Mr. J. L. Maude, a civil engi- 
neer of Riverside, noticing the increasing 
interest taken in good roads in the East- 
ern States, drew up a bill for remedial 
road measures. He endeavored to secure 
the introduction of his bill in the Legis- 
latures of 1 889 and 1891, without success. 
In 1893, he attended the entire session of 
the Legislature, appearing before differ- 
ent committees, asking for remedial legis- 
lation. He secured the co-operation of 
J. A. Woodson, of the Sacramento #'/./- 
Union, and R. C. Irvine, President of the 
Sacramento Humane Society. 

The first Good Roads Convention was 
held at Sacramento in September, 1893, 
called by the Sacramento Humane So- 
ciety. The movement had the coopera- 
tion of Governor Markham, who referred 
to the subject in his last annual message, 



as one of the most important topics under 
his consideration. The Convention met 
in the Senate Chamber, at the Capitol 
Building. This Convention adjourned to 
meet in San Francisco in 1894, when it 
was decided to convene again during the 
session of the Legislature, in Sacramento, 
in 1895. 

During the interim much work in the 
good roads cause had been done in many 
ways. The wheelmen's organizations 
were actively stirring up the subject. 
General Roy Stone, of the present De- 
partment of Road Inquiry, at Washing- 
ton, the League of American Wheelmen, 
and others were agitating the question 
throughout the United States. National 
road conventions were held in Washing- 
ton, District of Columbia, and Asbury 
Park, New Jersey. A Good Roads Con- 
gress was held at the Columbian Expo- 
sition ; the National Good Roads League 
was formed, also State Leagues in many 
States. A list of these will be given in 
the continuation of this article. 

When the Convention met in Sacra- 
mento, in February, 1895, it was opened 
with an address from Governor Budd. 
He expressed his warmest approval and 
gave assurance of his hearty cooperation 
in the work. Governor Budd has con- 
tinued to be one of the strongest advo- 
cates of road improvement in this State. 
The convention was attended by repre- 
sentatives of the wheelmen, technical so- 
cieties, educational institutions, Boards 
of Supervisors, commercial bodies, news- 
paper editors, and prominent people from 
all parts of the State of California. Res- 
olutions were adopted, which resulted in 
the passage of the Act creating the pres- 
ent Bureau of Highways, approved March 
27, 1895. 

By this Act, an appropriation of thirty- 
one thousand dollars was made for the 
expenses of the Bureau, to cover the 
period of two years, or until the meeting 

VOL. xxviii. 17. 


Photo by Taber. 


of the next Legislature, in 1897. The im- 
portant features of this Act are set forth 
in Section Three, which outlines and gives 
a clear idea of the real purposes for which 
this Bureau was created. This Section 
is given in full, as it is of interest to those 
States which are now contemplating 
the establishment of similar highway 
bureaus : 

Sec. 3. Among the duties of the Bureau of 
Highways shall be, to gather from each county 
in the State statistics showing the total mileage 
of highways, their condition of improvement, the 
condition of the titles to the right of way, the 
method of obtaining title and of keeping the 
records thereof, the method of procedure in grant- 
ing, closing, and altering roads, and the manner 
of preserving the records of the same, the man- 
ner in which roads are constructed and main- 
tained, the manner of payment for the construc- 
tion and maintenance of roads, the manner in 
which the accounts pertaining to the same are 
kept, the manner in which money for highway 
purposes is raised, the amount expended in the 
past ten years for highway purposes, with the 
rate of taxation on one hundred dollars that is 
apportioned to the Road Fund. 

It shall inquire into the topographical and geo- 

2 5 8 


logical features of each county, and more particu- 
larly with reference to the accessibility of water 
for road-sprinkling purposes, and stone quarries, 
deposits of gravel, bituminous rock, sand, adobe, 
or any other materials suitable for road-making 

It shall ascertain all laws, now in force in this 
State, appertaining to the highways, and shall 
segregate all such as in the judgment of the 
members of the Bureau are ineffective or obso- 
lete, from such as are effective. 

Inquiry shall be made into what laws and 
methods are in use in other States, in regard to 
road matters, and an abstract shall be made of 
such as are best adapted to the State of Cali- 

It shall prepare such cross sections of roads, 
plans for draining or watering of roads, and for 
culverts, small bridges, and road appliances, as 
may be deemed expedient. It shall prepare such 
blank forms as may be necessary to systemize 
all Acts pertaining to the highways, and shall, 
furthermore, make any other inquiries in matters 
regarding highway improvement as will be of 
interest or benefit to the objects of the said Bu- 

Information and advice shall be furnished by 
the Bureau of Highways, on matters connected 
with the highway improvement and kindred sub- 
jects, at any and all times, to all county officials, 




or others connected with the highways, who may 
apply for the same, and any and all such infor- 
mation shall be furnished free of charge. 

It shall receive orders for road material, to be 
prepared at the State Prisons, and shall forward 
the same- to the governing body of the prisons, 
and in case the orders exceed the rate of supply, 
shall make an equitable distribution of the 

The principal work of this Bureau, 
therefore, is an educational one. The 
exception to this is the matter of the 
rock crushing plant at the Folsom Pen- 
itentiary, which will be further explained 
in Part Second of this article. Here, a 
practical work has been placed in the 
hands of the Bureau, which is resulting 
in immediate, visible benefit to the 

In the matter of bridges, there is a 
curious feature of the California law, ap- 
parently inserted in the interest of the 
builders of iron bridges. The law, as it 
now reads, requires the supervisors, 
whenever they wish to erect a bridge, to 
advertise tor bids, accompanied by plans, 



' 'strain sheets," and specifications. They 
cannot advertise for the best set of plans, 
then adopt the plans and call for bids on 
them. Consequently, there is no means 
of comparison between the bids. 

In the case of the bridge acrdss the St. 
Helena River, in Napa County, a bid 
was submitted by an old stone cutter, 
who learned his trade of stone cutting 
and bridge building in Germany, of 
$14,500 for a stone bridge. This was 
$7,500 lower than the lowest bid for a 
steel bridge. A stone bridge possesses 
many advantages over bridges of wood 
or iron. While the life of the latter is 
limited, a stone bridge, properly con- 
structed, will last practically forever. 
The bid was awarded for the stone bridge. 
Violent opposition was aroused and all 
bids were rejected on the ground that no 
"strain sheets" had been submitted 
with the bid for the stone bridge. Strain 

sheets with a stone bridge are a practical 
impossibility, as there are no strains to be 
calculated upon. However, this enter- 
prising contractor employed an engineer 
and actually submitted at the next bid 
what purported to be a set of "strain 
sheets," and he again secured the contract. 
This bridge has four piers, with a rock 
foundation at only one corner of one of 
these piers. For the remaining piers 
caissons were sunk. In the bottom of 
the caisson, twelve to twenty feet below 
the bed of the stream, piling was driven. 
The space above was filled up with rock 
and cement. Thus a solid foundation 
was secured for the bridge piers. Dire 
failure was predicted for this bridge. 
During its construction, however, there 
came the heaviest flood ever known in 
this river. A cloud-burst buried the 
bridge out of sight under the torrent. 
When the water subsided, there was the 

Photo by Tn\x 


bridge ; it had firmly withstood a test 
that would have swept away a bridge of 
any other construction. 

This bridge has three fifty foot spans, 
is two hundred feet over all, and is the 
largest stone bridge in the State of Cali- 
fornia. There is no planking to wear 
out, and it costs practically nothing for 
repairs. Neither is there any vibration. 
Any number of cattle or horses can be 
driven across it at a time, on a run, if 
need be. A wag put up a sign on this 
bridge, reading as follows: " Ten cents 
fine for driving more than one thousand 
head of horses or cattle over this bridge 
faster than a mile in two minutes." All 
the materials used in the construction of 
this bridge were products of California. 
In iron or steel bridges, fully sixty per 
cent of the materials have to be brought 
from the East. 

Road improvement in all the States, is 

now becoming one of the leading political 

issues. Many of the Governors have 

publicly supported it and advocated it in 


their messages. The recent State con- 
ventions in California of Republicans, 
Populists, and Democrats, all incorpor- 
ated strong good road planks in their 

The Good Roads plank of the Re- 
publican State Convention reads as fol- 

Realizing that good roads are a necessary ele- 
ment in advancing the prosperity of any com- 
munity, and recognizing the practically universal 
demand for the same, not only in our State, but 
throughout the United States, the Republican 
Party of California pledges itself to the enact- 
ment of legislation looking toward improved and 
scientifically constructed highways, on the most 
economical basis. 

The Democratic Good Roads plank is 
as follows : 

The Democratic Party of the State of Califor- 
nia, appreciating the fact that good roads are 
destined to be an important factor in the devel- 
opment of the resources of the State, in that thy 
facilitate the interchange of products and tend to 
bind together all sections; and recognizing 
further that the movement having in view the 
establishment of a system of properly construe- 



Photo by Watkins. 

ted highways has become one of national im- 
portance, we pledge ourselves to the earnest 
support of such legislative action as will bring 
about this beneficial plan of internal improve- 

The San Francisco Examiner recently 
said, in reply to the argument of a con- 
temporary, that the County Surveyor 
should be placed in charge, and that the 
roads be divided into sections, each sec- 
tion to be in charge of a foreman with a 
regularly employed force of workmen : 

Would it not be better to have a State corps 
of Road Engineers, whose members could be 
called upon by the counties needing their ser- 
vices, and who would be paid by the counties. 
In this way, both skill and uniformity would be 
secured at moderate expense. The scheme would 
be complete, if provision were made whereby the 
members of the corps should be appointed on 
competitive examination and should hold office 
during good behavior, their appointment and 
removal being left to a commission composed of 
the Governor, the State Bureau of Highways, 
and possibly, a State Chief Engineer of Roads. 

Governor McKinley said in advocacy 
of good roads, in his inaugural address, 
as Governor of Ohio, in 1892 : 


The great need in many sections of Ohio, is 
good country roads. This is a subject of im- 
portance, not only to agriculturists, but it af- 
fects every material interest of the State, and is 
receiving very general attention throughout 
other States of the Union. I invite the attention 
of the Legislature to it, with the object that some 
plan may be devised, which, with the concur- 
rence of the people, will lead to the improvement 
of the public highways, so that they will be ser- 
viceable in winter, as well as in summer. Many 
of our country roads are almost impassable during 
several months of the year. They should be in 
good order the year round, for the safety and 
convenience of travel and transportation. 

The consideration of this subject by the Legis- 
lature would lead to discussion among the 
farmers of the State, which would furnish valu- 
able suggestions to the Legislature. It is evident 
from poor and ill constructed roads, which we 
find in may portions of Ohio, that the laws re- 
lating to the subject require attention and pos- 
sibly revision. 

In his annual message in 1893, Gov- 
ernor McKinley said : 

Without reproducing what I said one year ago, 
upon the subject of good roads, I beg to ask the 
consideration of the General Assembly to this 
subject. It is attracting attention in all parts of 
the country, and in no State in the Union is 
there greater interest for good roads, than in our 
own. I suggest that the General Assembly 
authorize the appointment of a Commission to in- 
vestigate and carefully consider all plans pro- 
posed and experiments being made, and to sub- 
mit a report with recommendations, in time for 
the meeting of the first session of the General 

McKinley's suggestions were carried 
out in Ohio. That State now has a Good 
Roads Commission, of which Hon. Mar- 
tin Dodge is Chairman. 

Charles Freeman Johnson. 






HURSDAY morning dawned thick 
with fog. Dick walking briskly 
down Nob Hill, could scarcely 
distinguish the blurred outlines 
of the houses across the street. 
The papers had three columns 
apiece, and an editorial upon 
the financial crisis. Large, 
coarse cuts of Rufus and Henry Barring- 
ton disfigured the first page of the En- 
quirer, and the headlines were pregnant 
with meaning, ominously suggestive of a 
panic. None the less Cassius had kept 
his word. His article had the place of 
honor and its optimism was in pleasant 
contrast to the tone of the others. The 
historian could write forcible prose, crisp 
and to the point, bubbling and bursting 
with vitality, salt with the slang and 
humor of the town, scathing as vitriol 
upon the subject of the harrassed depos- 
itors. Dick laughed aloud when he read it. 
As he approached Montgomery Street 
a significant buzz, swelling melodiously 
above the wail of the wind, smote dully 
on his ears. He guessed its import and 
quickened his step. The fight had be- 
gun ! Already long lines of men and 
women were marching steadily in the 
direction of his brother's bank. Hard 
working wives were there from the wash- 
tub and stove. Shop girls, chattering 
like magpies, trailed their ill-hung skirts 
in the filth of the. sidewalks ; mechanics, 
with haggard faces, paling through en- 
grained dirt, shuffled wearily along ; 
workman, brawny sons of the pick and 
shovel, muttered obscene oaths as they 

i Begun in August number, 1895. 

crushed through the crowd ; Jews, from 
every nation, gesticulated wildly, and 
here and there, like fireflies in a Floren- 
tine podere, flashed the irrepressible 

The crowd thickened as Dick left Mont- 
gomery Street and turned the corner of 
Pine. It was hardly nine o'clock, the 
banks opened at ten, but the police 
were almost at a loss to marshal the 
people and establish order. The Bar- 
rington Bank, an imposing brown-stone 
building, occupied half the block to the 
right, and here, also, depositors were col- 
lecting and forming into line. At a loss 
to understand this want of confidence 
Dick pushed his way through the throng, 
opened the private door with his latch- 
key and passed quickly to the cashier's 
private room. Here he found Paradise 
and Thomas Perkins, the assistant cash- 

" Good morning, gentlemen," he cried 
cheerily. "War has been declared." 
He pointed to the street and raised his 

" You have seen the papers," said the 
assistant cashier. 

" Not all of them. The Enquirer has 
done us good service." 

"What I prophesied has come to 
pass," cried Charles Paradise. "You, 
Mr. Chester, were not the only person 
interviewed last night. Your brother 
.has been most imprudent. The Mercury 
owes your father a grudge. They have 
seized the opportunity. See for your- 

He tendered Dick a copy of one of the 
big dailies and pointed to the editorial. 




''What inspired this?" cried the 
young man. 

"Envy, hatred, and malice," said 
Thomas Perkins. "They have a new 
man on the staff, an old enemy of your 
father's, an anarchistic gin-sodden crank 
of the name of Pixler. But we'll defeat 
him, Mr. Chester. Don't worry, sir. 
This little excitement will help us, not 
hurt us." 

Dick shook hands with him immedi- 
ately. He had always liked Perkins. . 
His outspoken sympathy was timely and 
refreshing. When he turned to Charles 
Paradise the change in his manner was 
very marked. 

"I presume," he said coldly, "that 
you are here to put Mr. Perkins in pos- 
session. He is thoroughly conversant 
with your duties." 

The eyes of the assistant cashier 
sparkled. Promotion had come to him 
suddenly, but he was not unprepared to 
assume the heavy responsibilities of 
office. Dick beckoned him aside. 

" Paradise has explained to you his 
reasons for leaving us." 

" He has, Mr. Chester. I am very 
sorry, but I'll try and do my best." 

" His action surprises me," murmured 

Perkins was non-committal. A com- 
mendable delicacy prompted him to hold 
his tongue. 

" Does it not surprise you ?" said Dick 
sharply. " Speak out." 

"Well no, it does not. You see, sir, 
the man is intensely jealous of you, an 
egotist of the first water, and he has been 
offered I happen to know, the presidency 
of a Los Angeles bank. He knows what 
he is about. I am certain that he was 
hunting an excuse to resign. He thinks 
this resignation on conservative grounds 
will give him immense strength. I think 

" Mr. Brown-Mavis," interrupted the 
porter, " wishes to see Mr. Chester Bar- 

" Show Mr. Mavis into my father's 
room. I will join him at once." 

"Mr. Mavis," whispered Perkins, 
"can think thirty times quicker than any 
man in the city." 

"I know it," replied Dick, "but 
thank you, Perkins, for the hint. You 
had better see immediately about the 
transfer of gold from our vaults to the 
other bank. Here is a memorandum of 
the amounts which my brother gave me 
last night." 

"Well, my boy," said Mr. Mavis 
affably, " I called to ask a question and 
give you, may be, a hint or two." 

11 You are very kind." 

" Pray don't mention it. Is it true 
that Charles Paradise has resigned ? 
Yes ! Dear me, I don't like that." 

" I'm glad of it," said Dick bluntly. 

" You are er acting rashly, if you 
will pardon the expression. Is it also 
true that you have assured your brother 
unlimited backing ? The papers have it 
so, but I can hardly believe it." 

" It is true, Mr. Mavis. It is my duty, 
surely, to help my own brother." 

" Within limits yes a proper senti- 
ment. But business, my young friend, 
is er business. Others must be con- 
sidered. I have I believe nearly half a 
million with you." 

He smiled silkily. Dick would have 
liked vastly well to have handed him a 
blank check with an emphatic invitation 
to fill it out. 

" That is what gives me confidence," 
said Dick, in his most incisive tones. 
" We have some very heavy depositors, 
men like yourself, Mr. Mavis, who know 
what is behind this bank, my father's 
private fortune, for instance. From 
these gentlemen we have nothing to 



" You crow well," said Brown-Mavis, 
in a dubious voice. 

Dick met his glance and gazed frankly 
into the man's shifty eyes. If this lord 
of countless acres, as the papers delighted 
to call him, withdrew his half million the 
consequences would be serious. He real- 
ized the danger of the moment but his 
heart never quailed. He stood in his 
sire's shoes and spoke with his sire's 
authority, with something, too, of his 
impressive manner and personal mag- 

44 Mr. Mavis," he replied with spirit, 
44 if I speak confidently it is as the mouth- 
piece of my father. These gentlemen 
I refer to, including yourself, are his per- 
sonal friends. If, at such a crisis as this, 
1 doubted their good faith this bank 
would not open its doors at all today. 
The gravel train is outside ; the men are 
ready to pelt us with pebbles, but 1 am 
prepared to meet them." 

44 You can stave them off," suggested 
Mr. Mavis, in a different tone, " by pay- 
ing the depositors one by one, and in- 
structing your tellers to delay as much 
as possible." 

44 Pardon me," said Dick, " but such 
a course, Mr. Mavis, would smack too 
strongly of weakness. I shall give these 
misguided persons every facility. All 
other business will be suspended on their 
account, and 1 shall seize the first oppor- 
tunity to inform them that instead of 
closing at three we shall remain open if 
necessary till midnight !" 

44 Ton my soul," cried Mavis, " 1 be- 
lieve you 're right. A chip of the old 
block. Yes, my boy, you've struck a 
good lead. Bluff 'em bluff 'em." 

He laughed. Dick smiled discreetly. 
In his first engagement he had routed the 
enemy and spiked his guns. 

44 Seriously, sir, this is no bluff on my 
part. It is only sound common sense. 
Besides," he added, with a touch of his 

companion's silken suavity, " 1 must 
remember that these people are our 
patrons. It is a banker's first duty to 
accommodate his customers if he can." 

This last shot hit the bull's eye. The 
suppressed drollery of the speech tickled 
the land baron. 

44 Well, well," he said, " 1 believe you 
can handle this thing by yourself. I 
shall tell McAlpin and one or two others. 
They were a little anxious." 

He went away still smiling and chuck- 
ling softly. Very smooth indeed was Mr. 
Brown-Mavis, and in San Francisco he 
wielded an enormous influence. 

44 Mr. Mavis, 1 hope, feels well," in- 
quired Perkins, a few minutes later. 

4< I have every reason to think so, 
Perkins," and he told him what had 

44 The old fox," murmured the assist- 
ant cashier, 4< would have drawn out 
every cent if you had handled him less 
carefully. We could have stood the loss 
of his half million but his most particular 
friends have some four millions between 
them with us. The withdrawal of that 
would have wound us up. Mr. Chester,